Aside from steel, Pittsburgh has led in the manufacturing of other important materials — aluminum and glass — and in the petroleum industry. Additionally, it is a leader in computing, electronics, and the automotive industry.
For part of the 20th century, Pittsburgh was behind only New York City and Chicago in corporate headquarters employment; it had the most U.S. stockholders per capita. Deindustrialization
in the 1970s and 1980s laid off area blue-collar workers
as steel and other heavy industries declined, and thousands of downtown white-collar workers
also lost jobs when several Pittsburgh-based companies moved out.
The population dropped from a peak of 675,000 in 1950 to 370,000 in 1990. However, this rich industrial history left the area with renowned museums
, medical centers
, research centers
, and a diverse cultural district
After the deindustrialization of the mid-20th century, Pittsburgh has transformed into a hub for the health care, education, and technology industries.
Pittsburgh is a leader in the health care sector as the home to large medical providers such as University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
(UPMC). The area is home to 68 colleges and universities
, including research and development
leaders Carnegie Mellon University
and the University of Pittsburgh
, Apple Inc.
are among 1,600 technology firms generating $20.7 billion in annual Pittsburgh payrolls. The area has served as the long-time federal agency headquarters for cyber defense
, software engineering
, energy research
and the nuclear navy
The nation's fifth-largest bank
, eight Fortune 500
companies, and six of the top 300 U.S. law firms make their global headquarters in the area, while RAND Corporation
(RAND), BNY Mellon
, and the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
(NIOSH) have regional bases that helped Pittsburgh become the sixth-best area for U.S. job growth.
(similar to Edinburgh
Pittsburgh was incorporated as a borough
on April 22, 1794, with the following Act:
"Be it enacted by the Pennsylvania State Senate
and Pennsylvania House of Representatives
of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania ... by the authority of the same, that the said town of Pittsburgh shall be ... erected into a borough, which shall be called the borough of Pittsburgh for ever."
From 1891 to 1911, the city's name was federally recognized as "Pittsburg", though use of the final h
was retained during this period by the city government and other local organizations.
After a public campaign, the federal decision to drop the h
The Pittsburgh Press
continued without the h
in its nameplate
until August 1, 1921.
The area of the Ohio headwaters was long inhabited by the Shawnee
and several other settled groups of Native Americans
The first known Europeans to enter the region were the French explorers/traders Robert de La Salle
and Martin Chartier from Quebec
during their 1669 expedition down the Ohio River
Chartier is also noted to be the first white man in Nashville, Tennessee. European pioneers, primarily Dutch, followed in the early 18th century. Michael Bezallion was the first to describe the forks of the Ohio in a 1717 manuscript, and later that year European fur traders
established area posts and settlements.
During this period, the powerful nations of the Iroquois Confederacy
, based in New York, had maintained control of much of the Ohio Valley as hunting grounds by right of conquest after defeating other tribes. By the terms of the 1768 Treaty of Fort Stanwix
, the Penns
were allowed to purchase the modern region from the Iroquois
. A 1769 survey referenced the future city as the "Manor of Pittsburgh".
Both the Colony of Virginia
and the Province of Pennsylvania
claimed the region under their colonial charters until 1780, when they agreed under a federal initiative to extend the Mason–Dixon line
westward, placing Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. On March 8, 1771, Bedford County, Pennsylvania
was created to govern the frontier. On April 16, 1771, the city's first civilian local government was created as Pitt Township.
William Teagarden was the first constable, and William Troop was the first clerk.
Following the American Revolution
, the village of Pittsburgh continued to grow. One of its earliest industries was boat building for settlers of the Ohio Country
. In 1784, Thomas Viceroy completed a town plan which was approved by the Penn family attorney. Pittsburgh became a possession of Pennsylvania in 1785. The following year, the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette
was started, and in 1787, the Pittsburgh Academy
was chartered. Unrest during the Whiskey Rebellion
of 1794 resulted in federal troops being sent to the area. By 1797, glass manufacture began, while the population grew to around 1,400. Settlers came via routes over the Appalachian Mountains or through the Great Lakes. Fort Pitt
(now Pittsburgh) at the source of the Ohio River became the main base for settlers moving into the Northwest Territory
1800 to 1900
The War of 1812
cut off the supply of British goods, stimulating American industry. By 1815, Pittsburgh was producing significant quantities of iron, brass, tin, and glass. On March 18, 1816, the 46-year-old local government became a city. It was served by numerous river steamboats, that increased trading traffic on the rivers.
In the 1830s, many Welsh people
from the Merthyr
steelworks immigrated to the city following the aftermath of the Merthyr Rising
. By the 1840s, Pittsburgh was one of the largest cities west of the Allegheny Mountains
. The Great Fire of Pittsburgh
destroyed over a thousand buildings in 1845. The city rebuilt with the aid of Irish immigrants who came to escape the Great Famine
. By 1857, Pittsburgh's 1,000 factories were consuming 22 million coal bushels yearly. Coal mining and iron manufacturing attracted waves of European immigrants to the area, the most came from Germany.
Pittsburgh in 1874, by Otto Krebs
While Pennsylvania had been established as a free state after the Revolution, enslaved African Americans sought freedom here through escape as refugees from the South, or occasionally fleeing from travelers they were serving who stayed in the city. There were active stations of the Underground Railroad
in the city, and numerous refugees were documented as getting help from station agents and African-American workers in city hotels. The Drennen Slave Girl walked out of the Monongahela House in 1850, apparently to freedom.
The Merchant's Hotel was also a place where African-American workers would advise slaves the state was free and aid them in getting to nearby stations of the Underground Railroad.
Sometimes refugee slaves from the South stayed in Pittsburgh, but other times they continued North, including into Canada. Many slaves left the city and county for Canada after Congress passed the 1850 Fugitive Slave Act
, as it required cooperation from law enforcement even in free states and increased penalties. From 1850 to 1860, the black population in Allegheny County dropped from 3,431 to 2,725 as people headed to more safety in Canada.
1900 to present
Pittsburgh in 1903
The city suffered severe flooding in March 1936.
The city's population swelled to more than a half million, attracting numerous European immigrants to its industrial jobs. By 1940, non-Hispanic whites were 90.6% of the city's population.
Pittsburgh also became a main destination of the African-American Great Migration
from the rural South during the first half of the 20th century.
Limited initially by discrimination, some 95% percent of the men became unskilled steel workers.
During World War II
, demand for steel increased and area mills operated 24 hours a day to produce 95 million tons of steel for the war effort.
This resulted in the highest levels of air pollution in the city's almost century of industry. The city's reputation as the "arsenal of democracy"
was being overshadowed by James Parton
's 1868 observation of Pittsburgh being "hell with the lid off."
Following the war, the city launched a clean air and civic revitalization project known as the "Renaissance," cleaning up the air and the rivers. The "Renaissance II" project followed in 1977, focused on cultural and neighborhood development. The industrial base continued to expand through the 1970s, but beginning in the early 1980s both the area's steel and electronics industries imploded during national industrial restructuring. There were massive layoffs from mill and plant closures.
In the later 20th century, the area shifted its economic base to education, tourism, and services, largely based on healthcare/medicine, finance, and high technology such as robotics. Although Pittsburgh successfully shifted its economy and remained viable, the city's population has never rebounded to its industrial-era highs. While 680,000 people lived in the city proper in 1950, a combination of suburbanization and economic turbulence resulted in a decrease in city population, even as the metropolitan area population increased again.
During the late 2000s recession
, Pittsburgh was economically strong, adding jobs when most cities were losing them. It was one of the few cities in the United States to see housing property values rise. Between 2006 and 2011, the Pittsburgh metropolitan statistical area
(MSA) experienced over 10% appreciation in housing prices—the highest appreciation of the largest 25 MSAs in the United States, as 22 of the top 25 MSAs saw a depreciation of housing values.
Pittsburgh's story of economic regeneration was the inspiration of President Barack Obama
to host the 2009 G-20 Pittsburgh summit
Pittsburgh has an area of 58.3 square miles (151 km2
), of which 55.6 square miles (144 km2
) is land and 2.8 square miles (7.3 km2
) (or 4.75%) is water. The 80th meridian west
passes directly through the city's downtown.
The city is on the Allegheny Plateau
, within the ecoregion
of the Western Allegheny Plateau
area (also known as the Golden Triangle) sits where the Allegheny River
flowing from the northeast and Monongahela River
from the southeast form the Ohio River
. The convergence is at Point State Park
and is referred to as "the Point." The city extends east to include the Oakland
sections, which are home to the University of Pittsburgh
, Carnegie Mellon University
, Chatham University
, Carnegie Museum
, and many other educational, medical, and cultural institutions. The southern, western, and northern areas of the city are primarily residential.
Many Pittsburgh neighborhoods
are steeply sloped with two-lane roads. More than a quarter of neighborhood names make reference to "hills," "heights," or similar features.[a]
The steps of Pittsburgh
consist of 800 sets of outdoor public stairways with 44,645 treads and 24,090 vertical feet. They include hundreds of streets composed entirely of stairs, and many other steep streets with stairs for sidewalks.
Many provide vistas of the Pittsburgh area while attracting hikers and fitness walkers.
Bike and walking trails have been built to border many of the city's rivers and hollows. The Great Allegheny Passage
and Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
Towpath connect the city directly to downtown Washington, D.C. (some 335 miles (539 km) away) with a continuous bike/running trail.
The city consists of the Downtown area, called the Golden Triangle,
and four main areas surrounding it. These surrounding areas are subdivided into distinct neighborhoods (Pittsburgh has 90 neighborhoods).
Relative to downtown, these areas are known as the Central, North Side/North Hills, South Side/South Hills, East End, and West End.
has 30 skyscrapers, nine of which top 500 feet (150 m). The U.S. Steel Tower
is the tallest at 841 ft (256 m).
The Cultural District
consists of a 14-block area of downtown along the Allegheny River
. This district contains many theaters and arts venues and is home to a growing residential segment. Most significantly, the Pittsburgh Cultural Trust
is embarking on RiverParc, a four-block mixed-use "green" community, featuring 700 residential units and multiple towers between 20 and 30 stories. The Firstside
portion of Downtown borders the Monongahela River, the historic Mon Wharf and hosts the distinctive PPG Place
Gothic-style glass skyscraper complex. New condo towers have been constructed and historic office towers are converted to residential use, increasing 24-hour residents. Downtown is served by the Port Authority
's light rail system
and multiple bridges
leading north and south.
The North Side
The North Side is home to various neighborhoods in transition. What is known today as Pittsburgh's North Side was once known as Allegheny City
, and operated as a city independently of Pittsburgh until it was merged with Pittsburgh in 1907 under great protest from its citizens. The North Side is primarily composed of residential neighborhoods and is noteworthy for its well-constructed and architecturally interesting homes. Many buildings date from the 19th century and are constructed of brick or stone and adorned with decorative woodwork, ceramic tile, slate roofs and stained glass. The North Side is also home to attractions such as Heinz Field
, PNC Park
, Carnegie Science Center
, National Aviary
, Andy Warhol Museum
, Mattress Factory
art museum, Children's Museum of Pittsburgh
, Penn Brewery
, Allegheny Observatory
, and Allegheny General Hospital
Bird's Eye View of Pittsburgh, 1902
The South Side was once the site of the Pennsylvania Railroad
railyards and associated dense, inexpensive housing for mill and railroad workers. Since the late 20th century, the city undertook a Main Street program in cooperation with the National Trust for Historic Preservation
, encouraging design and landscape improvements on East Carson Street, and supporting new retail. The area has become a local Pittsburgher destination, and the value of homes in the South Side had increased in value by about 10% annually for the 10 years up to 2014.
