or, in full, língua portuguesa
) is a Romance language
originating in the Iberian Peninsula
. It is the sole official language of Portugal
, Cape Verde
, São Tomé and Príncipe
, and Brazil
while having co-official language status in East Timor
, Equatorial Guinea
, and Macau
. A Portuguese-speaking person or nation is referred to as "Lusophone
). As the result of expansion during colonial times, a cultural presence of Portuguese and Portuguese creole
speakers are also found around the world.
Portuguese is part of the Ibero-Romance group
that evolved from several dialects of Vulgar Latin
in the medieval Kingdom of Galicia
and the County of Portugal
, and has kept some Celtic
phonology and its lexicon.
With approximately 215 to 220 million native speakers and 50 million L2 speakers, Portuguese has approximately 270 million total speakers. It is usually listed as the sixth-most spoken language
and the third-most spoken European language in the world in terms of native speakers.
Being the most widely spoken language in South America
and all of the Southern Hemisphere
it is also the second-most spoken language, after Spanish
, in Latin America
, one of the 10 most spoken languages in Africa
and is an official language of the European Union
, the Organization of American States
, the Economic Community of West African States
, the African Union
, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries
, an international organization made up of all of the world's officially Lusophone nations. In 1997, a comprehensive academic study ranked the Brazilian
variety of Portuguese as one of the 10 most influential languages in the world.
Between AD 409 and AD 711, as the Roman Empire
collapsed in Western Europe
, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by Germanic peoples
of the Migration Period
. The occupiers, mainly Suebi
who originally spoke Germanic languages
, quickly adopted late Roman culture and the Vulgar Latin
dialects of the peninsula and over the next 300 years totally integrated into the local populations. Some Germanic words from that period are part of the Portuguese lexicon. After the Moorish
invasion beginning in 711, Arabic
became the administrative and common language in the conquered regions, but most of the remaining Christian population
continued to speak a form of Romance
commonly known as Mozarabic
, which lasted three centuries longer in Spain
. Like other Neo-Latin and European languages, Portuguese has adopted a significant number of loanwords
mainly in technical and scientific terminology. These borrowings occurred via Latin, and later during the Middle Ages and the Renaissance.
Spoken area of Galician-Portuguese
(also known as Old Portuguese or Medieval Galician) in the kingdoms of Galicia and León around the 10th century, before the separation of Galician
It is in Latin administrative documents of the 9th century that written Galician-Portuguese words and phrases are first recorded. This phase is known as Proto-Portuguese, which lasted from the 9th century until the 12th-century independence of the County of Portugal
from the Kingdom of León, which had by then assumed reign over Galicia
In the first part of the Galician-Portuguese
period (from the 12th to the 14th century), the language was increasingly used for documents and other written forms. For some time, it was the language of preference for lyric poetry
in Christian Hispania
, much as Occitan
was the language of the poetry of the troubadours
in France. The Occitan digraphs lh
, used in its classical orthography, were adopted by the orthography of Portuguese
, presumably by Gerald of Braga
a monk from Moissac
, who became bishop of Braga
in Portugal in 1047, playing a major role in modernizing written Portuguese using classical Occitan
Portugal became an independent kingdom in 1139, under King Afonso I of Portugal
. In 1290, King Denis of Portugal
created the first Portuguese university in Lisbon (the Estudos Gerais
, which later moved to Coimbra
) and decreed for Portuguese, then simply called the "common language", to be known as the Portuguese language and used officially.
In the second period of Old Portuguese, in the 15th and 16th centuries, with the Portuguese discoveries
, the language was taken to many regions of Africa, Asia, and the Americas
. By the mid-16th century, Portuguese had become a lingua franca
in Asia and Africa, used not only for colonial administration and trade but also for communication between local officials and Europeans of all nationalities.
Its spread was helped by mixed marriages between Portuguese and local people and by its association with Roman Catholic missionary
efforts, which led to the formation of creole languages
such as that called Kristang
in many parts of Asia (from the word cristão
, "Christian"). The language continued to be popular in parts of Asia until the 19th century. Some Portuguese-speaking Christian communities in India
, Sri Lanka
, and Indonesia
preserved their language even after they were isolated from Portugal.
The end of the Old Portuguese period was marked by the publication of the Cancioneiro Geral
by Garcia de Resende
, in 1516. The early times of Modern Portuguese, which spans the period from the 16th century to the present day, were characterized by an increase in the number of learned words borrowed from Classical Latin
and Classical Greek
because of the Renaissance
(learned words borrowed from Latin also came from Renaissance Latin
, the form of Latin during that time), which greatly enriched the lexicon. Most literate Portuguese speakers were also literate in Latin; and thus they easily adopted Latin words into their writing – and eventually speech – in Portuguese.
