Politics of Australia
See also: Government of Australia
It has been suggested that portions of Australian Government be split from it and merged into this article. (Discuss) (October 2020)
The politics of Australia take place within the framework of a federal parliamentary​constitutional monarchy. Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political system under its Constitution, one of the world's oldest, since Federation in 1901. Australia is the world's sixth oldest continuous democracy and largely operates as a two-party system in which voting is compulsory.[1][2] The Economist Intelligence Unit rated Australia a "full democracy" in 2019.[3][needs update] Australia is also a federation, where power is divided between the federal government and the states and territories.
Politics of Australia

Coat of arms
Polity typeFederal parliamentary​constitutional monarchy
ConstitutionConstitution of Australia
Formation1 January 1901
Legislative branch
Meeting placeParliament House
Upper house
Presiding officerScott Ryan, President
Lower house
NameHouse of Representatives
Presiding officerTony Smith, Speaker
Executive branch
Head of State
TitleMonarch represented by Governor-General
CurrentlyElizabeth II represented by David Hurley
Head of Government
TitlePrime Minister
CurrentlyScott Morrison
NameCabinet of the Federal Executive Council
Current cabinetSecond Morrison Ministry
LeaderPrime Minister
Deputy leaderDeputy Prime Minister
Judicial branch
CourtsCourts of Australia
High Court
The federal government is separated into three branches:
The Australian system of government combines elements derived from the political systems of the United Kingdom (fused executive, constitutional monarchy) and the United States (federalism, written constitution, strong bicameralism), along with distinctive indigenous features, and has therefore been characterised as a "Washminster mutation".[5]
Main articles: Parliament of Australia, Australian Senate, and Australian House of Representatives
Parliament House, Canberra.
The Parliament of Australia, also known as the Commonwealth Parliament or Federal Parliament, is the legislative branch of the government of Australia. It is bicameral, and has been influenced both by the Westminster system and United States federalism. Under Section 1 of the Constitution of Australia, Parliament consists of three components: the Monarch, the Senate, and the House of Representatives.
The Australian House of Representatives has 151 members, each elected for a flexible term of office not exceeding 3 years,[6] to represent a single electoral division, commonly referred to as an electorate or seat. Voting within each electorate utilises the instant-runoff system of preferential voting, which has its origins in Australia. The party or coalition of parties which commands the confidence of a majority of members of the House of Representatives forms government.[7]
The Australian Senate has 76 members. The six states return twelve senators each, and the two mainland territories return two senators each, elected through the single transferable voting system. Senators are elected for flexible terms not exceeding six years, with half of the senators contesting at each federal election. The Senate is afforded substantial powers by the Australian Constitution, significantly greater than those of Westminster upper houses such as those of the United Kingdom and Canada, and has the power to block legislation originating in the House as well as supply or monetary bills. As such, the Senate has the power to bring down the government, as occurred during the 1975 Australian constitutional crisis.
Because legislation must pass through both houses to become law, it is possible for disagreements between the House of Representatives and the Senate to hold up the progress of government bills indefinitely. Such deadlocks can be resolved through section 57 of the Constitution, using a procedure called a double dissolution election. Such elections are rare, not because the conditions for holding them are seldom met, but because they can pose a significant political risk to any government that chooses to call one. Of the six double dissolution elections that have been held since federation, half have resulted in the fall of a government. Only once, in 1974, has the full procedure for resolving a deadlock been followed, with a joint sitting of the two houses being held to deliberate upon the bills that had originally led to the deadlock. The most recent double dissolution election took place on 2 July 2016, which returned the Turnbull Government with a one-seat majority in the House of Representatives. The two pieces of legislation that triggered the election did not figure prominently in the eight-week election campaign.
This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (August 2018)
Main articles: Government of Australia, Monarchy of Australia, Governor-General of Australia, Prime Minister of Australia, Cabinet of Australia, Federal Executive Council (Australia), and Australian head of state dispute
Government House, Canberra, also known as "Yarralumla", is the official residence of the Governor-General.