East Carson Street has developed as one of the most vibrant areas of the city, packed with diverse shopping, ethnic eateries, vibrant nightlife, and live music venues.
The East End of Pittsburgh is home to the University of Pittsburgh
, Carnegie Mellon University
, Carlow University
, Chatham University
, The Carnegie Institute's Museums of Art and Natural History
, Phipps Conservatory
, and Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall
. It is also home to many parks and public spaces including Mellon Park
, Westinghouse Park
, Schenley Park
, Frick Park
, The Frick Pittsburgh
, Bakery Square
, and the Pittsburgh Zoo
and PPG Aquarium. The neighborhoods of Shadyside
and Squirrel Hill
are large, wealthy neighborhoods with some apartments and condos, and pedestrian-oriented shopping/business districts. Squirrel Hill is also known as the hub of Jewish life in Pittsburgh, home to approximately 20 synagogues.Oakland
, heavily populated by undergraduate and graduate students, is home to most of the universities, and the Petersen Events Center
. The Strip District
to the west along the Allegheny River
is an open-air marketplace by day and a clubbing destination by night. Bloomfield
is Pittsburgh's Little Italy and is known for its Italian restaurants and grocers. Lawrenceville
is a revitalizing rowhouse neighborhood popular with artists and designers. The Hill District
was home to photographer Charles Harris
as well as various African-American jazz clubs.
Other East End neighborhoods include Point Breeze
, Regent Square
, East Hills
, East Liberty
, Polish Hill
, Garfield, Morningside, and Stanton Heights.
Many of Pittsburgh's patchwork of neighborhoods still retain ethnic
characters reflecting the city's settlement history. These include:
- German: Troy Hill, Mt. Washington, and East Allegheny (Deutschtown)
- Italian: Brookline, Bloomfield, Morningside, Oakland
- Hispanic/Latino: Beechview/Brookline
- Polish, Austrian, Belgian, Czech, Slovak, German, Greek, Hungarian, Luxembourgish, Dutch, Romanian, Swiss, Slovenia and the northern marginal regions of Italy, Croatian, as well as northeastern France, Central European: South Side, Lawrenceville, and Polish Hill
- Lithuanian: South Side, Uptown
- African American/Multiracial African American: Hill District, Homewood, Lincoln-Lemington-Belmar, Larimer, East Hills, and Hazelwood
- Jewish (Ashkenazi): Squirrel Hill
- Irish: Mt. Washington, Carrick
Several neighborhoods on the edges of the city are less urban, featuring tree-lined streets, yards and garages, with a more suburban character. Oakland, the South Side, the North Side, and the Golden Triangle are characterized by more density of housing, walking neighborhoods, and a more diverse, urban feel.
Panorama of Pittsburgh, PA from the Duquesne Incline which shows the confluence of the Allegheny (left) and the Monongahela (right) rivers which merge to form the Ohio River (lower left)
Daytime photo from Mt. Washington in 2015
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of the Northeastern United States as defined by multiple US Government agencies, but the Pittsburgh Combined Statistical Area
extends into both the Southern United States (West Virginia
) and the Midwestern United States
), with the borders of the three regions meeting 30 miles (48 km) from the city. Pittsburgh is also in the Great Lakes Megalopolis
, a collection of primarily Midwestern and nearby Canadian cities, reflecting Pittsburgh's socio-economic connections to Ohio and points west.
Pittsburgh falls within the borders of Appalachia
as defined by the Appalachian Regional Commission
, and has long been characterized as the "northern urban industrial anchor of Appalachia."
In its post-industrial state, Pittsburgh has been characterized as the "Paris of Appalachia",
recognizing the city's cultural, educational, healthcare, and technological resources, as well as its status as Appalachia's largest city.
Pittsburgh falls within the hot-summer humid continental climate
) zone with warm summers and cold winters.
Despite this, it has one of the most pleasant summer climates between medium and large cities in the U.S.
The city and river valleys lie in the USDA plant hardiness zone 6b while higher elevated areas lie in zone 6a.
The area has four distinct seasons: winters are cold and snowy, springs and falls are mild with moderate levels of sunshine, and summers are warm. As measured by percent possible sunshine, summer is by far the sunniest season.
The warmest month of the year in Pittsburgh is July, with a 24-hour average of 73.2 °F (22.9 °C). Conditions are often humid, and combined with highs reaching 90 °F (32 °C) on an average 9.5 days a year,
a considerable heat index
arises. The coolest month is January, when the 24-hour average is 28.8 °F (−1.8 °C), and lows of 0 °F (−18 °C) or below can be expected on an average 2.6 nights per year.
Officially, record temperatures range from −22 °F (−30 °C), on January 19, 1994
to 103 °F (39 °C), which occurred three times, most recently on July 16, 1988; the record cold daily maximum is −3 °F (−19 °C), which occurred three times, most recently the day of the all-time record low, while, conversely, the record warm daily minimum is 82 °F (28 °C) on July 1, 1901.[b]
Due to elevation and location on the windward side of the Appalachian Mountains, 100 °F (38 °C)+ readings are very rare, and were last seen on July 15, 1995.
Average annual precipitation is 39.61 inches (1,006 mm) and precipitation is greatest in May while least in October; annual precipitation has historically ranged from 22.65 in (575 mm) in 1930 to 57.83 in (1,469 mm) in 2018.
On average, December and January have the greatest number of precipitation days. Snowfall averages 44.1 inches (112 cm) per season, but has historically ranged from 8.8 in (22 cm) in 1918–19 to 80 in (200 cm) in 1950–51.
There is an average of 59 clear days and 103 partly cloudy days per year, while 203 days are cloudy.
In terms of annual percent-average possible sunshine received, Pittsburgh (45%) is similar to Seattle
"It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county ... We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years or more."
In 2019, the "State of the Air" report from the American Lung Association
(ALA) found that air quality in the Pittsburgh-New Castle-Weirton, PA-OH-WV metro area worsened, not only for ozone (smog), but also for the second year in a row for both the daily and long-term measures of fine particle pollution. Outside of California, Allegheny County is the only county in the United States that recorded failing grades for all three.
In a 2013 ranking of 277 metropolitan areas in the United States, the American Lung Association ranked only six U.S. metro areas as having higher amounts of short-term particle pollution, and only seven U.S. metro areas having higher amounts of year-round particle pollution than Pittsburgh. For ozone (smog) pollution, Pittsburgh was ranked 24th among U.S. metro areas.
The area has improved its air quality with every annual survey. The ALA's rankings have been disputed by the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD), since data from only the worst of the region's 20 air quality monitors is considered by the ALA, without any context or averaging. The lone monitor used is immediately downwind and adjacent to U.S. Steel's Clairton Coke Works, the nation's largest coke
mill, and several municipalities outside the city's jurisdiction of pollution controls, leading to possible confusion that Pittsburgh is the source or center of the emissions cited in the survey.
The region's readings also reflect pollution swept in from Ohio and West Virginia.
Although the county was still below the "pass" threshold, the report showed substantial improvement over previous decades on every air quality measure. Fewer than 15 high ozone days were reported between 2007 and 2009, and just 10 between 2008 and 2010, compared to more than 40 between 1997 and 1999.
ACHD spokesman Guillermo Cole stated "It's the best it's been in the lifetime for virtually every resident in this county ... We've seen a steady decrease in pollution levels over the past decade and certainly over the past 20, 30, 40, 50 years, or more."
In the summer of 2017, a crowd sourced air quality monitoring application, Smell PGH, was launched. As air quality is still a concern of many in the area, the app allows for users to report odd smells and informs local authorities.
The city contains 31,000 trees on 900 miles of streets, by the last count conducted in 2005. A 2011 analysis of Pittsburgh's tree cover, which involved sampling more than 200 small plots throughout the city, showed a value of between $10 and $13 million in annual benefits based on the urban forest
contributions to aesthetics, energy use and air quality. Energy savings from shade, impact on city air and water quality, and the boost in property values were taken into account in the analysis. The city spends $850,000 annually on street tree planting and maintenance.
ALCOSAN Treatment Plant
The local rivers continue to have pollution levels exceeding EPA limits.
This is caused by frequently overflowing untreated sewage
into local waterways, due to flood conditions and antiquated infrastructure. Pittsburgh has a combined sewer
system, where its sewage pipes contain both stormwater and wastewater. The pipes were constructed in the early 1900s, and the sewage treatment plant was built in 1959.
Due to insufficient improvements over time, the city is faced with public health concerns regarding its water.
As little as a tenth of an inch of rain causes runoffs from the sewage system to drain into local rivers.
Nine billion gallons of untreated waste and stormwater flow into rivers, leading to health hazards and Clean Water Act violations.
The local sewage authority, Allegheny County Sanitary Authority or ALCOSAN
, is operating under Consent Decree from the EPA to come up with solutions.
In 2017, ALCOSAN proposed a $2 billion upgrade to the system which is moving closer to EPA approval.
The Pittsburgh Sewer and Water Authority (PWSA
) is the city's agency required to replace pipes and charge water rates. They have come under fire from both city and state authorities due to alleged mismanagement.
In 2017, Mayor William Peduto
advocated for a restructuring of the PWSA and a partially privatized water authority.
Governor Wolf subsequently assigned the PWSA to be under the oversight of the Public Utilities Commission (PUC).
At the 2010 Census, there were 305,704 people residing in Pittsburgh, a decrease of 8.6% since 2000. 66.0% of the population was White, 25.8% Black or African American, 0.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 4.4% Asian, 0.3% Other, and 2.3% mixed. 2.3% of Pittsburgh's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin of any race. Non-Hispanic Whites
were 64.8% of the population in 2010,
compared to 78.7% in 1970.
Map of racial distribution in Pittsburgh, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic or Other
The five largest European ethnic groups in the city are German (19.7%), Irish (15.8%), Italian (11.8%), Polish (8.4%), and English (4.6%), while the metropolitan area is approximately 22% German-American, 15.4% Italian American and 11.6% Irish American. Pittsburgh has one of the largest Italian-American communities in the nation
and the fifth-largest Ukrainian
Pittsburgh has one of the most extensive Croatian
communities in the United States.
Overall, the Pittsburgh Metro Area has one of the largest populations of Slavic Americans
in the country.
Pittsburgh has a sizeable African American population, concentrated in various neighborhoods especially in the East End. There is also a small Asian community consisting of Indian immigrants, and a small Hispanic community consisting of Mexicans and Puerto Ricans.
According to a 2010 Association of Religion Data Archives
(ARDA) study, residents include 773,341 "Catholics"; 326,125 "Mainline Protestants"; 174,119 "Evangelical Protestants;" 20,976 "Black Protestants;" and 16,405 "Orthodox Christians," with 996,826 listed as "unclaimed" and 16,405 as "other" in the metro area.
A 2017 study by the Cohen Center for Modern Jewish Studies at Brandeis University
estimated the Jewish population of Greater Pittsburgh
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center, 78% of the population of the city identified themselves as Christians, with 42% professing attendance at a variety of churches that could be considered Protestant
, and 32% professing Catholic
beliefs. while 18% claim no religious affiliation. The same study says that other religions (including Judaism, Buddhism, Islam, and Hinduism) collectively make up about 4% of the population.
