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Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, after Asia in both cases. At about 30.3 million km2 (11.7 million square miles) including adjacent islands, it covers 6% of Earth's total surface area and 20% of its land area. With 1.3 billion people as of 2018, it accounts for about 16% of the world's human population. Africa's population is the youngest amongst all the continents; the median age in 2012 was 19.7, when the worldwide median age was 30.4. Despite a wide range of natural resources, Africa is the least wealthy continent per capita, in part due to geographic impediments, legacies of European colonization in Africa and the Cold War, undemocratic rule and deleterious policies. Despite this low concentration of wealth, recent economic expansion and the large and young population make Africa an important economic market in the broader global context.
Africa straddles the Equator and encompasses numerous climate areas; it is the only continent to stretch from the northern temperate to southern temperate zones. The majority of the continent and its countries are in the Northern Hemisphere, with a substantial portion and number of countries in the Southern Hemisphere. Africa is home to much biodiversity; it is the continent with the largest number of megafauna species, as it was least affected by the extinction of the Pleistocene megafauna. However, Africa also is heavily affected by a wide range of environmental issues, including desertification, deforestation, water scarcity, and other issues. These entrenched environmental concerns are expected to worsen as climate change impacts Africa. The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change has identified Africa as the continent most vulnerable to climate change.
Africa, particularly Eastern Africa, is widely accepted as the place of origin of humans and the Hominidae clade (great apes), meaning that Africa has a long and complex history. The earliest hominids and their ancestors have been dated to around 7 million years ago, including Sahelanthropus tchadensis, Australopithecus africanus, A. afarensis, Homo erectus, H. habilis and H. ergaster— the earliest Homo sapiens (modern human) remains, found in Ethiopia, South Africa, and Morocco, date to circa 200,000, 259,000, and 300,000 years ago respectively, and Homo sapiens is believed to have originated in Africa around 350,000–260,000 years ago.
Early human civilizations, such as Ancient Egypt and Phoenicia emerged in North Africa. Following a subsequent long and complex history of civilizations, migration and trade, Africa hosts a large diversity of ethnicities, cultures and languages. The last 400 years have witnessed an increasing European influence on the continent. Starting in the 16th century, this was driven by trade, including the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, which created large African diaspora populations in the Americas. In the late 19th century, European countries colonized almost all of Africa, extracting resources from the continent and exploiting local communities; most present states in Africa emerged from a process of decolonisation in the 20th century. (Full article...)
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Ethiopian forces, assisted by St George (top), win the battle. Painted 1965–75.
The Battle of Adwa (Amharic: አድዋ; Tigrinya: ዓድዋ; Italian Adua, also spelled Adowa) was the climactic battle of the First Italo-Ethiopian War. The Ethiopian forces, who had high numerical superiority and weapons supplied by Russia and France, defeated the Italian invading force on Sunday 1 March 1896, near the town of Adwa. The decisive victory thwarted the campaign of the Kingdom of Italy to expand its colonial empire in the Horn of Africa. By the end of the 19th century, European powers had carved up almost all of Africa after the Berlin Conference; only Ethiopia, Liberia and the Dervish State still maintained their independence. Adwa became a pre-eminent symbol of pan-Africanism and secured Ethiopian sovereignty until the Second Italo-Ethiopian War forty years later. (Full article...)
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Photo credit: Mila Zinkova

Leucospermum (Pincushion or Pincushion Protea) is a genus of about 50 species of flowering plants in the family Proteaceae, native to Zimbabwe and South Africa, where they occupy a variety of habitats, including scrub, forest, and mountain slopes.
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Shehu Usman dan Fodio, born Usman ɓi Fudi, (also referred to as Arabic: عثمان بن فودي‎‎, Shaikh Usman Ibn Fodio, (born 15 December 1754) Gobir – died 20 April 1817, Sokoto) was a Fulani scholar, religious teacher, revolutionary, military leader, writer,promoter of Sunni Islam, and the founder of the Sokoto Caliphate.
Shehu Dan Fodio was a descendant of one of the clans (Toronkawa) of urbanized ethnic Fulani people living in the Hausa Kingdoms since the early 1400s in what is now northern Nigeria. He belonged to the Maliki school of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and a staunch follower of the Athari Islamic Creed. (Full article...)
