It may be used positively in the context of a "political solution" which is compromising and non-violent,
or descriptively as "the art or science of government", but also often carries a negative connotation.
For example, abolitionist Wendell Phillips
declared that "we do not play politics; anti-slavery
is no half-jest with us."
The concept has been defined in various ways, and different approaches have fundamentally differing views on whether it should be used extensively or limitedly, empirically or normatively, and on whether conflict or co-operation is more essential to it.
A variety of methods are deployed in politics, which include promoting one's own political views among people, negotiation
with other political subjects, making laws
, and exercising force
, including warfare
Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans
of traditional societies, through modern local governments
and institutions up to sovereign states
, to the international level
. In modern nation states
, people often form political parties
to represent their ideas. Members of a party often agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election
is usually a competition between different parties.
The English politics
has its roots in the name of Aristotle
's classic work, Politiká
, which introduced the Greek
, 'affairs of the cities').
In the mid-15th century, Aristotle's composition would be rendered in Early Modern English
which would become Politics
in Modern English
The singular politic
first attested in English in 1430, coming from Middle French politique
—itself taking from politicus
of the Greek πολιτικός
) from πολίτης (polites
, 'citizen') and πόλις (polis
For David Easton
, it is about "the authoritative allocation of values for a society."
argued that "politics is a distinctive form of rule whereby people act together through institutionalized procedures to resolve differences, to conciliate diverse interests and values and to make public policies in the pursuit of common purposes."
Politics comprises all the activities of co-operation, negotiation and conflict within and between societies, whereby people go about organizing the use, production or distribution of human, natural and other resources in the course of the production and reproduction of their biological and social life.
There are several ways in which approaching politics has been conceptualized.
Extensive and limited
has differentiated views of politics based on how extensive or limited their perception of what accounts as 'political' is.
The extensive view sees politics as present across the sphere of human social relations, while the limited view restricts it to certain contexts. For example, in a more restrictive way, politics may be viewed as primarily about governance
while a feminist perspective
could argue that sites which have been viewed traditionally as non-political, should indeed be viewed as political as well.
This latter position is encapsulated in the slogan the personal is political
, which disputes the distinction between private and public issues. Instead, politics may be defined by the use of power, as has been argued by Robert A. Dahl
Moralism and realism
Some perspectives on politics view it empirically as an exercise of power, while others see it as a social function with a normative
This distinction has been called the difference between political moralism
and political realism.
For moralists, politics is closely linked to ethics
, and is at its extreme in utopian
For example, according to Hannah Arendt
, the view of Aristotle
was that "to be political…meant that everything was decided through words and persuasion and not through violence;"
while according to Bernard Crick
"[p]olitics is the way in which free societies are governed. Politics is politics and other forms of rule are something else."
In contrast, for realists, represented by those such as Niccolò Machiavelli
, Thomas Hobbes
, and Harold Lasswell
, politics is based on the use of power, irrespective of the ends being pursued.
Conflict and co-operation
argues that politics essentially comes down to conflict between conflicting interests. Political scientist Elmer Schattschneider argued that "at the root of all politics is the universal language of conflict,"
while for Carl Schmitt
the essence of politics is the distinction of 'friend' from foe'.
This is in direct contrast to the more co-operative views of politics by Aristotle and Crick. However, a more mixed view between these extremes is provided by Irish political scientist Michael Laver, who noted that:
Politics is about the characteristic blend of conflict and co-operation that can be found so often in human interactions. Pure conflict is war. Pure co-operation is true love. Politics is a mixture of both.
Frans de Waal
argued that already chimpanzees
engage in politics through "social manipulation to secure and maintain influential positions."
Early human forms of social organization—bands and tribes—lacked centralized political structures.
These are sometimes referred to as stateless societies
There are a number of different theories and hypotheses regarding early state formation that seek generalizations to explain why the state developed in some places but not others. Other scholars believe that generalizations are unhelpful and that each case of early state formation should be treated on its own.
contend that diverse groups of people came together to form states as a result of some shared rational interest.
The theories largely focus on the development of agriculture, and the population and organizational pressure that followed and resulted in state formation. One of the most prominent theories of early and primary state formation is the hydraulic hypothesis
, which contends that the state was a result of the need to build and maintain large-scale irrigation projects.
of state formation regard conflict and dominance of some population over another population as key to the formation of states.