Spanish author Miguel de Cervantes
once called Portuguese "the sweet and gracious language", while the Brazilian poet Olavo Bilac
described it as a última flor do Lácio, inculta e bela
("the last flower of Latium
, naive and beautiful"). Portuguese is also termed "the language of Camões", after Luís Vaz de Camões
, one of the greatest literary figures in the Portuguese language and author of the Portuguese epic poem The Lusiads
In March 2006, the Museum of the Portuguese Language
, an interactive museum about the Portuguese language, was founded in São Paulo
, Brazil, the city with the greatest number of Portuguese language speakers in the world.
The museum is the first of its kind in the world.
In 2015 the museum was partially destroyed in a fire,
but restored and reopened in 2020.
Portuguese is the native language of the vast majority of the people in Portugal,
and São Tomé and Príncipe (95%).
Perhaps 75% of the population of urban Angola speaks Portuguese natively,
while approximately 85% fluent; these rates are lower in the countryside.
Just over 50% (and rapidly increasing) of the population of Mozambique are native speakers of Portuguese, and 70% are fluent, according to the 2007 census.
Portuguese is also spoken natively by 30% of the population in Guinea-Bissau, and a Portuguese-based creole is understood by all.
No data is available for Cape Verde, but almost all the population is bilingual, and the monolingual population speaks the Portuguese-based Cape Verdean Creole
. Portuguese is mentioned in the Constitution of South Africa
as one of the languages spoken by communities within the country for which the Pan South African Language Board
was charged with promoting and ensuring respect.
There are also significant Portuguese-speaking immigrant communities in many countries including Andorra
(400,275 people in the 2006 census),France
(900,000 people), Japan
(400,000 people), Jersey
(about 4–5% of the population, mainly refugees from Angola in the north of the country), Paraguay
(10.7% or 636,000 people), Macau
(0.6% or 12,000 people), Switzerland
(196,000 nationals in 2008), Venezuela
and the United States (0.35% of the population or 1,228,126 speakers according to the 2007 American Community Survey
made a formal application for full membership to the CPLP in June 2010, a status given only to states with Portuguese as an official language.
In 2011, Portuguese became its third official language (besides Spanish
and, in July 2014, the country was accepted as a member of the CPLP.
According to The World Factbook
country population estimates for 2018, the population of each of the ten jurisdictions is as follows (by descending order):
- Macau is one of the two autonomous Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China (the other being Anglophone Hong Kong, a former British colony).
- Equatorial Guinea adopted Portuguese as one of its official languages in 2007, being admitted to CPLP in 2014. The use of the Portuguese language in this country is limited.
The combined population of the entire Lusophone
area was estimated at 279 million in July 2017. This number does not include the Lusophone diaspora
, estimated at approximately 10 million people (including 4.5 million Portuguese, 3 million Brazilians, although it is hard to obtain official accurate numbers of diasporic Portuguese speakers because a significant portion of these citizens are naturalized citizens born outside of Lusophone territory or are children of immigrants, and may have only a basic command of the language. Additionally, a large part of the diaspora is a part of the already-counted population of the Portuguese-speaking countries and territories, such as the high number of Brazilian and PALOP
emigrant citizens in Portugal or the high number of Portuguese emigrant citizens in the PALOP and Brazil.
The Portuguese language therefore serves more than 250 million people daily, who have direct or indirect legal, juridical and social contact with it, varying from the only language used in any contact, to only education, contact with local or international administration, commerce and services or the simple sight of road signs, public information and advertising in Portuguese.
Portuguese as a foreign language
Portuguese is a mandatory subject in the school curriculum in Uruguay
Other countries where Portuguese is commonly taught in schools or where it has been introduced as an option include Venezuela
the Republic of the Congo
, Eswatini (Swaziland)
, South Africa
, Ivory Coast
In 2017, a project was launched to introduce Portuguese as a school subject in Zimbabwe
Also, according to Portugal's Minister of Foreign Affairs, the language will be part of the school curriculum of a total of 32 countries by 2020.