The role of head of state in Australia is divided between two people: the Monarch of Australia and the Governor-General of Australia. The functions and roles of the Governor-General include appointing ambassadors, ministers, and judges, giving Royal Assent to legislation (also a role of the monarch), issuing writs for elections and bestowing honours.[8] The Governor-General is the President of the Federal Executive Council and Commander-in-Chief of the Australian Defence Force. These posts are held under the authority of the Australian Constitution. In practice, barring exceptional circumstances, the Governor-General exercises these powers only on the advice of the Prime Minister. As such, the role of Governor-General is often described as a largely ceremonial position.[9]
The Prime Minister of Australia is Scott Morrison, leader of the Cabinet and head of government, holding office on commission from the Governor-General of Australia. The office of Prime Minister is, in practice, the most powerful political office in Australia. Despite being at the apex of executive government in the country, the office is not mentioned in the Constitution of Australia specifically and exists through an unwritten political convention. Barring exceptional circumstances, the prime minister is always the leader of the political party or coalition with majority support in the House of Representatives. The only case where a senator was appointed prime minister was that of John Gorton, who subsequently resigned his Senate position and was elected as a member of the House of Representatives (Senator George Pearce was acting prime minister for seven months in 1916 while Billy Hughes was overseas).[10]
The Cabinet of Australia is the council of senior ministers responsible to Parliament. The Cabinet is appointed by the Governor-General, on the advice of the Prime Minister and serves at the former's pleasure. The strictly private Cabinet meetings occur once a week to discuss vital issues and formulate policy. Outside of the cabinet there are a number of junior ministers responsible for specific policy areas, who report directly to a senior Cabinet minister. The Constitution of Australia does not recognise the Cabinet as a legal entity, and its decisions have no legal force. All members of the ministry are also members of the Executive Council, a body which is – in theory, though rarely in practice – chaired by the Governor-General, and which meets solely to endorse and give legal force to decisions already made by the Cabinet. For this reason, there is always a member of the ministry holding the title Vice-President of the Executive Council.
Reflecting the influence of the Westminster system, and in accordance with section 64 of the Constitution, Ministers are selected from the elected members of Parliament.[11] In keeping with the convention of Cabinet solidarity, all ministers are expected to defend the collective decisions of Cabinet regardless of their individual views. Ministers who cannot undertake the public defence of government actions are expected to resign. Such resignations are rare; and the rarity also of public disclosure of splits within cabinet reflects the seriousness with which internal party loyalty is regarded in Australian politics.
Main articles: Judiciary of Australia and Australian court hierarchy
High Court building, view from Lake Burley Griffin
The High Court of Australia is the supreme court in the Australian court hierarchy and the final court of appeal in Australia. It has both original and appellate jurisdiction, has the power of judicial review over laws passed by the Parliament of Australia and the parliaments of the States, and interprets the Constitution of Australia. The High Court is mandated by section 71 of the Constitution, which vests in it the judicial power of the Commonwealth of Australia. The High Court was constituted by the Judiciary Act 1903 (Cth). The High Court is composed of seven Justices: the Chief Justice of Australia, presently The Hon. Susan Kiefel AC, and six other Justices.
The state supreme courts are also considered to be superior courts, those with unlimited jurisdiction to hear disputes and which are the pinnacle of the court hierarchy within their jurisdictions. They were created by means of the constitutions of their respective states or the Self Government Acts for the ACT and the Northern Territory. Appeals may be made from state supreme courts to the High Court of Australia.
Inferior Courts are secondary to Superior Courts. Their existence stems from legislation and they only have the power to decide on matters which Parliament has granted them. Decisions in inferior courts can be appealed to the Superior Court in that area, and then to the High Court of Australia.
Main articles: Australian electoral system and Divisions of the Australian House of Representatives
Julia Gillard, Prime Minister of Australia from 2010–2013 and the first female Prime Minister of the country.