In contrast with voluntary theories, these arguments believe that people do not voluntarily agree to create a state to maximize benefits, but that states form due to some form of oppression by one group over others. Some theories in turn argue that warfare was critical for state formation.
Although state-forms existed before the rise of the Ancient Greek empire, the Greeks were the first people known to have explicitly formulated a political philosophy of the state, and to have rationally analyzed political institutions. Prior to this, states were described and justified in terms of religious myths.
Women voter outreach (1935)
The Peace of Westphalia
(1648) is considered by political scientists
to be the beginning of the modern international system,
in which external powers should avoid interfering in another country's domestic affairs.
The principle of non-interference in other countries' domestic affairs was laid out in the mid-18th century by Swiss jurist Emer de Vattel
States became the primary institutional agents in an interstate system of relations. The Peace of Westphalia is said to have ended attempts to impose supranational authority on European states. The "Westphalian" doctrine of states as independent agents was bolstered by the rise in 19th century thought of nationalism
, under which legitimate states
were assumed to correspond to nations
—groups of people united by language and culture.
, during the 18th century, the classic non-national states were the multinational empires
: the Austrian Empire
, Kingdom of France
, Kingdom of Hungary
the Russian Empire
, the Spanish Empire
, the Ottoman Empire
, and the British Empire
. Such empires also existed in Asia, Africa, and the Americas; in the Muslim world
, immediately after the death of Muhammad
in 632, Caliphates
were established, which developed into multi-ethnic trans-national empires.
The multinational empire was an absolute monarchy
ruled by a king, emperor
. The population belonged to many ethnic groups, and they spoke many languages. The empire was dominated by one ethnic group, and their language was usually the language of public administration. The ruling dynasty
was usually, but not always, from that group. Some of the smaller European states were not so ethnically diverse, but were also dynastic
states, ruled by a royal house
. A few of the smaller states survived, such as the independent principalities of Liechtenstein
, and the republic of San Marino
Most theories see the nation state as a 19th-century European phenomenon, facilitated by developments such as state-mandated education, mass literacy
, and mass media
. However, historians[who?]
also note the early emergence of a relatively unified state and identity in Portugal
and the Dutch Republic
Scholars such as Steven Weber
, David Woodward
, Michel Foucault
, and Jeremy Black
have advanced the hypothesis that the nation state did not arise out of political ingenuity or an unknown undetermined source, nor was it an accident of history or political invention.
Rather, the nation state is an inadvertent byproduct of 15th-century intellectual discoveries in political economy
, political geography
, and geography
combined together with cartography
and advances in map-making technologies
The study of politics is called political science
, or politology
. It comprises numerous subfields, including comparative politics
, political economy
, international relations
, political philosophy
, public administration
, public policy
, gender and politics
, and political methodology
. Furthermore, political science is related to, and draws upon, the fields of economics
, and neurosciences
is the science of comparison and teaching of different types of constitutions
, political actors, legislature and associated fields, all of them from an intrastate perspective. International relations
deals with the interaction between nation-states
as well as intergovernmental and transnational organizations. Political philosophy
is more concerned with contributions of various classical and contemporary thinkers and philosophers.
Political science is methodologically diverse and appropriates many methods originating in psychology
, social research
, and cognitive neuroscience
. Approaches include positivism
, rational choice theory
, and pluralism
. Political science, as one of the social sciences
, uses methods and techniques that relate to the kinds of inquiries sought: primary sources such as historical documents and official records, secondary sources such as scholarly journal articles, survey
research, statistical analysis
, case studies
, experimental research
, and model building.
Systems view of politics.
The political system defines the process for making official government
decisions. It is usually compared to the legal system
, economic system
, cultural system
, and other social systems
. According to David Easton
, "A political system can be designated as the interactions through which values are authoritatively allocated for a society."
Each political system is embedded in a society with its own political culture, and they in turn shape their societies through public policy
. The interactions between different political systems are the basis for global politics
Forms of government
Source of power
Oligarchy is a power structure where a minority rules. These may be in the form of anocracy
, or timocracy
The pathway of regional integration or separation
A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity
characterized by a union
of partially self-governing provinces, states, or other regions
under a central federal government
). In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states, as well as the division of power between them and the central government, is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of either party, the states or the federal political body. Federations were formed first in Switzerland, then in the United States in 1776, in Canada in 1867 and in Germany in 1871 and in 1901, Australia
. Compared to a federation
, a confederation
has less centralized power.