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Angola, formally the Republic of Angola (Portuguese: República de Angola, pronounced [ʁɛˈpublikɐ dɨ ɐ̃ˈɡɔlɐ], Kongo: Repubilika ya Ngola), is a country in south-central Africa bordering Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to the west. The exclave province Cabinda also borders the Republic of the Congo to the north. At 481,321 mi² (1,246,700 km²), it is the world's twenty-third largest country.
A former Portuguese colony, it has considerable natural resources, among which oil and diamonds are the most significant. Angola's economy has undergone a period of transformation in recent years, moving from the disarray caused by the Angolan Civil War to being the fastest growing economy in Africa and one of the fastest in the world. Growth is almost entirely driven by rising oil production which surpassed 1.4 million barrels per day in late-2005 and which is expected to grow to 2 million barrels per day by 2007. (Read more...)
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Overview of Constantine
Constantine (Arabic: قسنطينة‎‎ Qusanṭīnah), also spelled Qacentina or Kasantina, is the capital of Constantine Province in northeastern Algeria. During Roman times it was called Cirta and was renamed "Constantina" in honor of emperor Constantine the Great. It was the capital of the French department of Constantine until 1962. Located somewhat inland, Constantine is about 80 kilometres (50 miles) from the Mediterranean coast, on the banks of the Rhumel River.
Constantine is regarded as the capital of eastern Algeria and the commercial center of its region, and it has a population of about 450,000 (938,475 with the agglomeration), making it the third largest city in the country after Algiers and Oran. There are several museums and historical sites located around the city. Constantine is often referred to as the "City of Bridges" due to the numerous picturesque bridges connecting the various hills, valleys, and ravines that the city is built on and around. (Full article...)
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In the news
8 May 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Madagascar
Madagascar receives its first shipment of 50,000 doses of the Covishieldvaccine manufactured by the Serum Institute of India. (Africanews)
6 May 2021 – Kivu conflict, Ituri conflict, Allied Democratic Forces insurgency
The Democratic Republic of the Congo enacts a "state of siege" over the provinces of Kivu and Ituri for 30 days. During this time, both provinces will be placed under military rule. The provincial governments and entities of these provinces will either be replaced by offices of the FARDC or by the national police. Civil jurisdictions will also be replaced by military jurisdictions. (France 24)
6 May 2021 – Lord's Resistance Army insurgency
The International Criminal Court sentences Ugandan warlord and member of the Christian terrorist group Lord's Resistance Army Dominic Ongwen to 25 years in prison for charges including murder, rape and sexual enslavement. The former child soldier's lawyers had asked for a lenient sentence considering his childhood trauma. (DW)
5 May 2021 – COVID-19 pandemic
COVID-19 pandemic in Africa
COVID-19 pandemic in Egypt
Updated: 4:33, 9 May 2021
General images
The following are images from various Africa-related articles on Wikipedia.
  • Yoruba drummers at celebration in Ojumo Oro, Kwara State, Nigeria
  • French explorer Paul Du Chaillu confirmed the existence of Pygmy peoples of central Africa
  • Kongo in 1711
  • The Kanem and Bornu Empires in 1810
  • Ruins of Carthage
  • A terra-cotta head sculpture (1100-1500) of the Yoruba, showing extraordinary naturalism. This head represents the oni, or king of Ife.
  • The Songhai Empire, c. 1500
  • Aksum Obelisk, symbol of the Aksumite civilization

  • South African ethnic groups
  • Baguirmi knight in full padded armour suit
  • Almnara Tower, Mogadishu.
  • David Livingstone, early European explorer of the interior of Africa, is attacked by a lion
  • Political map of Southern Africa in 1885
  • Comparison of Africa in the years 1880 and 1913
  • Dates of independence of African countries
  • Zulu warriors
  • Christian Nubia and the Nile cataracts
  • The end result of the Boer Wars was the annexation of the Boer Republics to the British Empire in 1902
  • Almohad Empire, c. 1200
  • An Ethiopian woman preparing Ethiopian coffee at a traditional ceremony. She roasts, crushes and brews the coffee on the spot.
