This article needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (April 2018)
In 1995, the executive and legislative branches negotiated a reform of the 1987 Sandinista
constitution which gave extensive new powers and independence to the National Assembly
, including permitting the Assembly to override a presidential veto
with a simple majority vote and eliminating the president
's ability to pocket veto a bill. Members of the unicameral National Assembly are elected to concurrent five-year terms.
In January 2014, the National Assembly approved changes to the constitution, removing presidential term limits. This allowed current President Daniel Ortega
to run for a third successive term.
Main office holders
The president and the vice president are elected for a single five-year term. With the reform of the constitution in 2014 the ban on re-election of the president has been removed.
The president appoints the Council of Ministers.
Outgoing Vice President Jaime Morales Carazot's seat would usually be given to the outgoing president. However, Danial Ortega was re-elected after the Constitution was modified to remove term limits.
Political parties and elections
The Supreme Court of Justice
supervises the functioning of the still largely ineffective and overburdened judicial system. As part of the 1995 constitutional reforms, the independence of the Supreme Court was strengthened by increasing the number of magistrates from 9 to 12. In 2000, the number of Supreme Court Justices was increased to 16. Supreme Court justices are nominated by the political parties and elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly.
Led by a council of seven magistrates, the Supreme Electoral Council
(CSE) is the co-equal branch of government responsible for organizing and conducting elections, plebiscites, and referendums. The magistrates and their alternates are elected to 5-year terms by the National Assembly. Constitutional changes in 2000 expanded the number of CSE magistrates from five to seven and gave the PLC and the FSLN a freer hand to name party activists to the council, prompting allegations that both parties were politicizing electoral institutions and processes and excluding smaller political parties.
Freedom of speech is a right guaranteed by the Nicaraguan constitution, but media has come under censorship from time to time.
Other constitutional freedoms include peaceful assembly and association, freedom of religion, and freedom of movement within the country, as well as foreign travel, emigration, and repatriation. The government also permits domestic and international human rights monitors to operate freely in Nicaragua.
The constitution prohibits discrimination based on birth, nationality, political belief, race, gender, language, religion, opinion, national origin, economic or social condition. Homosexuality has been legal since 2008.
All public and private sector workers, except the military and the police, are entitled to form and join unions of their own choosing, and they exercise this right extensively.
Nearly half of Nicaragua's work force, including agricultural workers, is unionized
Workers have the right to strike. Collective bargaining
is becoming more common in the private sector.
Nicaragua is divided in 15 departments : Boaco
, Nueva Segovia
, Río San Juan
, as well as in two autonomous regions: North Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region
and South Caribbean Coast Autonomous Region
Political pressure groups
Some political pressure groups are:
- National Workers Front or FNT is a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions, including
- Farm Workers Association or ATC
- Health Workers Federation or FETSALUD
- Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional Associations or CONAPRO
- National Association of Educators of Nicaragua or ANDEN
- National Union of Employees or UNE
- National Union of Farmers and Ranchers or UNAG
- Sandinista Workers' Centre or CST
- Union of Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN
- Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT is an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions, including
- Nicaraguan Workers' Central or CTN is an independent labor union
- Superior Council of Private Enterprise or COSEP is a confederation of business groups
- ^ "Nicaragua: Ortega allowed to run for third successive term". BBC. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 29 January 2014.
- ^ http://www.bti-project.org/en/reports/country-reports/detail/itc/NIC/
- ^ Avenue, Committee to Protect Journalists 330 7th; York, 11th Floor New; Ny 10001. "Nicaragua Special Report: Daniel Ortega's Media War". cpj.org. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- ^ "Last founder of Sandinistas dies". BBC News. 2012-05-01. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- ^ McDonald, Michael. "Nicaragua Suffers Worst Slump in 30 Years Amid Ortega Crackdown". www.bloomberg.com. Retrieved 2018-12-30.
- ^ USA, IBP (August 2013). Nicaragua Investment and Business Guide Volume 1 Strategic and Practical Information. Lulu.com. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-4387-6836-6.
- ^ Country Reports on Human Rights Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Affairs, U.S. House of Representatives and Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate by the Department of State in Accordance with Sections 116(d) and 502B(b) of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961, as Amended. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994. p. 511.
- ^ Country Reports on Economic Policy and Trade Practices: Report Submitted to the Committee on Foreign Relations, Committee on Finance of the U.S. Senate and the Committee on Foreign Affairs, Committee on Ways and Means of the U.S. House of Representatives by the Department of State in Accordance with Section 2202 of the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988. U.S. Government Printing Office. 1994. p. 402. ISBN 978-0-16-043951-3.
- ^ CNN
Last edited on 11 April 2021, at 19:35
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