In the countries listed below, Portuguese is spoken either as a native language by vast majorities due to the Portuguese colonial past or as a lingua franca
in bordering and multilingual regions, such as on the border between Brazil and Uruguay & Paraguay, as well as Angola and Namibia. In in many other countries, Portuguese is spoken by majorities as a second language. And there are still communities of thousands of Portuguese (or Creole
) first language speakers in Goa
, Sri Lanka
, Kuala Lumpur
, Daman and Diu
, etc. due to Portuguese colonization
. In East Timor, the number of Portuguese speakers is quickly increasing as Portuguese and Brazilian teachers are making great strides in teaching Portuguese in the schools all over the island.
Additionally, there are many large Portuguese immigrant communities all over the world.
According to estimates by UNESCO
, Portuguese is the fastest-growing European language
and the language has, according to the newspaper The Portugal News
publishing data given from UNESCO, the highest potential for growth as an international language in southern Africa
and South America
Portuguese is a globalized language spoken officially on five continents, and as a second language by millions worldwide.
Since 1991, when Brazil signed into the economic community of Mercosul
with other South American nations, namely Argentina, Uruguay and Paraguay, Portuguese is either mandatory, or taught, in the schools of those South American countries.
Although early in the 21st century, after Macau was returned to China and Brazilian immigration to Japan slowed down, the use of Portuguese was in decline in Asia, it is once again becoming a language of opportunity there, mostly because of increased diplomatic and financial ties with economically powerful Portuguese-speaking countries (Brazil, Angola, Mozambique, etc.) in the world.
Ethnically diverse East Timor
has Portuguese as one of its official languages
Você, a pronoun meaning "you", is used for educated, formal, and colloquial respectful speech in most Portuguese-speaking regions. In the Brazilian state of Rio Grande do Sul, você is virtually absent from the spoken language. Riograndense and European Portuguese normally distinguishes formal from informal speech by verbal conjugation. Informal speech employs tu followed by second person verbs, formal language retains the formal você, followed by the third person conjugation.
Conjugation of verbs in tu has three different forms in Brazil (verb "to see": tu viste?, in the traditional second person, tu viu?, in the third person, and tu visse?, in the innovative second person), the conjugation used in the Brazilian states of Pará, Santa Catarina and Maranhão being generally traditional second person, the kind that is used in other Portuguese-speaking countries and learned in Brazilian schools.
The predominance of Southeastern-based media products has established você
as the pronoun of choice for the second person singular in both writing and multimedia communications. However, in the city of Rio de Janeiro, the country's main cultural center, the usage of tu
has been expanding ever since the end of the 20th century,
being most frequent among youngsters, and a number of studies have also shown an increase in its use in a number of other Brazilian dialects.
The status of second person pronouns in Brazil.
Near exclusive use of você (greater than 96%)
Decidedly predominant use of tu (greater than 80%), but with near exclusive third person (você-like) verbal conjugation.
50-50 você/tu variation, with tu being nearly always accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal conjugation.
Decidedly predominant to near exclusive use of tu (76% to 95%) with reasonable frequency of second person (tu-like) verbal conjugation.
Balanced você/tu distribution, being tu exclusively accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal conjugation.
Balanced você/tu distribution, tu being predominantly accompanied by third person (você-like) verbal conjugation.
Modern Standard European Portuguese
(português padrão
or português continental
) is based on the Portuguese spoken in the area including and surrounding the cities of Coimbra
, in central Portugal. Standard European Portuguese is also the preferred standard by the Portuguese-speaking African countries. As such, and despite the fact that its speakers are dispersed around the world, Portuguese has only two dialects used for learning: the European and the Brazilian. Some aspects and sounds found in many dialects of Brazil are exclusive to South America, and cannot be found in Europe. The same occur with the Santomean, Mozambican, Bissau-Guinean, Angolan and Cape Verdean dialects, being exclusive to Africa. See Portuguese in Africa
Audio samples of some dialects and accents of Portuguese are available below.
There are some differences between the areas but these are the best approximations possible. IPA transcriptions refer to the names in local pronunciation.
- Caipira – Spoken in the states of São Paulo (most markedly on the countryside and rural areas); southern Minas Gerais, northern Paraná and southeastern Mato Grosso do Sul. Depending on the vision of what constitutes caipira, Triângulo Mineiro, border areas of Goiás and the remaining parts of Mato Grosso do Sul are included, and the frontier of caipira in Minas Gerais is expanded further northerly, though not reaching metropolitan Belo Horizonte. It is often said that caipira appeared by decreolization of the língua brasílica and the related língua geral paulista, then spoken in almost all of what is now São Paulo, a former lingua franca in most of the contemporary Centro-Sul of Brazil before the 18th century, brought by the bandeirantes, interior pioneers of Colonial Brazil, closely related to its northern counterpart Nheengatu, and that is why the dialect shows many general differences from other variants of the language. It has striking remarkable differences in comparison to other Brazilian dialects in phonology, prosody and grammar, often stigmatized as being strongly associated with a substandard variant, now mostly rural.