All the above forms of government are variations of the same basic polity
, the sovereign state
. The state
has been defined by Max Weber
as a political entity that has monopoly on violence
within its territory, while the Montevideo Convention
holds that states need to have a defined territory; a permanent population; a government; and a capacity to enter into international relations.
A stateless society is a society
that is not governed
by a state
In stateless societies, there is little concentration
; most positions of authority that do exist are very limited in power
and are generally not permanently held positions; and social bodies that resolve disputes through predefined rules tend to be small.
Stateless societies are highly variable in economic organization and cultural practices.
are written documents that specify and limit the powers of the different branches of government. Although a constitution is a written document, there is also an unwritten constitution. The unwritten constitution is continually being written by the legislative and judiciary branch of government; this is just one of those cases in which the nature of the circumstances determines the form of government that is most appropriate.
England did set the fashion of written constitutions during the Civil War
but after the Restoration
abandoned them to be taken up later by the American Colonies
after their emancipation
and then France
after the Revolution
and the rest of Europe including the European colonies.
describes how culture
impacts politics. Every political system
is embedded in a particular political culture. Lucian Pye
's definition is that "Political culture is the set of attitudes, beliefs, and sentiments, which give order and meaning to a political process and which provide the underlying assumptions and rules that govern behavior in the political system".
is a major factor in political culture, as its level determines the capacity of the state to function. Postmaterialism
is the degree to which a political culture is concerned with issues which are not of immediate physical or material concern, such as human rights
has also an impact on political culture.
Political corruption is the use of powers for illegitimate private gain, conducted by government officials or their network contacts. Forms of political corruption include bribery
, and political patronage
. Forms of political patronage, in turn, includes clientelism
, pork barreling
, slush funds
, and spoils systems
; as well as political machines
, which is a political system that operates for corrupt ends.
Levels of politics
Macropolitics can either describe political issues that affect an entire political system (e.g. the nation state
), or refer to interactions between political systems (e.g. international relations
Global politics (or world politics) covers all aspects of politics that affect multiple political systems, in practice meaning any political phenomenon crossing national borders. This can include cities
, nation-states, multinational corporations
, non-governmental organizations
, and/or international organizations
. An important element is international relations: the relations between nation-states may be peaceful when they are conducted through diplomacy
, or they may be violent, which is described as war
. States that are able to exert strong international influence are referred to as superpowers
, whereas less-powerful ones may be called regional
or middle powers
. The international system of power
is called the world order
, which is affected by the balance of power
that defines the degree of polarity
in the system. Emerging powers
are potentially destabilizing to it, especially if they display revanchism
Micropolitics describes the actions of individual actors within the political system.
This is often described as political participation
Political participation may take many forms, including:
Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes. The uncertainty of outcomes is inherent in democracy. Democracy makes all forces struggle repeatedly to realize their interests and devolves power from groups of people to sets of rules.
Among modern political theorists, there are three contending conceptions of democracy: aggregative
, and radical
The theory of aggregative democracy
claims that the aim of the democratic processes is to solicit the preferences of citizens, and aggregate them together to determine what social policies the society should adopt. Therefore, proponents of this view hold that democratic participation should primarily focus on voting
, where the policy with the most votes gets implemented.
Different variants of aggregative democracy exist. Under minimalism
, democracy is a system of government in which citizens have given teams of political leaders the right to rule in periodic elections. According to this minimalist conception, citizens cannot and should not "rule" because, for example, on most issues, most of the time, they have no clear views or their views are not well-founded. Joseph Schumpeter
articulated this view most famously in his book Capitalism, Socialism, and Democracy
Contemporary proponents of minimalism include William H. Riker
, Adam Przeworski
, Richard Posner
According to the theory of direct democracy
, on the other hand, citizens should vote directly, not through their representatives, on legislative proposals. Proponents of direct democracy offer varied reasons to support this view. Political activity can be valuable in itself, it socializes and educates citizens, and popular participation can check powerful elites. Most importantly, citizens do not rule themselves unless they directly decide laws and policies.