At a national level, elections are held at least once every three years.[6] The Prime Minister can advise the Governor-General to call an election for the House of Representatives at any time, but Senate elections can only be held within certain periods prescribed in the Australian Constitution. Although governments have preferred simultaneous elections of the House and the Senate, the differences in timing and constitutional requirements mean that separate elections have occurred. The most recent Australian federal election took place on 18 May 2019.
The House of Representatives is elected using the Australian instant-runoff voting system, which results in the preference flows from minor party voters to the two major parties being significant in electoral outcomes. The Senate is elected using the single transferable voting system, which has resulted in a greater presence of minor parties in the Senate. For most of the last thirty years a balance of power has existed, whereby neither government nor opposition has had overall control of the Senate. This limitation to its power has required governments to frequently seek the support of minor parties or independent Senators in order to secure their legislative agenda. The ease with which minor parties can secure representation in the Senate compared to the House of Representatives, a result of proportional representation in the Senate, has meant that minor parties have often focused their election efforts on the upper house. This is true also at state level (only the two territories and Queensland are unicameral). Minor parties have only rarely been able to win seats in the House of Representatives, though five minor party members or independents won seats at the 2016 election.
State and local government
Main articles: Electoral systems of the Australian states and territories and Local government in Australia
States and territories of Australia
Australia's six states and two territories are structured within a political framework similar to that of the Commonwealth. Each state has its own bicameral Parliament, with the exception of Queensland and the two territories, whose Parliaments are unicameral. Each state has a Governor, who undertakes a role equivalent to that of the Governor-General at the federal level, and a Premier, who is the head of government and is equivalent to the Prime Minister. Each state also has its own supreme court, from which appeals can be made to the High Court of Australia.
Elections in the six Australian states and two territories are held at least once every four years. In New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia and the Australian Capital Territory, election dates are fixed by legislation. However, the other state premiers and the Chief Minister of the Northern Territory have the same discretion in calling elections as the Prime Minister at national level.
Local government in Australia is the third (and lowest) tier of government, administered by the states and territories which in turn are beneath the federal tier. Unlike the United States, United Kingdom and New Zealand, there is only one level of local government in all states, with no distinction such as counties and cities. Today, most local governments have equivalent powers within a state, and styles such as "shire" or "city" refer to the nature of the settlements they are based around.
Ideology in Australian politics
Sir Robert Menzies of the Liberal party, Australia's longest-serving Prime Minister
See also: Conservatism in Australia, Liberalism in Australia, and Socialism in Australia
The Australian party system has been described by political scientists as more ideologically driven than other similar Anglophone countries such as the United States and Canada.[12] In early Australian political history, class interests played a significant role in the division between the then-democratic socialist Australian Labor Party and a series of anti-Labor parties drawing on the liberal and conservative traditions (the predecessors of the modern Coalition between the Liberals and Nationals).[13][14]
In contemporary Australian political culture, the Coalition (Liberal and National parties) is considered centre-right and the Australian Labor Party is considered centre-left.[citation needed]Australian conservatism is largely represented by the Coalition, along with Australian liberalism. The Labor Party categorises itself as social democratic,[15] although it has pursued a liberal economic and social policy since the prime ministership of Bob Hawke.[16][17] Parliamentary Labor Party members such as Andrew Leigh have argued that the party should be reclassified as social liberal.[18][19] The Labor Party still maintains its historical Socialist Objective in its constitution, however, it is seen as an ideological anachronism within the party.[20][21]
Queensland and South Australia are regarded as comparatively conservative​.​[22]​[23]​[24]​[25]​[26] Victoria, Western Australia, Tasmania, and the Australian Capital Territory are regarded as comparatively left of centre.[26][27][28][29][30] New South Wales, the largest state by population, has often been regarded as a politically moderate bellwether state.[30][26]
Since the 2007 elections, the voting patterns of the Australian electorate have shifted. There is more volatility in the Australian electorate than ever before.[citation needed] More Australian voters are swinging between the two major parties or are voting for third parties, with 23% of Australians voting for a minor party as of the 2016 federal election.[31]
Political parties
Main articles: List of political parties in Australia and List of historical political parties in Australia
Organised, national political parties have dominated Australia's political landscape since federation. The late 19th century saw the rise of the Australian Labor Party, which represented organised workers. Opposing interests coalesced into two main parties: a centre-right party with a base in business and the middle classes that has been predominantly conservative and moderate, now the Liberal Party of Australia; and a rural or agrarian conservative party, now the National Party of Australia. While there are a small number of other political parties that have achieved parliamentary representation, these main three dominate organised politics everywhere in Australia and only on rare occasions have any other parties or independent members of parliament played any role at all in the formation or maintenance of governments.