There were 143,739 households, out of which 21.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.2% were married couples living together, 16.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 48.4% were non-families. 39.4% of all households were made up of individuals, and 13.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.17 and the average family size was 2.95.
In the city, the population was spread out, with 19.9% under the age of 18, 14.8% from 18 to 24, 28.6% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, and 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.8 males.
The median income
for a household in the city was $28,588, and the median income for a family was $38,795. Males had a median income of $32,128 versus $25,500 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,816. About 15.0% of families and 20.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.5% of those under the age of 18 and 13.5% ages 65 or older.
In a 2002 study, Pittsburgh ranked 22nd of 69 urban places in the U.S. in the number of residents 25 years or older who had completed a bachelor's degree, at 31%.
Pittsburgh ranked 15th of the 69 places in the number of residents 25 years or older who completed a high school degree, at 84.7%.
The metro area
has shown greater residential racial integration
during the last 30 years. The 2010 census ranked 18 other U.S. metros as having greater black-white segregation
, while 32 other U.S. metros rank higher for black-white isolation.
Pittsburgh has adapted since the collapse of its century-long steel and electronics industries. The region has shifted to high technology, robotics
, health care, nuclear engineering, tourism, biomedical technology
, finance, education, and services. Annual payroll of the region's technology industries, when taken in aggregate, exceeded $10.8 billion in 2007,
and in 2010 there were 1,600 technology companies.
A National Bureau of Economic Research
2014 report named Pittsburgh the second-best U.S. city for intergenerational economic mobility
or the American Dream
Reflecting the citywide shift from industry to technology, former factories have been renovated as modern office space. Google has research and technology offices in a refurbished 1918–1998 Nabisco
factory, a complex known as Bakery Square
Some of the factory's original equipment, such as a large dough mixer, were left standing in homage to the site's industrial roots.
Pittsburgh's transition from its industrial heritage
has earned it praise as "the poster child for managing industrial transition".
Other major cities in the northeast and mid-west have increasingly borrowed from Pittsburgh's model
in order to renew their industries and economic base.
Pittsburgh is the poster child for managing industrial transition.
The largest employer in the city is the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center
, with 48,000 employees. All hospitals, outpatient clinics, and doctor's office positions combine for 116,000 jobs, approximately 10% of the jobs in the region. An analyst recently observed of the city's medical sector: "That's both more jobs and a higher share of the region's total employment than the steel industry represented in the 1970s."
Education is a major economic driver in the region. The largest single employer in education is the University of Pittsburgh
, with 10,700 employees.
The region is home to Allegheny Technologies
, American Eagle Outfitters
, CONSOL Energy
, Mylan Bayer USA
, and Alcoa Corporation
headquarters. Other major employers include BNY Mellon
, Thermo Fisher Scientific
, and Lanxess
. The Northeast U.S. regional headquarters for Chevron Corporation
, Nova Chemicals
, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu
, FedEx Ground
, and the RAND Corporation
call the area home. 84 Lumber
, Giant Eagle
, Rue 21
, General Nutrition Center
(GNC), CNX Gas (CXG), and Genco Supply Chain Solutions
are major non-public companies headquartered in the region. The global impact of Pittsburgh technology and business was recently demonstrated in several key components of the Boeing 787 Dreamliner
being manufactured and supplied by area companies.
Area retail is anchored by over 35 shopping malls
and a healthy downtown retail sector, as well as boutique shops along Walnut Street
, in Squirrel Hill
and Station Square
The nonprofit arts and cultural industry in Allegheny County generates $341 million in economic activity that supports over 10,000 full-time equivalent jobs with nearly $34 million in local and state taxes raised.
Pittsburgh has hosted many conventions, including INPEX
, the world's largest invention trade show, since 1984; Tekko
, a four-day anime convention, since 2003; Anthrocon
, a furry convention, since 2006; and the DUG East
energy trade show since 2009.
Arts and culture
Hundreds of major films have been shot partially or wholly in Pittsburgh. The Dark Knight Rises
was largely filmed in Downtown, Oakland, and the North Shore. Pittsburgh has also teamed up with a Los Angeles-based production company, and has built the largest and most advanced movie studio in the eastern United States.
Pittsburgh's major art museums include the Andy Warhol Museum
, the Carnegie Museum of Art
, The Frick Pittsburgh
, Pittsburgh Center for the Arts
, and the Mattress Factory
. The ToonSeum
, one of three museums in the US dedicated to cartoon art, is downtown.
The Carnegie Museum of Natural History
is the fourth ranked natural history museum in the US
and has extensive dinosaur, mineral, animal, and Egyptian
collections. The Carnegie Science Center
and associated SportsWorks
has interactive technology and science exhibits. The Senator John Heinz History Center and Western Pennsylvania Sports Museum
is a Smithsonian affiliated regional history museum in the Strip District and its associated Fort Pitt Museum
is in Point State Park. Soldiers and Sailors Memorial Hall and Museum
in Oakland houses Western Pennsylvania military exhibits from the Civil War to present. The Children's Museum of Pittsburgh
on the North Side features interactive exhibits for children. The eclectic Bayernhof Music Museum
is six miles (9 km) from downtown while The Clemente Museum
is in the city's Lawrenceville section. The Cathedral of Learning
's Nationality Rooms
showcase pre-19th century learning environments from around the world. There are regular guided and self-guided architectural tours in numerous neighborhoods. Downtown's cultural district hosts quarterly Gallery Crawls and the annual Three Rivers Arts Festival
. Pittsburgh is home to a number of art galleries and centers including the Miller Gallery at Carnegie Mellon University
, University Art Gallery
of the University of Pittsburgh, the American Jewish Museum
, and the Wood Street Galleries
Pittsburgh is home to the world's second largest furry convention known as Anthrocon
, which has been held annually at the David L. Lawrence Convention Center
since 2006. In 2017, Anthrocon drew over 7,000 visitors and has had a cumulative economic impact of $53 million over the course of its 11 years of being hosted in Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh has a long tradition of jazz
, and bluegrass music
. The National Negro Opera Company
was founded in the city as the first all African-American opera company in the United States. This led to the prominence of African-American singers like Leontyne Price
in the world of opera. One of the greatest American musicians and composers of the 20th century, Billy Strayhorn
, grew up and was educated in Pittsburgh.
Pittsburgh's Wiz Khalifa
is a recent artist to have a number one record. His anthem "Black and Yellow
" (a tribute to Pittsburgh's official colors) reached number one on Billboard's "Hot 100"
for the Week of February 19, 2011.
Not since Grammy-winning blues guitarist George Benson
has a Pittsburgh artist received such national acclaim. Perry Como
and Christina Aguilera
are from Pittsburgh suburbs. The city is also where the band Rusted Root
was formed. Liz Berlin of Rusted Root owns Mr. Smalls, a popular music venue for touring national acts in Pittsburgh.
Hip hop artist Mac Miller
's album Blue Slide Park
debuted at the top of Billboard's album chart; its first No. 1 independent release since Dogg Food
Throughout the 1990s there was an electronic music subculture
in Pittsburgh which likely traced its origins to similar Internet chatroom
-based movements in Detroit
, and across the United States.
in warehouses, ice rinks
, barns, and fields which eventually attracted thousands of attendees, some of whom were high school students or even younger.
As the events grew more popular, they drew internationally known DJs such as Adam Beyer
and Richie Hawtin
Pittsburgh rave culture itself spawned at least one well-known artist, the drum and bass
, who attended the University of Pittsburgh
between 1990 and 1995.
Since 2012, Pittsburgh has been the home of Hot Mass
, an afterhours electronic music dance party
which critics have compared favorably to European nightclubs and parties.
Electronic music artist and DJ Yaeji
credits Hot Mass with her "indoctrination into nightlife"; she regularly attended the party while studying at Carnegie Mellon University
The city's first play was produced at the old courthouse
and the first theater built in 1812.
Collegiate companies include the University of Pittsburgh's Repertory Theatre
and Kuntu Repertory Theatre
, Point Park University's resident companies at its Pittsburgh Playhouse
, and Carnegie Mellon University's School of Drama productions and Scotch'n'Soda
organization. The Duquesne University Red Masquers, founded in 1912, are the oldest, continuously producing theater company in Pennsylvania.
The city's longest-running theater show, Friday Nite Improvs
, is an improv jam that has been performed in the Cathedral of Learning
and other locations for 20 years. The Pittsburgh New Works Festival
utilizes local theatre companies to stage productions of original one-act plays by playwrights from all parts of the country. Similarly, Future Ten
showcases new ten-minute plays. Saint Vincent Summer Theatre
, Off the Wall Productions
, Mountain Playhouse
, The Theatre Factory, and Stage Right!
in nearby Latrobe
, and Greensburg
, respectively, employ Pittsburgh actors and contribute to the culture of the region.
Pittsburgh is the birthplace of Gertrude Stein
and Rachel Carson
, a Chatham University
graduate from the suburb of Springdale, Pennsylvania
Modern writers include Pulitzer Prize
-winning playwright August Wilson
and Michael Chabon
with his Pittsburgh-focused commentary on student and college life. Two-time Pulitzer Prize winner and recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom
, David McCullough
was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Annie Dillard
, a Pulitzer Prize–winning writer, was born and raised in Pittsburgh. Much of her memoir An American Childhood takes place in post-World War II Pittsburgh. Award-winning author John Edgar Wideman
grew up in Pittsburgh and has based several of his books, including the memoir Brothers and Keepers
, in his hometown. Poet Terrance Hayes
, winner of the 2010 National Book Award and a 2014 MacArthur Foundation Fellow, received his MFA from the University of Pittsburgh, where he is a faculty member. Poet Michael Simms
, founder of Autumn House Press
, resides in the Mount Washington neighborhood of Pittsburgh. Poet Samuel John Hazo
, the first poet Laureate of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, also resides in the city. New writers include Chris Kuzneski
who attended the University of Pittsburgh
and mentions Pittsburgh in his works and Pittsburgher Brian Celio, author of Catapult Soul
who captured the Pittsburgh 'Yinzer' dialect in his writing. Pittsburgh's unique literary style extends to playwrights,
as well as local graffiti and hip hop artists.
Pittsburgh is known for several specialties including pierogies
, chipped chopped ham
sandwiches, and Klondike bars
In 2019, Pittsburgh was deemed "Food City of the Year" by the San Francisco-based restaurant and hospitality consulting firm af&co.
Many restaurants were favorably mentioned, among them were Superior Motors in Braddock
, Driftwood Oven in Lawrenceville
, Spork in Bloomfield
, Fish nor Fowl in Garfield
, Bitter Ends Garden & Luncheonette in Bloomfield
, and Rolling Pepperoni in Lawrenceville
The Pittsburgh English dialect, commonly called Pittsburghese
, was influenced by Scots-Irish
, German, and Eastern European
immigrants and African Americans.
Locals who speak the dialect are sometimes referred to as "Yinzers
" (from the local word "yinz" [var. yunz
], a blended form of "you ones," similar to "y'all" and "you all" in the South). Common Pittsburghese terms are: "slippy" (slippery), "redd up" (clean up), "jagger bush" (thorn bush), and "gum bands" (rubber bands). The dialect is also notable for dropping the verb "to be". In Pittsburghese one would say "the car needs washed" instead of "needs to be washed," "needs washing," or "needs a wash." The dialect has some tonal similarities to other nearby regional dialects of Erie and Baltimore, but is noted for its somewhat staccato
rhythms. The staccato qualities of the dialect are thought to originate either from Welsh or other European languages. The many local peculiarities have prompted The New York Times
to describe Pittsburgh as "the Galapagos Islands
of American dialect".
