Porridge - Wikipedia
Porridge
For other uses, see Porridge (disambiguation).
Porridge[1] is a food commonly eaten as a breakfast cereal dish, made by boiling ground, crushed or chopped starchy plants—typically grain—in milk. It is often cooked or served with added flavourings such as sugar, honey, (dried) fruit or syrup to make a sweet cereal, or it can be mixed with spices, meat or vegetables to make a savoury dish. It is usually served hot in a bowl, depending on its consistency. Oat porridge, or oatmeal, is one of the most common types of porridge. Gruel is a thinner version of porridge.
Porridge

A bowl of oatmeal porridge
CourseBreakfast
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientsStarchy plants (e.g. grain), water or milk, flavourings
Type of grains
Cooked oatmeal in a bowl
The term "porridge" is often used specifically for oat porridge (oatmeal), which is typically eaten for breakfast with salt, sugar, fruit, milk, cream or butter and sometimes other flavorings. Oat porridge is also sold in ready-made or partly cooked form as an instant breakfast.
Other grains used for porridge include rice, wheat, barley, corn, triticale and buckwheat. Many types of porridge have their own names, such as polenta, grits and kasha.
Origins
Historically, porridge was a staple food in much of the world, including Europe and Africa, and it remains a staple food in many parts of the world. Porridge was first produced during the paleolithic by hunter-gatherers,[2] in Southern Italy, but would become commonplace during the neolithic. The dish has traditionally been closely associated with Scotland, possibly because oats can be successfully cultivated on marginal upland soils.[3] In 1775, Dr. Samuel Johnson wrote that oats were "a grain which in England is generally given to horses, but in Scotland supports the people".[4] Oats were introduced to Scotland in about 600 AD, but traces of barley porridge have been found in pots excavated in the Outer Hebrides which have been dated to 2,500 years ago.[5]
Conventional uses
As well as a breakfast cereal, porridge is used in many cultures as a common snack, and is often eaten by athletes.[6][7][8]
Nutrition
Unenriched porridge (oatmeal), cooked with water
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy297 kJ (71 kcal)
Carbohydrates12 g
Sugars0.3
Dietary fiber1.7 g
Fat1.5 g
Protein2.5 g
VitaminsQuantity
%DV
Vitamin A equiv.
0%
0 μg
Thiamine (B1)
7%
0.08 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
2%
0.02 mg
Niacin (B3)
2%
0.23 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5)
4%
0.197 mg
Vitamin B6
0%
0.005 mg
Folate (B9)
2%
6 μg
Vitamin C
0%
0 mg
Vitamin E
1%
0.08 mg
Vitamin K
0%
0.3 μg
MineralsQuantity
%DV
Calcium
1%
9 mg
Iron
7%
0.9 mg
Magnesium
8%
27 mg
Manganese
29%
0.6 mg
Phosphorus
11%
77 mg
Potassium
1%
70 mg
Sodium
0%
4 mg
Zinc
11%
1 mg
Other constituentsQuantity
Water83.6
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA FoodData Central
Unenriched porridge (as oatmeal), cooked by boiling or microwave, is 84% water, and contains 12% carbohydrates, including 2% dietary fiber, and 2% each of protein and fat (table). In a 100 gram reference amount, cooked porridge provides 71 Calories and contains 29% of the Daily Value (DV) for manganese and moderate content of phosphorus and zinc (11% DV each), with no other micronutrients in significant content (table).