Australian politics operates as a two-party system, as a result of the permanent coalition between the Liberal Party and National Party. Internal party discipline has historically been tight, unlike the situation in other countries such as the United States. Australia's political system has not always been a two-party system (eg 1901 to 1910) but nor has it always been as internally stable as in recent decades.[when?]
The Australian Labor Party (ALP) is a social democratic party. It is a left leaning party with tendency towards social welfare and government assistance programs. It was founded by the Australian labour movement and broadly represents the urban working and middle classes.
The Liberal Party of Australia is a party of the centre-right which broadly represents businesses, the urban middle classes and many rural people. Its permanent coalition partner at national level is the National Party of Australia, formerly known as the Country Party, a conservative party which represents rural interests. These two parties are collectively known as the Coalition. In Queensland, and more recently in NSW, the two parties have officially merged to form the Liberal National Party, and in the Northern Territory, the National Party is known as the Country Liberal Party.
Minor parties in Australian politics include a green party, the Australian Greens, the largest of the minor parties; a centrist party, Centre Alliance; a nationalist party, Pauline Hanson's One Nation; and an anti-privatisation party, Katter's Australian Party. Other significant parties in recent years have included the Palmer United Party, the socially conservative Family First Party, among others. Historically significant parties have included the United Australia Party, the Australian Labor Party (Anti-Communist), the Communist Party of Australia, the socially liberal Australian Democrats among others.
The Australian Electoral Commission records state that some of the biggest gas sector corporates and groups in the industry have made political donations worth more than $6.4 million over the last decade, which included $426,000 to both, Liberal and National parties during 2018/2019 election year. The donation record showed the Australian Petroleum Production and Exploration Association (Appea) made consistent and significant amount of contributions to the Labor party and the Coalition since 2010/11.[32]
Since federation, there have been 30 Prime Ministers of Australia. The longest-serving Prime Minister was Sir Robert Menzies of the Liberal Party, who served for 19 years from 1939–41, and again from 1949–66. The only other Prime Minister to serve for longer than a decade was John Howard, also of the Liberal Party, who led for more than 11 years from 1996–2007. The Coalition and its direct predecessors have governed at the federal level for a large majority of Australia's history since federation: 30,548 days as compared to Labor's 12,252 days.
Prime ministers' parties by time in office

House of Representatives primary, two-party and seat results
A two-party system has existed in the Australian House of Representatives since the two non-Labor parties merged in 1909. The 1910 election was the first to elect a majority government, with the Australian Labor Party concurrently winning the first Senate majority. Prior to 1909 a three-party system existed in the chamber. A two-party-preferred vote (2PP) has been calculated since the 1919 change from first-past-the-post to preferential voting and subsequent introduction of the Coalition. ALP = Australian Labor Party, L+NP = grouping of Liberal​/​National​/​LNP​/​CLP Coalition parties (and predecessors), Oth = other parties and independents.