The lexicon itself contains notable loans from Polish
and other European languages; examples include babushka
, and halušky
Pittsburgh often places high in lists of the nation's most livable cities
. After placing fourth and first in the first two editions of Places Rated Almanac
, Pittsburgh finished first in 1985, third in 1989, fifth in 1993, 14th in 1997, and 12th in 2000, before reclaiming the number one spot in 2007.
The survey's primary author, David Savageau, has noted Pittsburgh is the only city to finish in the top 20 of every edition.
In 2005, 2009, and 2011, Pittsburgh was ranked as the most livable city in the United States by The Economist
and, in those years, between the 26th- and 29th-most livable city worldwide.
Pittsburgh ranked No. 28 in the book Cities Ranked and Rated
(2004) by Bert Sperling
and Peter Sander.
In 2010, Forbes
ranked Pittsburgh as the most livable city in the United States.
A month later, Forbes
named Pittsburgh as the 7th best place to raise a family.
Pittsburgh was ranked as the 4th-best city for working mothers by Forbes
and the city was ranked as one of the best for entrepreneurs by Entrepreneur
ranked Pittsburgh, in an 8-way tie, as the world's 10th cleanest city for 2007.
The city was listed among the 10 best U.S. places to retire in 2012 by CBS Money Watch
and U.S. News
In February 2013 Forbes
again placed Pittsburgh among its 10 "most unexpectedly romantic cities" in the world .
In April 2014, Niche
rated Pittsburgh the 15th-best city for millennials
Livability rankings typically consider factors such as cost of living, crime, and cultural opportunities. Pittsburgh has a low cost of living compared to other northeastern U.S. cities. According to the Federal Housing Board, the average price for a 3- to 4-bedroom, 2-bath family home in Pittsburgh for 2004 is $162,000, well below the national average of $264,540. Average 2010 rent for all bedrooms in Pittsburgh was $789. This compares to the nationwide average of $1,087.
Pittsburgh has five city parks and several parks managed by the Nature Conservancy
. The largest, Frick Park
, provides 664 acres (269 ha) of woodland park with extensive hiking and biking trails throughout steep valleys and wooded slopes. Birding enthusiasts love to visit the Clayton Hill area of Frick Park, where well over 100 species of birds have been recorded.
Enhancing Pittsburgh's livability is the fact that the area faces little risk of natural disasters from such causes as earthquake, hurricane, wildfire, or tornado. Forbes
ranked Pittsburgh as having the 2nd-lowest natural disaster risk in the nation for 2009. Greater Pittsburgh
is not entirely free of natural disasters, however. Residents living in extremely low-lying areas near the rivers or one of the 1,400 creeks and streams may have occasional floods,
such as those caused when the remnants of Hurricane Ivan
hit rainfall records in 2004.
River flooding is relatively rare due to federal flood control efforts extensively managing locks, dams, and reservoirs.
Residents living near smaller tributary streams are less protected from occasional flooding. The cost of a comprehensive flood control program for the region has been estimated at a prohibitive $50 billion.
Pittsburgh has the greatest number of bars per capita in the nation.
Pittsburgh hosted the first professional football game
and the first World Series
. The city boasts several professional teams and in 2009 the city won the Sporting News
title of "Best Sports City" in the United States.
and Sperling's Best Places
"top 15 cities for baseball" in 2013.
College sports also have large followings with the University of Pittsburgh in football and sharing Division I basketball fans with Robert Morris and Duquesne.
Professional sports teams in Pittsburgh
- ^ The Pirates won championships in 1901, 1902, 1909, 1925, 1960, 1971, and 1979. 1901 and 1902 were Pre World-Series Era Champions.
- ^ The Steelers won championships in 1974, 1975, 1978, 1979, 2005, and 2008.
- ^ The Penguins won championships in 1991, 1992, 2009, 2016, and 2017.
**Pittsburgh's ABA franchise won the 1968 title, but the Steel City Yellow Jackets franchise is heir to it only in location.
Prominent D1 college sports teams in Pittsburgh
[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball ... The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh.
The Pittsburgh Pirates
baseball team, often referred to as the Bucs or the Buccos (derived from buccaneer
), is the city's oldest professional sports franchise having been founded in 1881, and plays in the Central Division
of the National League
. The Pirates are nine-time Pennant winners and five-time World Series
Champions, were in the first World Series (1903)
and claim two pre-World Series titles in 1901 and 1902. The Pirates play in PNC Park
, annually ranked as one of the sports best venues; ESPN.com
stated: "[t]his is the perfect blend of location, history, design, comfort and baseball ... The best stadium in baseball is in Pittsburgh." PNC Park
hosted the team's MLB record-tying fifth All-Star game in 2006.
Pittsburgh also has a rich Negro league
history, with the former Pittsburgh Crawfords
and the Homestead Grays
credited with as many as 14 league titles and 11 Hall of Famers between them in the 1930s and 1940s, while the Keystones
fielded teams in the 1920s. In addition, in 1971 the Pirates were the first Major League team to field an all-minority lineup. One sportswriter claimed, "No city is more synonymous with black baseball than Pittsburgh."
The city's professional team, NFL's Pittsburgh Steelers
, is named after the distribution company the Pittsburgh Steeling company established in 1927. News of the team has preempted news of elections and other events, and are important to the region and its diaspora
. The Steelers have been owned by the Rooney family
since the team's founding in 1933, show consistency in coaching (only three coaches since the 1960s all with the same basic philosophy) and are noted as one of sports' most respectable franchises.
The Steelers have a long waiting list for season tickets, and have sold out every home game since 1972.
The team won four Super Bowls
in a six-year span in the 1970s, a fifth Super Bowl
in 2006, and a league record sixth Super Bowl
in 2009. Since the AFL-NFL merger in 1970 they have qualified for the most NFL playoff berths (28) and have played in (15) and hosted (11) the most NFL conference championship games.
The NHL's Pittsburgh Penguins
have played in Pittsburgh since the team's founding in 1967. The team has won 6 Eastern Conference
titles (1991, 1992, 2008, 2009, 2016 and 2017) and 5 Stanley Cup
championships (1991, 1992, 2009, 2016 and 2017). Since 1999, Hall of Famer and back-to-back playoff MVP Mario Lemieux
has served as Penguins owner. Until moving into the PPG Paints Arena
in 2010 (when it was known as Consol Energy Center), the team played their home games at the world's first retractable domed stadium, the Civic Arena
, or in local parlance "The Igloo".
has had a regional fan base since the 1890s semi-pro Keystones
. The city's first ice rink dates back to 1889, when there was an ice rink at the Casino in Schenley Park
. From 1896 to 1956, the Exposition Building on the Allegheny River near The Point and Duquesne Gardens in Oakland offered indoor skating.
The NHL awarded one of its first franchises to the city in 1924 on the strength of the back-to-back USAHA championship winning Pittsburgh Yellow Jackets
featuring future Hall of Famers and a Stanley Cup winning coach. The NHL's Pittsburgh Pirates
made several Stanley Cup playoff runs with a future Hall of Famer before folding from Great Depression
financial pressures. Hockey survived with the Pittsburgh Hornets
farm team (1936–1967) and their seven finals appearances and three championships in 18 playoff seasons.
Robert Morris University
fields a Division I college hockey team at the Island Sports Center
. Pittsburgh is a hotbed for semi-pro and amateur teams such as the top 50 ranked Junior Penguins, Predators and Viper Stars, with the Hornets a top 20 team for the last 7 years.
Pro-grade ice rinks such as the Rostraver Ice Garden
, Mt. Lebanon Recreation Center and Iceoplex at Southpointe
have trained several native Pittsburgh players for NHL play. RMU hosted the city's first Frozen Four
college championship in 2013 with the four PPG Paints Arena games televised by ESPN
The Duquesne University Dukes
and the University of Pittsburgh Panthers
have played college basketball
in the city since 1914 and 1905 respectively. Pitt and Duquesne have played the annual City Game
since 1932. Duquesne was the city's first team to appear in a Final Four
(1940), obtain a number one AP Poll
and to win a post-season national title, the 1955 National Invitation Tournament
on its second straight trip to the NIT title game. Duquesne is the only college program to produce back-to-back NBA No. 1 overall draft picks with 1955's Dick Ricketts and 1956's Sihugo Green.
Duquesne's Chuck Cooper
was the first African American drafted by an NBA team.
The Panthers won two pre-tournament era Helms Athletic Foundation National Championships
in 1928 and 1930, competed in a "national title game" against LSU
in 1935, and made a Final Four appearance in 1941. Pitt has won 13 conference titles, qualified for the NCAA tournament 26 times including a post season tournament every season between 1999 and 2000 and 2015-2016 during which time it regularly sold out the Petersen Events Center
. The program has produced 27 NBA draft picks and 15 All Americans while ranking No. 1 in the nation as recently as 2009.
Pittsburgh Panthers women's basketball
has qualified for 14 post season tournaments (including 4 NCAA tournaments) and boasts of 5 All-Americans selected 6 times with 3 WNBA players. Pitt women began play in 1914 before being reintroduced in 1970. Both Duquesne and Robert Morris also have competitive Division I women's basketball programs.
Local courses have sponsored annual major tournaments for 40 years:
Annual sports events
Pittsburgh Vintage Grand Prix
Pittsburgh hosts several annual major sporting events initiated in the late 20th century, including the:
Government and politics
In 2006, Council President Luke Ravenstahl
was sworn in as mayor at age 26, becoming the youngest mayor in the history of any major American city. His successor, Bill Peduto
, was sworn in on January 6, 2014. The next Mayoral election is due to take place in 2021.
Prior to the American Civil War
, Pittsburgh was strongly abolitionist. It is considered the birthplace of the national Republican Party
as the party held its first convention here in February 1856. From the Civil War to the 1930s, Pittsburgh was a Republican
stronghold. The effects of the Great Depression
, combined with entrenched local GOP scandals, resulted in a shift among voters to the Democratic Party. With the exceptions of the 1973
elections (where lifelong Democrats ran off the party ticket), Democrats have been elected consecutively to the mayor's office since the 1933 election
. The city's ratio of party registration is 5 to 1 Democrat.
Pittsburgh is represented in the Pennsylvania General Assembly
by three Senate Districts
, Wayne D. Fontana
(D)-42, and Jay Costa
(D)-43) and nine House Districts
-19, Adam Ravenstahl-20, Sara Innamorato
-21, Dan Frankel
-23, Ed Gainey-24, Dan Deasy-27, Summer Lee
-34, and Harry Readshaw-36, Dan Miller-42).
Pittsburgh annually ranks as one of America's safest big cities, in 2013 being named the 3rd "most secure" big city by Farmers Insurance.
Among crime rates of the 60 largest U.S. cities
, 43 had more instances of property crime while 16 had less when compared to Pittsburgh. More instances of violent crime were reported in 21 of the largest cities while 37 had less. The FBI recommends against using data for ranking.
Per 100,000 persons stats (2012):
At the end of 2019, the Pittsburgh Bureau of Police reported 37 murders in the city that year.