- Cearense or Costa norte – is a dialect spoken more sharply in the states of Ceará and Piauí. The variant of Ceará includes fairly distinctive traits it shares with the one spoken in Piauí, though, such as distinctive regional phonology and vocabulary (for example, a debuccalization process stronger than that of Portuguese, a different system of the vowel harmony that spans Brazil from fluminense and mineiro to amazofonia but is especially prevalent in nordestino, a very coherent coda sibilant palatalization as those of Portugal and Rio de Janeiro but allowed in fewer environments than in other accents of nordestino, a greater presence of dental stop palatalization to palato-alveolar in comparison to other accents of nordestino, among others, as well as a great number of archaic Portuguese words).
- Baiano – Found in Bahia, Sergipe, northern Minas Gerais and border regions with Goiás and Tocantins. Similar to nordestino, it has a very characteristic syllable-timed rhythm and the greatest tendency to pronounce unstressed vowels as open-mid [ɛ] and [ɔ].
- Fluminense – A broad dialect with many variants spoken in the states of Rio de Janeiro, Espírito Santo and neighboring eastern regions of Minas Gerais. Fluminense formed in these previously caipira-speaking areas due to the gradual influence of European migrants, causing many people to distance their speech from their original dialect and incorporate new terms. Fluminense is sometimes referred to as carioca, however carioca is a more specific term referring to the accent of the Greater Rio de Janeiro area by speakers with a fluminense dialect.
- Gaúcho – in Rio Grande do Sul, similar to sulista. There are many distinct accents in Rio Grande do Sul, mainly due to the heavy influx of European immigrants of diverse origins who have settled in colonies throughout the state, and to the proximity to Spanish-speaking nations. The gaúcho word in itself is a Spanish loanword into Portuguese of obscure Indigenous Amerindian origins.
Percentage of worldwide Portuguese speakers per country.
- Mineiro – Minas Gerais (not prevalent in the Triângulo Mineiro). As the fluminense area, its associated region was formerly a sparsely populated land where caipira was spoken, but the discovery of gold and gems made it the most prosperous Brazilian region, what attracted Portuguese colonists, commoners from other parts of Brazil and their African slaves. South-southwestern, southeastern and northern areas of the state have fairly distinctive speech, actually approximating to caipira, fluminense (popularly called, often pejoratively, carioca do brejo, "marsh carioca") and baiano respectively. Areas including and surrounding Belo Horizonte have a distinctive accent.
- Nordestino – more marked in the Sertão (7), where, in the 19th and 20th centuries and especially in the area including and surrounding the sertão (the dry land after Agreste) of Pernambuco and southern Ceará, it could sound less comprehensible to speakers of other Portuguese dialects than Galician or Rioplatense Spanish, and nowadays less distinctive from other variants in the metropolitan cities along the coasts. It can be divided in two regional variants, one that includes the northern Maranhão and southern of Piauí, and other that goes from Ceará to Alagoas.
- Nortista or amazofonia – Most of Amazon Basin states, i.e. Northern Brazil. Before the 20th century, most people from the nordestino area fleeing the droughts and their associated poverty settled here, so it has some similarities with the Portuguese dialect there spoken. The speech in and around the cities of Belém and Manaus has a more European flavor in phonology, prosody and grammar.
- Paulistano – Variants spoken around Greater São Paulo in its maximum definition and more easterly areas of São Paulo state, as well perhaps "educated speech" from anywhere in the state of São Paulo (where it coexists with caipira). Caipira is the hinterland sociolect of much of the Central-Southern half of Brazil, nowadays conservative only in the rural areas and associated with them, that has a historically low prestige in cities as Rio de Janeiro, Curitiba, Belo Horizonte, and until some years ago, in São Paulo itself. Sociolinguistics, or what by times is described as 'linguistic prejudice', often correlated with classism, is a polemic topic in the entirety of the country since the times of Adoniran Barbosa. Also, the "Paulistano" accent was heavily influenced by the presence of immigrants in the city of São Paulo, especially the Italians.