House of Representatives results
LabourFree TradeProtectionistIndependentOther
1st19011428312 75
LabourFree TradeProtectionistIndependentOther
2nd1903232526 1Revenue Tariff75
3rd190626262111Western Australian75
Primary vote2PP voteSeats
13 April 1910 election50.0%45.1%4.9%4231275
31 May 1913 election48.5%48.9%2.6%3738075
5 September 1914 election50.9%47.2%1.9%4232175
5 May 1917 election43.9%54.2%1.9%2253075
13 December 1919 election42.5%54.3%3.2%45.9%54.1%2538275
16 December 1922 election42.3%47.8%9.9%48.8%51.2%2940675
14 November 1925 election45.0%53.2%1.8%46.2%53.8%2350275
17 November 1928 election44.6%49.6%5.8%48.4%51.6%3142275
12 October 1929 election48.8%44.2%7.0%56.7%43.3%4624575
19 December 1931 election27.1%48.4%24.5%41.5%58.5%14501175
15 September 1934 election26.8%45.6%27.6%46.5%53.5%18421474
23 October 1937 election43.2%49.3%7.5%49.4%50.6%2943274
21 September 1940 election40.2%43.9%15.9%50.3%49.7%3236674
21 August 1943 election49.9%23.0%27.1%58.2%41.8%4919674
28 September 1946 election49.7%39.3%11.0%54.1%45.9%4326574
10 December 1949 election46.0%50.3%3.7%49.0%51.0%47740121
28 April 1951 election47.6%50.3%2.1%49.3%50.7%52690121
29 May 1954 election50.0%46.8%3.2%50.7%49.3%57640121
10 December 1955 election44.6%47.6%7.8%45.8%54.2%47750122
22 November 1958 election42.8%46.6%10.6%45.9%54.1%45770122
9 December 1961 election47.9%42.1%10.0%50.5%49.5%60620122
30 November 1963 election45.5%46.0%8.5%47.4%52.6%50720122
26 November 1966 election40.0%50.0%10.0%43.1%56.9%41821124
25 October 1969 election47.0%43.3%9.7%50.2%49.8%59660125
2 December 1972 election49.6%41.5%8.9%52.7%47.3%67580125
18 May 1974 election49.3%44.9%5.8%51.7%48.3%66610127
13 December 1975 election42.8%53.1%4.1%44.3%55.7%36910127
10 December 1977 election39.7%48.1%12.2%45.4%54.6%38860124
18 October 1980 election45.2%46.3%8.5%49.6%50.4%51740125
5 March 1983 election49.5%43.6%6.9%53.2%46.8%75500125
1 December 1984 election47.6%45.0%7.4%51.8%48.2%82660148
11 July 1987 election45.8%46.1%8.1%50.8%49.2%86620148
24 March 1990 election39.4%43.5%17.1%49.9%50.1%78691148
13 March 1993 election44.9%44.3%10.7%51.4%48.6%80652147
2 March 1996 election38.7%47.3%14.0%46.4%53.6%49945148
3 October 1998 election40.1%39.5%20.4%51.0%49.0%67801148
10 November 2001 election37.8%43.0%19.2%49.0%51.0%65823150
9 October 2004 election37.6%46.7%15.7%47.3%52.7%60873150
24 November 2007 election43.4%42.1%14.5%52.7%47.3%83652150
21 August 2010 election38.0%43.3%18.7%50.1%49.9%72726150
7 September 2013 election33.4%45.6%21.0%46.5%53.5%55905150
2 July 2016 election34.7%42.0%23.3%49.6%50.4%69765150
18 May 2019 election33.3%41.4%25.2%48.5%51.5%68776151
Historical party composition of the Senate
The Senate has included representatives from a range of political parties, including several parties that have seldom or never had representation in the House of Representatives, but which have consistently secured a small but significant level of electoral support, as the table shows.