The University of Pittsburgh
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh is home to many colleges, universities and research facilities, the most well-known of which are Carnegie Mellon University
, the University of Pittsburgh
, and Duquesne University
. Also in the city are Carlow University
, Chatham University
, Point Park University
, the Community College of Allegheny County
, Pittsburgh Theological Seminary
, Reformed Presbyterian Theological Seminary
, and the Pittsburgh Institute of Mortuary Science
The campuses of Carlow, Carnegie Mellon, and the University of Pittsburgh are near each other in the Oakland neighborhood that is the city's traditional cultural center. Carnegie Mellon University (CMU), a private research university founded by Andrew Carnegie
and Andrew Mellon
, is ranked 23rd overall on the US News & World Report
list of America's Best National Universities.
CMU is globally respected for its School of Computer Science
, College of Engineering
, School of Business
, Heinz College
, College of Fine Arts
, writing, Social and Decision Sciences
, information systems, statistics, and psychology programs.
The University of Pittsburgh, established in 1787 and popularly referred to as "Pitt", is a state-related
school with one of the nation's largest research programs.
Pitt is ranked as the 20th national public university
by US News & World Report
and 62nd overall, and is known for the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public and International Affairs
, University of Pittsburgh School of Information Sciences
, Swanson School of Engineering
, University of Pittsburgh College of Business Administration
, University of Pittsburgh School of Law
, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
, University of Pittsburgh School of Social Work
, and other biomedical and health-related sciences.
Pittsburgh Public Schools
teachers are paid well relative to their peers, ranking 17th in 2000 among the 100 largest cities by population for the highest minimum salary. In 2018 the starting teacher salary offered to teachers with a BA was $46,920. The maximum annual salary for a teacher with a master's degree was $95,254.
KDKA studios at Gateway Center
The Pittsburgh metro area is served by many local television and radio stations. The Pittsburgh designated market area
(DMA) is the 22nd-largest in the U.S. with 1,163,150 homes (1.045% of the total U.S.).
The major network television affiliates are KDKA-TV
), KNNP-TV, WPCW
), and WPCB
). KDKA-TV, WPCW, WINP-TV, and WPCB are network owned-and-operated stations. WEPA-CD
16 is an independent station
owned and operated by the Bruno-Goodworth Network.
There is a wide variety of radio stations
serving the Pittsburgh market. The first was KDKA
1020 AM, also the world's first commercially licensed radio station, airing on November 2, 1920.
Other stations include KQV
1410 AM (news), WBGG
970 AM (sports), KDKA-FM
93.7 FM (sports), WKST-FM
96.1 FM (pop), WAMO-AM
660 AM (hip-hop and R&B) WBZZ
100.7 FM (adult contemporary), WDVE
102.5 FM (album rock), WPGB
104.7 FM (Country), and WXDX
105.9 FM (modern rock). There are also three public radio stations
in the area; including WESA
90.5 FM (National Public Radio
89.3 FM (classical), and WYEP
91.3 FM (adult alternative). Three non-commercial stations are run by Carnegie Mellon University
88.3 FM), the University of Pittsburgh
92.1 FM), and Point Park University
Pittsburgh's 116-year-old film industry accelerated after the 2006 passage of the Pennsylvania Film Production Tax Credit
According to the Pittsburgh Film Office
, over 124 major motion pictures have been filmed, in whole or in part, in Pittsburgh, including The Mothman Prophecies
, Wonder Boys
, The Silence of the Lambs
, Sudden Death
, Striking Distance
, Mrs. Soffel
, Jack Reacher
, Inspector Gadget
, The Next Three Days
, The Perks of Being a Wallflower
, Zack and Miri Make a Porno
, and Fences
Pittsburgh became "Gotham City" in 2011 during filming of The Dark Knight Rises
. George A. Romero
has shot nearly all his films in the area, including his Living Dead
UPMC's flagship, UPMC Presbyterian
The first military hospital in U.S. history as well as the first west of the Atlantic Plain—General Edward Hand Hospital—served the area from 1777 to 1845.
Since 1847, Pittsburgh has hosted the world's first "Mercy Hospital".
This was followed by West Penn hospital in 1848, Passavant Hospital in 1849,
the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine
in 1883, Children's Hospital in 1887, and Magee Womens Hospital
in 1911. In 1954, Allegheny General (AGH) was among the first to administer Cobalt therapy
Allegheny General, the flagship of the Allegheny Health Network
In 1980, UPMC announced a $250 million ($891 million today) expansion and also hired transplant pioneer Dr. Thomas Starzl
In 1984, Allegheny General surgeons pioneered modern brain surgery. Dr. Starzl arranged the 1985 liver transplant of 5-year-old Amie Garrison as a UPMC surgery team flew to Baylor University
, starting its transplant program.
Also in 1985, UPMC surgeons Drs. Griffith, Hardesty, and Trento revealed a new device after a heart-lung transplant. In 1986, UPMC announced a $230 million ($543 million today) modernization. In 1996, UPMC's planned Sicily ISMETT
branch was approved by the Italian government as transplant surgeons to supervise and deliver the world's third (both earlier ones done at UPMC)--and first public—cross species marrow transplant at University of California, San Francisco
UPMC's Thomas Detre founded the International Society for Bipolar Disorders
at a world medical conference in Pittsburgh in 1999.
UPMC has pioneered several world firsts including the first known cystic fibrosis heart-lung transplant (1983), the world's first simultaneous liver and heart transplant operation on a child (6-year-old Stormie Jones
in 1984), the youngest heart-lung transplant (9 years old in 1985), the world's first heart-liver-kidney transplant (1989), the world's first heart-liver transplant on an infant (1997),
the first pediatric heart-double lung-liver transplant (1998), the nation's first double hand transplant (2009), and the first total forearm and hand transplant (2010), as well as the state's first heart transplant (1968).
published a 2012 UPMC study of two 9-year quadriplegics being able to move a robotic arm by thought, to pick up objects, shake hands, and even eat. Wiring the brain around spine damage to restore arm and leg muscle function was successful using robotic arms controlled via an embedded computer to translate signals near a small group of neurons with 200 needles.
Pittsburgh's numerous bridges visible from the air
Public transportation statistics
The average amount of time people spend commuting with public transit in Pittsburgh, for example to and from work, on a weekday is 73 min. 23% of public transit riders ride for more than 2 hours every day. The average amount of time people wait at a stop or station for public transit is 17 min, while 33% of riders wait for over 20 minutes on average every day. The average distance people usually ride in a single trip with public transit is 3.9 mi (6.3 km), while 11% travel for over 7.5 mi (12 km) in a single direction.
Expressways and highways
The city announced plans to make several improvements to the expressways and highways in 2017:
- Interstate 279/Parkway North will have emergency pull-offs and crossover areas constructed in both directions; $87.9 million project
- Interstate 376 will undergo median crossover work; $66.3 million project
- Interstate 79 will be repaved; $16.7 million project
- Route 65 will have improvements such as concrete patching, an asphalt overlay, bridge reconstruction, base repairs, drainage and guide rail updates, new signs, retaining wall repairs and pavement-marking installation; $25.3 million project
Intercity passenger rail and bus
Regional mass transit
Port Authority of Allegheny County
, commonly known as the Port Authority, but sometimes referred to by its former nickname "PAT" or "PAT Transit", is the region's mass transit system. While serving only a portion of the Pittsburgh area (the nation's 20th largest metro area), it is the 11th largest transit agency in the nation and helped the region rank 8th on commuters that use non-car means to work, second to only Chicago in metros outside the Northeast corridor.
Port Authority runs a network of intracity and intercity bus routes, the Monongahela Incline Funicular
railway (more commonly known as an "incline") on Mount Washington, a light rail
system that runs mostly above-ground in the suburbs and underground as a subway in the city, and one of the nation's largest busway
The Duquesne Incline
is operated by a non-profit preservation trust,
but accepts Port Authority passes and charges Port Authority fares.
The Bus System lines are labeled by number and letter
. These are the largest portion of Port Authority and serve on streets and designated busways. Buses serve most of the county, extending as far as Pittsburgh International Airport
, and the borders of Westmoreland County
and Beaver County, Pennsylvania
. Meanwhile, the light rail system (commonly known as the "T") runs along both new tracks and those refurbished from the street car area. The light rail currently[when?]
runs from Heinz Field
to South Hills Village
, while taking commuters through one of two routes; one which serves Castle Shannon
, Mt. Lebanon
, and Beechview
, while the other is an express line using railways through Overbrook
Penn Station was built in 1903
Pittsburgh is home to one of Norfolk Southern Railway
's busiest freight corridors, the Pittsburgh Line
, and operates up to 70 trains per day through the city. The suburban Conway Rail Yard
—originally built in 1889—was the largest freight rail center in the world from 1956 until 1980 and is today the nation's second-largest. CSX
, the other major freight railroad in the eastern U.S. also has major operations
The Port of Pittsburgh
ranks as the 20th-largest port
in the United States with almost 34 million short tons of river cargo for 2011, the port ranked 9th-largest in the U.S. when measured in domestic trade.
- Bilbao, Spain
- Da Nang, Vietnam
- Donetsk, Ukraine
- Fernando de la Mora, Paraguay
- Gaziantep, Turkey
- Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdom
- Karmiel, Israel
- Matanzas, Cuba
- Misgav, Israel
- Naucalpan, Mexico
- Ostrava, Czech Republic
- Prešov, Slovakia
- Saarbrücken, Germany
- Saitama, Japan
- San Isidro, Nicaragua
- Sheffield, England, United Kingdoma
- Skopje, North Macedonia
- Sofia, Bulgaria
- Taranto, Italy
- Wuhan, China
- Zagreb, Croatia
Pittsburgh and Sheffield are both known as Steel City
for their connections with the steel industry.
- ^ The neighborhoods are Arlington Heights, Bluff, Brighton Heights, Crafton Heights, Duquesne Heights, East Hills, Fineview, Highland Park, Middle Hill, Mount Oliver, Mount Washington, Northview Heights, Perry North (also known as Observatory Hill), Perry South (also known as Perry Hilltop), Polish Hill, Ridgemont, South Side Slopes, Spring Hill-City View, Squirrel Hill, Stanton Heights, Summer Hill, Troy Hill, and Upper Hill.
- ^ The warmest daily minimum at the current observation location, Pittsburgh Int'l, is only 77 °F (25 °C) on July 23, 2010, and July 16, 1980.
- ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the highest and lowest temperature readings during an entire month or year) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
- ^ Records kept January 1871 to June 1935 at the Weather Bureau Office across the Allegheny River from downtown, at Allegheny County Airport from July 1935 to 14 September 1952, and at Pittsburgh Int'l (KPIT) since 15 September 1952. Due to its river valley and urban location as well as elevation, many of the summertime warm minima temperature records set at the WBO have not even come close to being matched at KPIT, which is at-elevation and located in the western suburbs. For more information, see Threadex
- ^ The Pittsburgh Power of the Arena Football League and the Pittsburgh Passion of the Independent Women's Football League (IWFL) use these colors as well.
- ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 28, 2020.
- ^ Cite error: The named reference USCensusEst2020 was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
- ^ "Approved Markers". Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania. Retrieved December 26, 2018.
- ^ "Pittsburgh". Encyclopaedia Britannica.