  • 1916 political map of Africa
  • Kenyan boys and girls performing a traditional folklore dance
  • African biface artifact (spear point) dated in Late Stone Age period
  • Areas controlled by European colonial powers on the African continent in 1914; modern-day borders are shown
  • Fayum mummy portrait of Demetrios, a citizen of Roman Egypt, c. 100 AD, Brooklyn Museum
  • "Benin Bronze" (brass)
  • Carthaginian Empire
  • 1 = 3000 – 1500 BC origin
    2 = c. 1500 BC first migrations
        2.a = Eastern Bantu,
        2.b = Western Bantu
    3 = 1000 – 500 BC Urewe nucleus of Eastern Bantu
    47 = southward advance
    9 = 500 BC – 0 Congo nucleus
    10 = 0 – 1000 CE last phase
  • Central mosque in Nouakchott, Mauritania
  • Ambazonian nationalism gained steam in 1982
  • A Yombe sculpture (Louvre, Paris)
  • The Almohad minaret in Safi
  • The Battle of Ngomano in November 1917
  • Areas controlled by European powers in 1939. British (red) and Belgian (Orange) colonies fought with the Allies. Italian (green) with the Axis. French colonies (dark blue) fought alongside the Allies until the Fall of France in June 1940. Vichy was in control until the Free French prevailed in late 1942. Portuguese (brown) and Spanish (teal) colonies remained neutral.
  • Obelisk at temple of Luxor, Egypt. c. 1200 BC
  • Fufu (right) is a staple meal in West Africa and Central Africa. It is served here with some peanut soup.
  • Mali Empire at its greatest extent
  • Nubian Empire at its greatest extent
  • Potjiekos is a traditional Afrikaner stew made with meat and vegetables and cooked over coals in cast-iron pots.
  • 9th-century bronze staff head in form of a coiled snake, Igbo-Ukwu, Nigeria
  • Maasai wearing traditional clothes named Matavuvale while performing Adumu, a traditional dance
  • Aksumite Empire
  • A woman in Kenya wearing kanga
  • Depiction of a Zulu attack on a Boer camp in February 1838
  • The pyramids of Giza, symbols of the civilization of ancient Egypt
  • A traditional Zanzibari-style Swahili coast door in Zanzibar.
  • Ruins of Qa'ableh, an early center of Somali civilization
  • Pre-colonial African states from different time periods

  • Herero and Nama territories
  • Reconstruction of the Oikumene (inhabited world) as described by Herodotus in the 5th century BC.
  • Towers of Great Zimbabwe.
  • Northern Africa under Roman rule
  • Fresh Moroccan couscous with vegetables and chickpeas
  • Arab slave traders and their captives along the Ruvuma River in Mozambique along the Swahili coast.
  • Map of Ancient Egypt and nomes
  • Fatimid Caliphate
  • Lunda town and dwelling
  • Abéché, capital of Wadai, in 1918 after the French had taken over
  • Nubian Temple of Apedemak, Naqa
  • The Ghana Empire
  • Sample of the Egyptian Book of the Dead of the scribe Nebqed, c. 1300 BC
  • 1895 .303 tripod mounted Maxim machine gun
  • The Citadel of Gondershe, Somalia was an important city in the medieval Somali Ajuran Empire
  • Sudan basket-tray, tabar of weaved natural plant fiber, in different colors
  • Nok sculpture, terracotta, Louvre
  • Contemporary political map of Africa (Includes Sub-Saharan Africa and North Africa)
  • South African-occupied South West Africa (1915–1990) and maximum extent of South African and UNITA operations in Angola and Zambia during the Angolan Civil War
  • The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba), first built in 670 by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Maghreb and North Africa, located in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia
  • Central and east Africa, 1898, during the Fashoda Incident.
  • Maravi Kingdom
  • Italian invasion of Libya in 1911: propaganda postcard made by Italian Army
  • Major states of Middle Africa in 1750
  • Oyo Empire and surrounding states, c. 1625
  • Dahomey Amazons, an all-women fighting unit
  • Luba pottery
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Last edited on 17 April 2021, at 11:35
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