Health effect
A 2014 review found that daily intake of at least 3 grams of oat beta-glucan lowers total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels by 5–10% in people with normal or elevated blood cholesterol levels.[9] Beta-glucan lowers cholesterol by inhibiting cholesterol production, although cholesterol reduction is greater in people with higher total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol in their blood.[9] In the United States, the Food and Drug Administration issued a final ruling in 2015 stating that food companies can make health claims on food labels for products containing soluble fiber from whole oats (oat bran, oat flour and rolled oats), noting that 3.0 grams of soluble fiber daily from these foods may reduce the risk of heart disease.[10] To qualify for the health claim, the food that contains the oats must provide at least 0.75 grams of soluble fiber per serving.[10]
Varieties
Further information: List of porridges
Porridge as sold in German supermarkets
Maize
Maize porridge:
Millet
Millet porridge
Millet porridge:
Oat
Porridge oats before cooking
Oatmeal with raisins, butter, chopped walnuts, cinnamon, brown sugar, and shredded coconut
Oat porridge, traditional and common in the English-speaking world, Germany and the Nordic countries.[14] Oat porridge has been found in the stomachs of 5,000-year-old Neolithic bog bodies in Central Europe and Scandinavia.[15] Varieties of oat porridge include:
Types of oats
Porridge by William Hemsley (1893)
Oats for porridge may be whole (groats), cut into two or three pieces (called "pinhead", "steel-cut" or "coarse" oatmeal), ground into medium or fine oatmeal or steamed and rolled into flakes of varying sizes and thicknesses (called "rolled oats", the largest size being "jumbo"). The larger the pieces of oat used, the more textured the resulting porridge. It is said that, because of their size and shape, the body breaks steel-cut oats down more slowly than rolled oats, reducing spikes in blood sugar and making the eater feel full longer.[20] The US Consumer Reports Web site found that the more cooking required, the stronger the oat flavor and the less mushy the texture.[21]
Oats are a good source of dietary fibre; health benefits are claimed for oat bran in particular, which is part of the grain.
Preparation
The oats are cooked in milk, water or a mixture of the two. Scottish traditionalists allow only oats, water and salt.[22] There are techniques suggested by cooks, such as presoaking, but a comparative test found little difference in the end result.[22] Various flavorings can be used and may vary widely by taste and locality. Demerara sugar, golden syrup, Greek yoghurt and honey are common. Cold milk or single cream may be used.[22]
Rice
Champorado
Rice porridge with mixed fruit soup
Rice porridge:
Sorghum
Sorghum porridge:
Beef yam porridge with red and green pepper
Wheat
Malt-O-Meal with coffee
Wheat porridge:
Other
History
Northern Europe
Traditional Estonian rustic porridge Mulgipuder made with potatoes, groats and meat is known as national dish of Estonia
Traditional Latvian barley grit porridge with milk, potatoes and speck (bukstiņputra)
Historically, porridge was a staple food in much of Northern Europe and Russia. It was often made from barley, though other grains and yellow peas could be used, depending on local conditions. It was primarily a savoury dish, with meats, root crops, vegetables and herbs added for flavor. Porridge could be cooked in a large metal kettle over hot coals or heated in a cheaper earthenware container by adding hot stones until boiling hot. Until leavened bread and baking ovens became commonplace in Europe, porridge was a typical means of preparing cereal crops for the table.
Porridge was also commonly used as prison breakfast for inmates in the British prison system during the 19th century and early 20th century, and so "doing porridge" became a slang term for a sentence in prison.[26][27]
See also
References
  1. ^ porridge (pronunciation: /ˈpɒrɪdʒ/), Oxford English Dictionary, retrieved 4 April 2013
  2. ^ Mariotti Lippi, Marta; Foggi, Bruno; Aranguren, Biancamaria; Ronchitelli, Annamaria; Revedin, Anna (29 September 2015). "Multistep food plant processing at Grotta Paglicci (Southern Italy) around 32,600 cal B.P." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 112 (39): 12075–12080. Bibcode​:​2015PNAS..11212075M​. doi​:​10.1073/pnas.1505213112​. PMC 4593080. PMID 26351674.
  3. ^ Welch, R.W., ed. (1995). The Oat Crop: Production and Utilization. Dordrecht: Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 15–16. ISBN 978-0412373107.
  4. ^ Green, Jonathan (2014). Scottish Miscellany: Everything You Always Wanted to Know About Scotland the Brave. New York: Skyhorse Publishing. p. 96. ISBN 978-1628737196.
  5. ^ Macdonald, Fiona (13 December 2011). Scotland, A Very Peculiar History – Volume 1. Brighton: Book House. p. 47. ISBN 978-1906370916.