- ^ a b
- ^ a b Ritenbaugh, Stephanie (May 14, 2014). "In The Lead: Pittsburgh leads with the most bars per person". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on May 15, 2014. Retrieved May 14, 2014.
- ^ 30 Years: Pittsburgh moves from heavy industry to medicine, tech, energy
- ^ a b
- ^. The University of Pittsburgh is amongst the top 20 universities in the country by the amount of federal research funding granted by the NIH, and CMU is amongst the top 50 universities in the country by amount of federal research funding granted by the NSF.
- ^ "The Metropolis Guide to the Best Cities to Live, Work, and Play in (2015)". Metropolis. July 28, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Named One of the Most Livable Cities in the World". KDKA-TV. July 31, 2015. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ "A Summary of the Liveability Ranking and Overview—August 2014". The Economist. August 25, 2014. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ "These are the top 10 most liveable cities in America". CNBC. August 17, 2018. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
- ^ a b
- Built Green, Working Green, Everyday, David L. Lawrence Convention Center, (2012)
- Pittsburgh Is “Emerald City” with Dozens of Energy-Efficient Buildings Phil Cynar ImaginePittsburgh.com (October 20, 2012)
- Growth with a Vision, John Conti Tribune-Review (October 27, 2012)
- Natural gas locked in the Marcellus Shale has companies rushing to cash in on possibilities Elwin Green, Post-Gazette (December 6, 2009)
- Pitt: Land leased for oil, gas up 322 percent, Associated Press via Google News (August 16, 2010)
- Chevron to Buy Atlas Energy for $4.3 Billion Thomas Kaplan, The New York Times (November 9, 2010)
- CONSOL Energy to Acquire Dominion's Appalachian E&P Business for $3.475 Billion In Cash PR Newswire (March 15, 2011)
- ^ a b c "How to Spell Pittsburgh". Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on October 1, 2008. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
- ^ Conradt, Stacy (October 1, 2013). "How Pittsburgh Got Its "H" Back". Mental Floss. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Facts". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. January 1, 2003. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- ^ "An ACT to erect the town of Pittsburgh ..."Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on July 6, 2007. Retrieved September 22, 2006.
- ^ Stewart, George R. (1967) . Names on the Land: A Historical Account of Place-Naming in the United States (Sentry edition (3rd) ed.). Houghton Mifflin. pp. 342–344.
- ^ "THE PITTSBURGH PRESS". August 21, 1921. p. 1.
- ^ Solon J. Buck, Elizabeth Buck, The Planting of Civilization in Western Pennsylvania, 1976, Google Boeken. Books.google.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ "friendsoftheriverfront.org". Friendsoftheriverfront.org. Archived from the original on January 11, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e "Historic Pittsburgh: Chronology". University of Pittsburgh Library System. Retrieved December 26, 2017.
- ^ "The Battle of the Monongahela". World Digital Library. 1755. Retrieved August 3, 2013.
- ^ a b Lorant, Stefan (1999). Pittsburgh, The Story of an American City (5th ed.). Esselmont Books, LLC. ISBN 978-0-685-92012-1.
- ^ "Pittsburgh". Encyclopædia. 2008. Retrieved November 6, 2008.
- ^ White, Phillip M. (June 2, 2011). American Indian Chronology: Chronologies of the American Mosaic. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 44.
- ^ Ranlet, Phillip (2000). The British, the Indians, and smallpox: what actually happened at Fort Pitt in 1763? Pennsylvania history; 67(3).
- ^ Dixon, David (2005). Never Come to Peace Again: Pontiac's Uprising and the Fate of the British Empire in North America. University of Oklahoma Press.
- ^ Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh (1921). Pittsburgh First, the Official Organ of The Chamber of Commerce of Pittsburgh.
- ^ Full text of "The county court for the district of West Augusta, Virginia, held at Augusta town, near Washington, Pennsylvania, 1776–1777". Archive.org. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ "A brief history of Greene County and its courts: a struggle for possession" (PDF).
- ^ Christopher, Joan (December 9, 2005). "Constables for 1771". Pa-roots.org. Archived from the original on August 22, 2016. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ Bauder, Bob (March 10, 2019). "Pittsburgh recognized as starting point for Lewis and Clark expedition". Pittsburgh Tribune Review.
- ^ O'NEILL, BRIAN (May 13, 2018). "Lewis & Clark started here (sorry, St. Louis)". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- ^ a b William J. Switala, Underground Railroad in Pennsylvania, Stackpole Books, 2001, pp. 88-89
- ^ Exhibit: Free at Last? Slavery in Pittsburgh in the 18th and 19th Centuries, 2009, University of Pittsburgh Library
- ^ PRECLÍK, Vratislav. Masaryk a legie (Masaryk and legions), váz. kniha, 219 str., vydalo nakladatelství Paris Karviná, Žižkova 2379 (734 01 Karviná) ve spolupráci s Masarykovým demokratickým hnutím (Masaryk democratic movement, Prague), 2019, ISBN 978-80-87173-47-3,s. 8 - 48, s. 84 - 124, s. 125 - 148, s. 157, s. 164 - 169, s. 170 - 194
- ^ "Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved January 3, 2012.
- ^ Boucher, Amber (February 18, 2003). "Kids' Corner: 1910-30 saw huge black migration". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ Lubove, Roy, ed. Pittsburgh. New York: New Viewpoints, 1976. Print.
- ^ "The Pittsburgh Press – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "The Way We Were". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ Kalson, Sally (November 19, 2003). "Cartoonist draws, fires a blank with Pittsburgh joke". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- ^ Briem, Christopher (December 30, 2011). "More Pittsburgh real estate trends". Nullspace. Retrieved January 1, 2012.
- ^ "US to host next G20 world meeting". BBC News. May 28, 2009. Retrieved May 22, 2010.
- ^ "Level III Ecoregions of Pennsylvania". U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved September 29, 2013.
- ^ Lowry, Patricia (March 16, 2004). "Learning the steps: Pitt researcher fell for city's stairs and has published a book that maps them". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- ^ Bob Regan, Pittsburgh Steps, The Story of the City's Public Stairways, Globe Pequot, ISBN 978-1-4930-1384-5
- ^ "Golden Triangle (Pittsburgh)". Emporis.com. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Neighborhoods". City of Pittsburgh Portal. Archived from the original on June 29, 2007. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- ^ "U.S. Steel Tower, Pittsburgh". Emporis Buildings. Retrieved July 17, 2007.
- ^ "Port Authority Map of Pittsburgh, PA". Pittsburgh Port Authority. Archived from the original on February 21, 2015. Retrieved February 22, 2015.
- ^ Allegheny City: A History of Pittsburgh's North Side by Dan Rooney and Carol Peterson
- ^ "Vintage Map of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 1902 - Ted's Vintage Art". Teds Vintage Art - Buy Historic Art Prints & Wall Decor. Retrieved June 3, 2019.
- ^ O'Neill, Brian (January 8, 2014). "Rising home prices tell Pittsburgh's uplifting story". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- ^ "American Eagle Outfitters Announces Pittsburgh's SouthSide Works Location As New Corporate Headquarters" (Press release). American Eagle Outfitters. October 21, 2005. Archived from the original on July 17, 2012. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Strong: Historic Tribute to a Vibrant Jewish Community". October 29, 2018.
- ^ Young, Virginia Alvino (February 9, 2018). "'Smoketown' Traces The Rise And Fall Of The Other Great Black Renaissance In Pittsburgh". www.wesa.fm. Retrieved February 3, 2020.
- ^ Briem, Christopher (January 2, 2011). "Welcome to Cleveburgh! Pittsburghers need to rethink their place in the world". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 24, 2011.
- ^ Petrucci, Joe (April 11, 2013). "Tracking Dollars Spent, New Map Shows a Divided Pennsylvania". Keystone Edge. Archived from the original on December 17, 2013. Retrieved July 31, 2013.
- ^ Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Patrick, Kevin Joseph (June 28, 2006). Pittsburgh and the Appalachians: cultural and natural resources in a postindustrial age. University of Pittsburgh Pre. ISBN 978-0-8229-4282-5. Retrieved February 3, 2011.
- ^ O'Neill, Brian (2009). The Paris of Appalachia: Pittsburgh in the Twenty-first Century. Carnegie Mellon University Press. ISBN 978-0-88748-509-1. Retrieved May 17, 2010.
- ^ Behe, Regis (March 3, 2006). "Steel city an unlikely haven for writers". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on December 11, 2006. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- ^ Watson, Bruce (December 2, 2010). "America's 11 Best Cities for Telecommuters". DailyFinance. Archived from the original on March 25, 2012. Retrieved February 7, 2011.
- ^ Frankel, Todd (June 6, 2017). "In Pittsburgh, the 'Paris of the Appalachians,' they're not buying Trump's climate talk". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ "Pennsylvania Climate". climate-data.org. Retrieved July 2, 2021.
- ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L. & McMahon, T. A. (2007). "Updated world map of the Köppen-Geiger climate classification". Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 11 (5): 1633–1644. Bibcode:2007HESS...11.1633P. doi:10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007. ISSN 1027-5606.
- ^ Roberts, Michael (July 31, 2013). "Photos: Ten most chill major cities in the summertime -- and where Denver places". Westword. Retrieved March 24, 2020.
- ^ Roehr, Daniel; Fassman-Beck, Elizabeth (March 5, 2015). Living Roofs in Integrated Urban Water Systems. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-317-53703-8.
- ^ "USDA Plant Hardiness Zone Map". usda.gov. Mapping by PRISM Climate Group – Oregon State University. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from the original on February 27, 2014. Retrieved April 14, 2016.
- ^ a b "WMO Climate Normals for PITTSBURGH/GR PITTSBURGH INTL,PA 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved July 19, 2020.
- ^ a b c d e f "NowData - NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Precipitation Records" (PDF). Retrieved May 15, 2020.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Historical Snowfall Totals 1883 to Current". NWS Pittsburgh, PA. Retrieved June 20, 2014.
- ^ "Cloudiness – Mean Number of Days". National Climatic Data Center. August 20, 2008. Archived from the original on February 23, 2003. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- ^ "Station: Pittsburgh INTL AP, PA". U.S. Climate Normals 2020: U.S. Monthly Climate Normals (1991-2020). National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 10, 2021.
- ^ "Average Percent Sunshine through 2009". National Climatic Data Center. Retrieved November 15, 2012.
- ^ "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA - Monthly weather forecast and Climate data". Weather Atlas. Retrieved July 4, 2019.
- ^ "Air Quality in Pittsburgh Metro Area Worsened for both Ozone and Particle Pollution, Finds 2019 'State of the Air' Report". American Lung Association (Press release). April 24, 2019.
- ^ American Lung Association State of the Air 2013 – Most Polluted Cities Archived January 7, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. Stateoftheair.org. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ "Report: Pittsburgh's air quality improving, but still among most polluted", Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Post-gazette.com (April 24, 2013). Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ Heinrichs, Allison. "Region passes L.A. on pollution list". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on May 1, 2008. Retrieved August 10, 2008.
- ^ "8 Northeast states sue over pollution". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Allegheny County and Pittsburgh-New Castle, PA". State of the Air 2011. American Lung Association. 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Air Quality No Longer Worst in U.S." WPXI. April 28, 2010. Archived from the original on September 18, 2012. Retrieved May 7, 2011.