Results represent the composition of the Senate after the elections. The full Senate has been contested on eight occasions; the inaugural election and seven double dissolutions. These are underlined and highlighted in puce.[33]
1st1901811[c]17       36Plurality-at-large voting
2nd1903812[c]14     11Revenue Tariff36Plurality-at-large voting
3rd1906156[c]13     2 36Plurality-at-large voting
4th19102214       36Plurality-at-large voting
5th1913297       36Plurality-at-large voting
6th1914315       36Plurality-at-large voting
7th19171224       36Plurality-at-large voting
8th1919135       36Preferential block voting
9th19221224       36Preferential block voting
10th19258253      36Preferential block voting
11th19287245      36Preferential block voting
12th193110215      36Preferential block voting
13th19343267      36Preferential block voting
14th193716164      36Preferential block voting
15th194017154      36Preferential block voting
16th194322122      36Preferential block voting
17th19463321      36Preferential block voting
18th194934215      60Single transferable vote (Full preferential voting)
19th195128266      60Single transferable vote
20th195329265      60Single transferable vote
21st1955282462     60Single transferable vote
22nd1958262572     60Single transferable vote
23rd1961282461   1 60Single transferable vote
24th1964272372   1 60Single transferable vote
25th1967272174   1 60Single transferable vote
26th1970262155   3 60Single transferable vote
27th197429236    11Liberal Movement60Single transferable vote
28th197527266   111Liberal Movement64Single transferable vote
29th197727276 2 11 64Single transferable vote
30th198027283 5 11 64Single transferable vote
31st198330234 5 11 64Single transferable vote
32nd198434275 7 111Nuclear Disarmament76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
33rd198732267 7 121Nuclear Disarmament76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
34th199032285 8 111Greens (WA)76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
35th199330296 7 112Greens (WA) (2)76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
36th199629315 7 112Greens (WA), Greens (Tas)76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
37th199829313 91111One Nation76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
38th200128313 82121One Nation76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
39th200428335 441 1Family First76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
40th200732324  5111Family First76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
41st20103128 + (3 LNP)21 911 76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
42nd20132523 + (5 LNP)3 + (1 LNP)1 10116Family First,
Liberal Democrats,
Motoring Enthusiast,
Palmer United (3)
76Single transferable vote (Group voting ticket)
43rd20162621 + (3 LNP)3 + (2 LNP) 9111Family First,
Jacqui Lambie,
Justice Party,
Liberal Democrats,
Nick Xenophon Team (3),
One Nation (4)
76Single transferable vote (Optional preferential voting)
44th20192626 + (4 LNP)2 + (2 LNP) 9115Centre Alliance (2),
Jacqui Lambie,
One Nation (2),
76Single transferable vote (Optional preferential voting)
See also
  1. ^ Hardgrave, Gary (2 March 2015). "Commonwealth Day 2015". Department of Infrastructure and Regional Development, Government of Australia. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  2. ^ "Is voting compulsory?". Voting within Australia – Frequently Asked Questions. Australian Electoral Commission. 2015. Retrieved 1 September 2015.
  3. ^ The Economist Intelligence Unit (8 January 2019). "Democracy Index 2019". Economist Intelligence Unit. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
  4. ^ "The World Factbook 2009". Washington, DC: Central Intelligence Agency. 2009. Archived from the original on 24 March 2010. Retrieved 29 March 2010.
  5. ^ Thompson, Elaine (1980). "The "Washminster" Mutation". Australian Journal of Political Science. 15: 32.
  6. ^ a b The timing of elections is related to the dissolution or expiry of the House of Representatives, which extends for a maximum period of three years from the date of its first sitting, not the date of the election of its members. The house can be dissolved and a new election called at any time. In 12 out of 41 parliaments since Federation, more than three years have elapsed between elections. There is a complex formula for determining the date of such elections, which must satisfy section 32 of the Constitution of Australia and sections 156–8 of the Commonwealth Electoral Act 1918. These provisions do not allow an election to be held less than 33 days or more than 68 days after the dissolution of the House of Representatives. See 2010 Australian federal election for an example of how the formula applies in practice.