  6. ^ Fisher, Roxanne. "Eat like an athlete - Beckie Herbert". BBC Good Food. BBC Worldwide. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  7. ^ Chappell, Bill (25 July 2012). "Athletes And The Foods They Eat: Don't Try This At Home". The Torch. NPR. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
  8. ^ Randall, David (19 February 2012). "Cursed! The astonishing story of porridge's poster boy". The Independent.
  9. ^ a b Othman, R. A; Moghadasian, M. H; Jones, P. J (2011). "Cholesterol-lowering effects of oat β-glucan". Nutrition Reviews. 69 (6): 299–309. doi​:​10.1111/j.1753-4887.2011.00401.x​. PMID 21631511.
  10. ^ a b "Title 21—Chapter 1, Subchapter B, Part 101 – Food labeling – Specific Requirements for Health Claims, Section 101.81: Health claims: Soluble fiber from certain foods and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) (revision 2015)". US Department of Health and Human Services, Food and Drug Administration. 1 April 2015. Retrieved 10 November 2015.
  11. ^ "Artes culinarias/Recetas/Gachas manchegas". wikibooks.org.
  12. ^ "Cómo preparar gachas de maíz". wikiHow.
  13. ^ Grant, Mark (1999). Roman Cookery. London: Serif. ISBN 978-1897959602.
  14. ^ The Danish cultural historian Troels Frederik Lund (1840–1921) published a work later known as "Everyday Life in the North". In his comments (1883) about the development of foods, he highlights porridge as one of the oldest Nordic meals. No other meal is described as frequently as this "from the moment the written sources begun."
    See: Troels-Lund, Troels Frederik (1883). "Fødemidler". Danmark og Norges Historie i Slutningen af det 16de Aarhundrede [History of Denmark and Norway to the End of the Sixteenth Century] (in Danish). Copenhagen: C.A. Reitzel. ISBN 978-1247189857.
  15. ^ Lloyd, J; Mitchinson, J (2006). The Book of General Ignorance. Faber & Faber. ISBN 9780571233687.
  16. ^ East, George (2010). French Impressions: Brittany (PDF). p. 24. ISBN 978-0-9523635-9-0. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2017.
  17. ^ "Nutrition diva: Are Steel Cut Oats Healthier?". Nutritiondiva.quickanddirtytips.com. 31 May 2011. Retrieved 23 February 2014.
  18. ^ Nasty-Face, Jack (1836). Nautical Economy, or Forecastle Recollections of Events during the last War. London: William Robinson.
  19. ^ "Last male WWI veteran dies". abc.net.au.
  20. ^ "Steel Cut, Rolled, Instant, Scottish? (Marisa's comment, November 10, 2012 at 9:46 am)". Bob's Red Mill. Retrieved 9 October 2012.
  21. ^ "For best oatmeal taste, be patient". Consumer Reports. November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 April 2012. Retrieved 3 April 2013.
  22. ^ a b c How to cook perfect porridge, Felicity Cloake, The Guardian, 10 November 2011.
  23. ^ http://www.home-cooking-recipes.com/recipe-meiling-porridge-the-taste-of-nanjing-big-stalls-electric-rice-cooker-version-23756/​[​bare URL]
  24. ^ https://www.ambrosia.co.uk/​[​bare URL]
  25. ^ Kperogi, Farooq (26 January 2014). "Q and A on the grammar of food, usage and Nigerian English". Daily Trust. Archived from the original on 23 February 2017. Retrieved 23 February 2017.
  26. ^ Martin Belam (1 May 2018). "Porridge no longer on the menu for those doing porridge". Guardian. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
  27. ^ Bill Robinson. "The Best of British Prison Food 1". Food Reference. Retrieved 5 December 2019.
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Porridges.
Wikibooks Cookbook has a recipe/module on
Porridge
Bennett, Lynne Char (5 January 2005). "Morning comfort / From Irish oatmeal to Chinese congee to Mexican champurrado, every cuisine offers steaming bowls of cereal to stave off winter's chill". San Francisco Chronicle.
Last edited on 14 June 2021, at 14:31
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