- ^ Biggs, John (June 22, 2016). "Smell PGH lets you report weird smells in Pittsburgh". Tech Crunch. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ Seltenrich, Nate (February 18, 2013). "Tree on the Corner May Be Worth More Than Your House". Next City. Retrieved May 18, 2019.
- ^ Lancianese, Adelina (March 28, 2018). "New Report Finds Industrial Pollution Flowing Illegally into PA Rivers". WESA (FM). Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- ^ "Understanding Sewer Collection System". 3 Rivers Wet Weather. Retrieved May 19, 2019.
- ^ Smeltz, Adam (January 22, 2017). "Peduto forges ahead to restructure PWSA leadership". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- ^ "About the Wet Weather Issue". 3riverswetweather.org. Archived from the original on February 2, 2019. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- ^ "Raw sewage flows into Pittsburgh's rivers. Is there an environmentally friendly fix that won't break the bank?". PublicSource. December 6, 2017. Retrieved April 24, 2018.
- ^ Krauss, M. J. (January 30, 2018). "ALCOSAN More Than Doubling Wastewater Treatment Plant To Diminish Sewage Overflows". Archived from the original on September 26, 2018. Retrieved April 19, 2018.
- ^ Hopey, Don (June 7, 2017). "EPA, Alcosan near agreement on sewage-control plan". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- ^ a b Lindstrom, Natasha (January 18, 2018). "Gov. Wolf to sign bill placing Pittsburgh's water system under PUC oversight". triblive.com. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- ^ Smeltz, Adam (February 3, 2017). "City to turn to advisory panel to study water, sewer issues". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved April 16, 2018.
- ^ "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". Retrieved May 21, 2020.
- ^ "Census of Population and Housing". Census.gov. Retrieved June 4, 2016.
- ^ a b "Pittsburgh (city), Pennsylvania". State & County QuickFacts. U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on May 8, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
- ^ a b c d "Pennsylvania – Race and Hispanic Origin for Selected Cities and Other Places: Earliest Census to 1990". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved May 11, 2012.
- ^ a b From 15% sample
- ^ "Statistics". webcache.googleusercontent.com. March 29, 2009. Archived from the original on January 7, 2010. Retrieved April 12, 2009.
- ^ Wolowyna, Oleh (January 9, 2000). "Demographic, social, cultural characteristics of persons of Ukrainian ancestry in Chicago". The Ukrainian Weekly No. 2, Vol. LXVIII. Retrieved May 16, 2008. (based on 1990 US Census)
- ^ LeMay, Michael C. (December 10, 2012). Transforming America: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration [3 volumes]: Perspectives on U.S. Immigration. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9780313396441.
- ^ a b The Association of Religion Data Archives | Maps & Reports Archived April 12, 2018, at the Wayback Machine. Thearda.com. Retrieved on August 17, 2013.
- ^ The 2017 Greater Pittsburgh Jewish Community Study. Retrieved on December 22, 2019.
- ^ a b "Religious Landscape Study". Pew Research Center. November 3, 2020.
- ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: American Community Survey (ACS): Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed a Bachelor's Degree: Population 25 years and over (Place level)". Census.gov. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on December 12, 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
- ^ "U.S. Census Bureau: American Community Survey (ACS): Percent of People 25 Years and Over Who Have Completed High School (Including Equivalency): Population 25 years and over (Place level)". Census.gov. August 22, 2007. Archived from the original on September 8, 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
- ^ Logan, John R.; Stults, Brian J. (March 24, 2011). The Persistence of Segregation in the Metropolis: New Findings from the 2010 Census (PDF) (Report). Project US2010. Retrieved July 24, 2012.
- ^ About Our Region Pittsburgh Technology Council Archived March 27, 2014, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Bobkoff, Dan (December 16, 2010). "From Steel To Tech, Pittsburgh Transforms Itself". NPR. Retrieved December 21, 2010.
- ^ Chetty, Raj; Hendren, Nathaniel; Kline, Patrick; Saez, Emmanuel (January 2014). "Where Is The Land of Opportunity? The Geography of Intergenerational Mobility in the United States". NBER Working Paper Series. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper (Working Paper 19843): 67. doi:10.3386/w19843. Archived (PDF) from the original on February 2, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- ^ Scully, M.S. (January 24, 2014). "Pittsburgh #2: Top 10 cities to achieve the American Dream". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on January 27, 2014. Retrieved January 27, 2014.
- ^ "Bakery Square at Eastside, Pittsburgh :: Commercial, Residential Hotel Development". Walnut Capital and RCG Longview Fund. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- ^ Moore, Andrew (December 8, 2010). "It's a beautiful day in this neighborhood: growing in Pittsburgh". The Official Google Blog. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- ^ Erdley, Debra. "Irish view Pittsburgh's comeback as their pot of gold". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved June 3, 2011.
- ^ Foster, Lionel (February 21, 2013). "What Steel City can teach Charm City". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved July 17, 2013.
- ^ Miller, Harold D. (December 5, 2010). "Pittsburgh's Future: Thank Seniors for Helping Us Get Through the Recession". Pittsburgh's Future: Making Southwestern Pennsylvania One of the World's Greatest Regions. Retrieved December 8, 2010.
- ^ "Fortune 500". Fortune. Retrieved June 19, 2016.
- ^ "Top Private Employers". Pittsburgh Regional Alliance. Archived from the original on October 10, 2006. Retrieved April 14, 2007.
- ^ "Fortune 500 2010". Fortune. April 15, 2010.
- ^ "2006 Mayor's Challenge: Where Are The Best Metros For Future Business Locations?". Expansion Magazine. August 7, 2006. Archived from the original on May 23, 2012.
- ^ Chatsko, Maxx. (February 6, 2013) Will the Dreamliner Ground Pittsburgh's Economy? (AA, ATI, BA, PPG, RTI). Fool.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ Administrator. "Arts & Economic Prosperity III – Greater Pittsburgh Arts Council". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ a b c
- You saw it here first: Pittsburgh's Nickelodeon introduced the moving picture theater to the masses in 1905 Timothy McNulty Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (June 19, 2005)
- Pittsburgh reinvents itself as the new Hollywood Alisha Hipwell CNN Money (August 7, 2012)
- 31st Street Studios in the Strip District wants to be L.A. East Maria Sciullo Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (March 4, 2012)
- Is Pittsburgh the New Hollywood? Fox Business (February 29, 2012)
- 4-star film studio coming to Strip District, Ann Rodgers Pittsburgh Post-Gazette (February 28, 2012)
- How Pittsburgh landed 'The Dark Knight Rises' Hillary Busis Entertainment Weekly (December 7, 2012)
- Operated by Gateway Entertainment Studios L.P., Marisa Murphy, 31st Street Studios
- Lights, cameras ... : Action at a new studio keeps Pittsburgh on film Post-Gazette (March 4, 2012)
- Pa. film studio to feature 'Avatar' technology CBS News (February 28, 2012)
- Pittsburgh filmography, Internet Movie Database|IMDb
Pittsburgh Film Office filmography
- Is Pittsburgh The New Hollywood?, Melissa Rayworth Pittsburgh Magazine (January, 2011)
- ^ Riely, Kaitlynn. "Invention convention INPEX gathers in Pittsburgh". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- ^ Eberson, Sharon (May 26, 2013). "Pittsburgh's ToonSeum eager to expand". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- ^ Mackinnon, Kim Foley (January 28, 2009). "10 Top Natural History Museums". TravelMuse.com. Retrieved May 26, 2013.
- ^ "'Furries' leave visible prints Downtown and in Pittsburgh's coffers – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Lifetime's reality show, Dance Moms, is filmed at Pittsburgh's Abby Lee Dance Company.
- ^ Wiz Khalifa "Black & Yellow" Hits Number One. Rap Radar (February 10, 2011). Retrieved on January 14, 2012.
- ^ We Found Love Rihanna Featuring Calvin Harris. Billboard.com
- ^ "Mr. Smalls".
- ^ Caulfield, Keith. "Mac Miller Debuts at No. 1 on Billboard 200". Billboard Biz. Archived from the original on July 4, 2014. Retrieved October 19, 2014.
- ^ a b Matos, Michaelangelo (July 11, 2011). "How The Internet Transformed The American Rave Scene". The Record. NPR. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ a b c Kelly, Justin (2018). "Hot Mass: Rebuilding Pittsburgh's Dance Music Culture". Attack Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Pro, Johnna A. (September 26, 2000). "Police out to crash drug-laced 'rave' parties". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Barnes, Tom (January 9, 2001). "S. Siders raving over rink's late parties: Sleep-starved residents giving Ricciardi an earful". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Silver, Jonathan D.; Barnes, Tom (January 3, 2001). "Word of rave performance resulted in added police". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Carter, Kelly (October 3, 2000). "Nonprogressive portrayals - Letters to the editor". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ "How America's Standout Party Hot Mass Is Changing Pittsburgh". Electronic Beats. February 3, 2016. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Stolman, Elissa (April 16, 2014). "The Secret Techno Sex Parties of Pittsburgh". Thump. Vice Media. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Kim, Michelle (October 14, 2020). "How Yaeji Found Her Voice". Mixmag Asia. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ Posner, Nina (October 1, 2020). "Yaeji: All Together Now". Crack Magazine. Retrieved March 10, 2021.
- ^ "Rachel Louise Carson". Pabook.libraries.psu.edu. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ^ Sherman, Jerome L. (December 16, 2006). "Presidential biographer gets presidential medal". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 8, 2008.
- ^ Hayes, John (October 11, 1998). "The write stuff". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "Welcome to Chiller Theater Memories!". Chillertheatermemories.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "SAVINI.COM: The Official Tom Savini Home page". Savini.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "PARSEC: Pittsburgh's Premiere Science Fiction Organization". Parsec-sff.org. November 5, 2006. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "Revenant: The Premiere Zombie Magazine – Features". Revenantmagazine.com. Archived from the original on May 12, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "Write or Die: A Science Fiction & Fantasy Writing Group". Word.pghfree.net. January 1, 2010. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ "Pittsburgh South Writes Homepage". Interzone.com. Archived from the original on October 25, 2007. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Worldwrights". Cs.cmu.edu. May 27, 2005. Archived from the original on April 20, 1999. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ Rodger Turner, Webmaster. "The SF Site: A Conversation With Mary Soon Lee". Sfsite.com. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "Pittsburgh". The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press. 2012. ISBN 978-0199734962.
- ^ Phillips, Jenn; Oberlin, Loriann Hoff; Pattak, Evan M.; Margittai, Michele (May 2008). Insiders' Guide to Pittsburgh (4th ed.). p. 4. ISBN 978-0762747962.
- ^ "Pittsburgh named 2019 Food City by hospitality consulting firm". www.bizjournals.com. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
- ^ "Here's how Pittsburgh has earned the title of 2019 Food City of the Year". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 24, 2019.
- ^ "History". pittsburghspeech.pitt.edu. Retrieved October 19, 2018.
- ^ Sultan, Tim (March 17, 2006). "It's Not the Sights, It's the Sounds". The New York Times. Archived from the original on January 9, 2007. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- ^ "Overview". Pittsburgh Speech and Society. Retrieved August 14, 2007.
- ^ Majors, Dan (April 26, 2007). "Pittsburgh rated 'most livable' once again". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette.
- ^ Percha, Julie (February 22, 2011). "Move over, Honolulu; Pittsburgh's No. 1 in U.S." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 22, 2011.