Governments will tend to produce laws and policies that are close to the views of the median voter—with half to their left and the other half to their right. This is not a desirable outcome as it represents the action of self-interested and somewhat unaccountable political elites competing for votes. Anthony Downs
suggests that ideological political parties are necessary to act as a mediating broker between individual and governments. Downs laid out this view in his 1957 book An Economic Theory of Democracy
Robert A. Dahl
argues that the fundamental democratic principle is that, when it comes to binding collective decisions, each person in a political community is entitled to have his/her interests be given equal consideration (not necessarily that all people are equally satisfied by the collective decision). He uses the term polyarchy
to refer to societies in which there exists a certain set of institutions and procedures which are perceived as leading to such democracy. First and foremost among these institutions is the regular occurrence of free and open elections
which are used to select representatives who then manage all or most of the public policy of the society. However, these polyarchic procedures may not create a full democracy if, for example, poverty prevents political participation.
Similarly, Ronald Dworkin
argues that "democracy is a substantive, not a merely procedural, ideal."
is based on the notion that democracy is government by deliberation
. Unlike aggregative democracy, deliberative democracy holds that, for a democratic decision to be legitimate, it must be preceded by authentic deliberation, not merely the aggregation of preferences that occurs in voting. Authentic deliberation
is deliberation among decision-makers that is free from distortions of unequal political power, such as power a decision-maker obtained through economic wealth or the support of interest groups.
If the decision-makers cannot reach consensus
after authentically deliberating on a proposal, then they vote on the proposal using a form of majority rule.
Radical democracy is based on the idea that there are hierarchical and oppressive power relations that exist in society. Democracy's role is to make visible and challenge those relations by allowing for difference, dissent and antagonisms in decision-making processes.
Three axis model of political ideologies with both moderate and radical versions and the goals of their policies
Equality is a state of affairs in which all people within a specific society
or isolated group have the same social status
, especially socioeconomic status
, including protection of human rights
, and equal access to certain social goods
and social services
. Furthermore, it may also include health equality
, economic equality
and other social securities
. Social equality requires the absence of legally enforced social class
boundaries and the absence of discrimination
motivated by an inalienable part of a person's identity. To this end there must be equal justice under law
, and equal opportunity
regardless of, for example, sex, gender, ethnicity, age, sexual orientation, origin, caste
or class, income or property, language, religion, convictions, opinions, health or disability.
In contrast, the right is generally motivated by conservatism
, which seeks to conserve what it sees as the important elements of society. The far-right
goes beyond this, and often represents a reactionary
turn against progress, seeking to undo it. Examples of such ideologies have included Fascism
. The center-right
may be less clear-cut and more mixed in this regard, with neoconservatives
supporting the spread of democracy, and one-nation conservatives
more open to social welfare programs.
According to Norberto Bobbio
, one of the major exponents of this distinction, the left believes in attempting to eradicate social inequality—believing it to be unethical or unnatural,
while the right regards most social inequality as the result of ineradicable natural inequalities, and sees attempts to enforce social equality as utopian or authoritarian.
Some ideologies, notably Christian Democracy
, claim to combine left and right-wing politics; according to Geoffrey K. Roberts and Patricia Hogwood, "In terms of ideology, Christian Democracy has incorporated many of the views held by liberals, conservatives and socialists within a wider framework of moral and Christian principles."
Movements which claim or formerly claimed to be above the left-right divide include Fascist Terza Posizione
economic politics in Italy and Peronism
Authoritarianism and libertarianism
For instance, classical liberalism
(also known as laissez-faire liberalism
is a doctrine stressing individual freedom and limited government
. This includes the importance of human rationality, individual property rights
, free markets
, natural rights
, the protection of civil liberties
, constitutional limitation of government, and individual freedom from restraint as exemplified in the writings of John Locke
, Adam Smith
, David Hume
, David Ricardo
and others. According to the libertarian Institute for Humane Studies
, "the libertarian, or 'classical liberal,' perspective is that individual well-being, prosperity, and social harmony are fostered by 'as much liberty as possible' and 'as little government as necessary.'"
For anarchist political philosopher L. Susan Brown
(1993), "liberalism and anarchism
are two political philosophies that are fundamentally concerned with individual freedom
yet differ from one another in very distinct ways. Anarchism shares with liberalism a radical commitment to individual freedom while rejecting liberalism's competitive property relations."
"The book of Etiques and of Polettiques [sic
]" (Bhuler 1961/1941:154).
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