  7. ^ "Politics, media and democracy in Australia: public and producer perceptions of the political public sphere". Democratic Representation and the Property Franchise in Australian Local Government. October 2016. doi​:​10.1111/1467-8500.12217​.
  8. ^ "Governor-General of the Commonwealth of Australia: Governor-General's role". Archived from the original on 18 July 2010. Retrieved 13 January 2012.
  9. ^ Uhr, Gregory; Uhr, John (13 April 1998). Deliberative Democracy in Australia: The Changing Place of Parliament. Cambridge University Press. pp. 20–37. ISBN 9780521624657.
  10. ^ "Pearce, Sir George Foster (1870–1952)". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Australian National University. 2006. Retrieved 24 June 2010.
  11. ^ Section 64 of the Australian Constitution. Strictly speaking, ministers in the Australian government may be drawn from outside parliament, but cannot remain as ministers unless they have become a member of one of the houses of parliament within three months.
  12. ^ Woodward, Dennis; Parkin, Andrew; Summers, John (2010). Government, Politics, Power and Policy in Australia (9th ed.). Pearson Australia.
  13. ^ Johanson, Katya; Glow, Hilary (2008). "Culture and Political Party Ideology in Australia". The Journal of Arts Management, Law, and Society. 38 (1): 37–50. doi​:​10.3200/JAML.38.1.37-50​. S2CID 145352620.
  14. ^ Kelley, Jonathan; McAllister, Ian (1985). "Class and Party in Australia: Comparison with Britain and the USA". The British Journal of Sociology. 36 (3): 383–420. doi:10.2307/590458. JSTOR 590458.
  15. ^ Australian Labor Party National PlatformArchived 23 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 11 December 2014
  16. ^ Lavelle, A. The Death of Social Democracy. 2008. Ashgate Publishing.
  17. ^ Humphrys, Elizabeth (2018). How labour built neoliberalism : Australia's accord, the labour movement and the neoliberal project. Brill. ISBN 978-90-04-38346-3.
  18. ^ Leigh, Andrew (29 June 2019). "Social liberalism fits Labor". The Saturday Paper. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  19. ^ Leigh, Andrew. "Liberals are conservatives while Labor is the true party of Alfred Deakin". The Australian. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  20. ^ "Fact check: Are Labor's policies socialist?". ABC News. 20 September 2017. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  21. ^ Johnson, Carol. "Reviewing an anachronism? Labor to debate future of socialist objective". The Conversation. Retrieved 15 July 2019.
  22. ^ Daly, Margo (2003). The Rough Guide To Australia. Rough Guides Ltd. p. 397. ISBN 9781843530909.
  23. ^ Penrith, Deborah (2008). Live & Work in Australia. Crimson Publishing. p. 478. ISBN 9781854584182.
  24. ^ Georgia Waters. "Why Labor struggles in Queensland". Brisbanetimes.com.au. Retrieved 5 December 2012.
  25. ^ "Australia ready for first female leader". BBC News. 25 June 2010.
  26. ^ a b c George Megalogenis, "The Green and the Grey", Quarterly Essay, Vol. 40, 2010, p69.
  27. ^ "Victoria: the left-leaning state". The Age. Melbourne. 8 August 2010.
  28. ^ "Western Australia a left-wing state: analysis". The Guardian. 18 March 2014.
  29. ^ "Victoria not likely to lose its mantle as the state most progressive". The Age. Melbourne. 29 November 2010.
  30. ^ a b Megalogenis, George (23 August 2010). "Poll divides the nation into three zones". The Australian.
  31. ^ Clare Blumer. "Rise of the minor parties: How the 2016 election stacks up historically". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 3 July 2016.
  32. ^ "Gas industry donates millions to Australian political parties". The Guardian. Retrieved 15 September 2020.
  33. ^ "A database of elections, governments, parties and representation for Australian state and federal parliaments since 1890". University of Western Australia. Retrieved 15 February 2009.
Further reading
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