- ^ Carpenter, Mackenzie (June 10, 2009). "Pittsburgh ranked tops in U.S. by The Economist". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 10, 2009.
- ^ America's Most Livable Cities. Forbes.com (April 29, 2010). Retrieved on January 14, 2012.
- ^ "America's Most Livable Cities 2010 –". Yahoo! Real Estate. Archived from the original on May 7, 2010. Retrieved January 14, 2012.
- ^ Smydo, Joe (June 8, 2010). "Pittsburgh named 7th best place to raise a family". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 4, 2010.
- ^ Casserly, Meghan (July 26, 2010). "The Best Cities For Working Mothers, 2010". Forbes.
- ^ Ankeny, Jason. (July 20, 2010) Innovation Nation. Entrepreneur.com. Retrieved on January 14, 2012. Archived January 17, 2012, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Malone, Robert (April 16, 2007). "World's Cleanest Cities". Forbes.
- ^ "Move over, Honolulu; Pittsburgh's No. 1 in U.S." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 22, 2011.
- ^ "World's most livable city is ..." CNN. August 15, 2012. Retrieved December 7, 2013.
- ^ "The Economist names Pittsburgh the Most Livable City (on the mainland) again – NEXTpittsburgh". NEXTpittsburgh. August 25, 2014. Retrieved June 8, 2016.
- ^ Smith, Nancy F. (March 8, 2012). "The 10 Best Places to Retire". Finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- ^ Brandon, Emily (October 17, 2011). "The 10 Best Places to Retire in 2012". Money.usnews.com. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved January 16, 2013.
- ^ 10 Unexpectedly Romantic Cities. Forbes. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ Dill, Kathryn. "Best cities and neighborhoods for millennials", Forbes, April 14, 2014. Retrieved on April 22, 2014.
- ^ "Rent Jungle Statistics". Retrieved October 18, 2010.
- ^ Visit Pittsburgh, Frick Park, Pittsburgh, PA, 2015 version. Accessed November 16, 2015.
- ^ Greenburg, Zack O'Malley (October 26, 2009). "Full List: America's Safest Cities". Forbes. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- ^ a b c Puko, Tim (May 17, 2010). "Huge flood-control cost, planning mess put Southwestern Pennsylvania in bind – Pittsburgh Tribune-Review". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on May 20, 2010. Retrieved December 1, 2010.
- ^ Stephenson, Philip A. (September 15, 2005). "Damage repaired, trauma remains after 2004 floods". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 28, 2009.
- ^ Anderson, R.M.; Beer, K.M.; Buckwalter, T.F.; Clark, M.E.; McAuley, S.D.; Sams, J.I. III; Williams, D.R. (2000). "Water Quality in the Allegheny and Monongahela River Basins Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and Maryland, 1996–98". U.S. Geological Survey Circular (1202).
- ^ Barcousky, Len (March 17, 2011). "Two recall encountering Pittsburgh's historic 1936 flood". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 17, 2011.
- ^ Hille, Bob (October 6, 2009). "Black & Gold mettle: Pittsburgh is Best Sports City – Bob Hille – College Basketball – Sporting News". Sporting News. Retrieved July 12, 2010.
- ^ Pittsburgh Among Top Baseball Cities – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Post-gazette.com (February 19, 2013). Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ Wilson, Aaron (November 21, 2012). "Ray Rice said he wasn't being disrespectful to Steelers' Terrible Towel, apologizes". The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "TRAIL INFO - About the Trail - GREAT ALLEGHENY PASSAGE". gaptrail.org. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- ^ "Best Pittsburgh Mountain Biking Spots". August 20, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- ^ "Hartwood Acres". Trail Pittsburgh. Retrieved July 16, 2019.
- ^ Caple, Jim. "Pittsburgh's gem rates the best". ESPN. Retrieved July 9, 2008.
- ^ Perrotto, John (August 14, 2006). "Baseball Plog". Beaver County Times.
- ^ "1997 Pennant Races". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Steelers Owner: Art Rooney net worth, political donations - Sports Illustrated". www.si.com. Retrieved October 9, 2020.
- ^ "ESPN ranks Steelers fans No. 1". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. August 30, 2008. Archived from the original on October 8, 2008. Retrieved August 30, 2008.
- ^ Rossi, Rob (August 20, 2010). "Pittsburgh Power unveiled as arena football expansion team". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Archived from the original on August 23, 2010. Retrieved August 20, 2010.
- ^ "Mellon Arena roof may open for final show".
- ^ Grant, Tim (November 30, 2015). "Pittsburgh loves ice skating, but how many rinks might prove too many?". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- ^ Regular Season Records: Field GoalsArchived July 24, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. NBA.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ See page 67 of the NCAA Men's College Basketball Records (PDF file)
- ^ "NBA Number 1 Draft Picks Since 1947". www.landofbasketball.com. Retrieved January 10, 2021.
- ^ NBA's Color Line Is Broken Archived March 20, 2015, at the Wayback Machine. NBA.com. Retrieved on July 17, 2013.
- ^ Horrow, Richard B., editor Burton, Rick, editor (2020). The sport business handbook : insights from 100+ leaders who shaped 50 years of the industry. Human Kinetics. ISBN 978-1-4925-4310-7. OCLC 1102593197.
- ^ Shedloski, Dave. "What He Means To Me". Golf Digest. ZergNet. Retrieved March 8, 2018.
- ^ "Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania – Transatlantic Cities Network". The German Marshall Fund of the United States. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved May 6, 2009.
- ^ Schocker, Laura (December 18, 2013). "What Pittsburgh Can Teach The Rest of the Country About Living Well". The Huffington Post.
- ^ "Caution Against Ranking". FBI. Retrieved August 8, 2012.
- ^ "A Word About UCR Data". FBI. Archived from the original on September 23, 2010. Retrieved October 12, 2010.
- ^ "Pittsburgh homicides hit lowest in 20 years". Pittsburgh Tribune Live.
- ^ a b "National Universities: Top Schools". US News & World Report. 2013. Retrieved January 2, 2014.
- ^ "Top Public Schools". Archived from the original on March 3, 2016. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ Hart, Peter (August 30, 2007). "University Times". Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved May 23, 2008.
- ^ Leiter, Brian (November 10, 2006). "Welcome to the 2006–2008 Philosophical Gourmet Report". Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- ^ Gill, Cindy (Fall 2007). "The Company We Keep". Pitt. University of Pittsburgh. Archived from the original on January 14, 2008. Retrieved April 29, 2008.
- ^ Hart, Peter (April 5, 2007). "U.S. News ranks Pitt grad schools". University Times. Archived from the original on January 11, 2009. Retrieved March 24, 2008.
- ^ "Chatham University prepares for its first coed undergraduate class".
- ^ "Pittsburgh Public Schools to pay new teachers more, scrap performance-based pay | TribLIVE.com". archive.triblive.com. Retrieved April 26, 2019.
- ^ "Nation's Largest Libraries". LibrarySpot. Retrieved October 21, 2007.
- ^ Holmes, Gary. Nielsen Reports 1.1% increase in U.S. Television Households for the 2006–2007 Season Archived January 20, 2017, at the Wayback Machine. Nielsen Media Research. August 23, 2006. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.
- ^ Hoover, Bob; Kalson, Sally; Vancheri, Barbara. "WQED at 50: Born in television's Golden Age, Pittsburgh's public broadcasting station pioneered educational programming." Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. March 28, 2004. Retrieved on January 26, 2008.
- ^ "KDKA, First Commercial Radio Station." IEEE Global History Network. Retrieved on January 26, 2008. Archived February 11, 2015, at the Wayback Machine
- ^ McNulty, Timothy (March 2, 2008). "Film workers here straining to keep up with four movies". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 12, 2011.
- ^ a b c d e f Purvey, Lee (September 1, 2013). "A look at movie locations around Pittsburgh | Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ Eberson, Sharon (January 5, 2017). "'Fences' film shoot generated $9.4 million for Pittsburgh businesses, hires". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. PG Publishing Co., Inc. Retrieved January 5, 2017.
- ^ Beaver, William (1987). "Duquesne Light and Shippingport: Nuclear Power Is Born in Western Pennsylvania". The Western Pennsylvania Historical Magazine. 70: 339–58.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority – Home". Pittsburgh Water and Sewer Authority. Archived from the original on May 16, 2010. Retrieved November 19, 2010.
- ^ "PUC – Natural Gas Suppliers List". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ Society, Ingram Historical (August 1, 2007). Ingram. ISBN 9780738549934. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "UPMC Hospitals". Archived from the original on February 23, 2012. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette – News Links". Post-gazette.com. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ "The Pittsburgh Press – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ Altman, Lawrence K. (December 15, 1995). "Man Gets Baboon Marrow in Risky AIDS Treatment". The New York Times. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 22, 2012. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- ^ "Superhero Window Washers Video". Abcnews.go.com. Retrieved May 24, 2016.
- ^ "Home – Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Archived from the original on July 5, 2012.
- ^ "Pitt's medical school to help Nazarbayev University in Kazakhstan develop its own". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Pittsburgh Post-Gazette". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Observer-Reporter – Google News Archive Search". Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on January 12, 2016. Retrieved February 5, 2016.
- ^ "Pitt team inserts computer chip in brain so a person's thoughts can instigate motion". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Pittsburgh has Plenty of Bridges". KDKA-TV. June 16, 2006. Archived from the original on November 21, 2009. Retrieved July 8, 2009.
- ^ "Bridges of Venice". Archived from the original on July 7, 2011. Retrieved April 6, 2010.. abridgetovenezia.com
- ^ "Bruce S. Cridlebaugh's website: Bridges and Tunnels of Allegheny County and Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". Pghbridges.com. August 11, 2004. Retrieved April 11, 2009.
- ^ "Pittsburgh, PA Public Transportation Statistics". Global Public Transit Index by Moovit. Retrieved June 19, 2017. Material was copied from this source, which is available under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
- ^ a b c d "TRAFFIC: Prep work underway for Parkway North construction project". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved March 28, 2017.
- ^ "Discover Pittsburgh's Neighborhoods".
- ^ "Pittsburgh ranked eighth among large cities for commuting without cars". TribLIVE.com. Retrieved June 11, 2015.
- ^ "Largest Transit Agencies" (PDF). American Public Transportation Association. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 27, 2007. Retrieved July 6, 2007.
- ^ "Duquesne Incline, historic cable car railway serving commuters and tourists since 1877, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania". Incline.pghfree.net. October 14, 2008. Retrieved January 5, 2009.
- ^ "U.S. PORT RANKING BY CARGO VOLUME 2011 : Short Tons : Foreign Trade" (PDF). Aapa.files.cms-plus.com\accessdate=2016-05-24.
- ^ "Our Sister Cities". sistercitiespgh.org. Sister Cities Association of Pittsburgh. Retrieved May 19, 2021.
- Allen Dieterich-Ward, Beyond Rust: Metropolitan Pittsburgh and the Fate of Industrial America (U of Pennsylvania Press, 2016). viii, 347 pp.
- Kenneth J. Kobus, City of Steel: How Pittsburgh Became the World's Steelmaking Capital During the Carnegie Era. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield, 2015.
- Charles McCollester, The Point of Pittsburgh: Production and Struggle at the Forks of the Ohio. Pittsburgh, PA: Battle of Homestead Foundation, 2008.
Last edited on 21 July 2021, at 21:42
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.