- Sertanejo – Center-Western states, and also much of Tocantins and Rondônia. It is closer to mineiro, caipira, nordestino or nortista depending on the location.
- Sulista – The variants spoken in the areas between the northern regions of Rio Grande do Sul and southern regions of São Paulo state, encompassing most of southern Brazil. The city of Curitiba does have a fairly distinct accent as well, and a relative majority of speakers around and in Florianópolis also speak this variant (many speak florianopolitano or manezinho da ilha instead, related to the European Portuguese dialects spoken in Azores and Madeira). Speech of northern Paraná is closer to that of inland São Paulo.
- Florianopolitano – Variants heavily influenced by European Portuguese spoken in Florianópolis city (due to a heavy immigration movement from Portugal, mainly its insular regions) and much of its metropolitan area, Grande Florianópolis, said to be a continuum between those whose speech most resemble sulista dialects and those whose speech most resemble fluminense and European ones, called, often pejoratively, manezinho da ilha.
- Carioca – Not a dialect, but sociolects of the fluminense variant spoken in an area roughly corresponding to Greater Rio de Janeiro. It appeared after locals came in contact with the Portuguese aristocracy amidst the Portuguese royal family fled in the early 19th century. There is actually a continuum between Vernacular countryside accents and the carioca sociolect, and the educated speech (in Portuguese norma culta, which most closely resembles other Brazilian Portuguese standards but with marked recent Portuguese influences, the nearest ones among the country's dialects along florianopolitano), so that not all people native to the state of Rio de Janeiro speak the said sociolect, but most carioca speakers will use the standard variant not influenced by it that is rather uniform around Brazil depending on context (emphasis or formality, for example).
- Brasiliense – used in Brasília and its metropolitan area. It is not considered a dialect, but more of a regional variant – often deemed to be closer to fluminense than the dialect commonly spoken in most of Goiás, sertanejo.
- Arco do desflorestamento or serra amazônica – Known in its region as the "accent of the migrants", it has similarities with caipira, sertanejo and often sulista that make it differing from amazofonia (in the opposite group of Brazilian dialects, in which it is placed along nordestino, baiano, mineiro and fluminense). It is the most recent dialect, which appeared by the settlement of families from various other Brazilian regions attracted by the cheap land offer in recently deforested areas.
- Recifense – used in Recife and its metropolitan area.
Dialects of Portuguese in Portugal
- Micaelense (Açores) (São Miguel) – Azores.
- Alentejano – Alentejo (Alentejan Portuguese)
- Algarvio – Algarve (there is a particular dialect in a small part of western Algarve).
- Minhoto – Districts of Braga and Viana do Castelo (hinterland).
- Beirão; Alto-Alentejano – Central Portugal (hinterland).
- Beirão – Central Portugal.
- Estremenho – Regions of Coimbra and Lisbon (this is a disputed denomination, as Coimbra and is not part of "Estremadura", and the Lisbon dialect has some peculiar features that are not only not shared with that of Coimbra, but also significantly distinct and recognizable to most native speakers from elsewhere in Portugal).
- Madeirense (Madeiran) – Madeira.
- Portuense – Regions of the district of Porto and parts of Aveiro.
- Transmontano – Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro.
Other countries and dependencies
Differences between dialects are mostly of accent
, but between the Brazilian dialects and other dialects, especially in their most colloquial forms, there can also be some grammatical differences. The Portuguese-based creoles
spoken in various parts of Africa, Asia, and the Americas are independent languages.
Characterization and peculiarities
Portuguese, like Catalan
, preserves the stressed vowels of Vulgar Latin
which became diphthongs in most other Romance languages; cf. Port., Cat., Sard. pedra
; Fr. pierre
, Sp. piedra
, It. pietra
, Ro. piatră
, from Lat. petra
("stone"); or Port. fogo
, Cat. foc
, Sard. fogu
; Sp. fuego
, It. fuoco
, Fr. feu
, Ro. foc
, from Lat. focus
("fire"). Another characteristic of early Portuguese was the loss of intervocalic l
, sometimes followed by the merger of the two surrounding vowels, or by the insertion of an epenthetic vowel
between them: cf. Lat. salire
("to exit"), tenere
("to have"), catena
("jail"), Port. sair
When the elided
consonant was n
, it often nasalized
the preceding vowel: cf. Lat. manum
("good"), Old Portuguese mão
). This process was the source of most of the language's distinctive nasal diphthongs. In particular, the Latin endings -anem
in most cases, cf. Lat. canis
("reason") with Modern Port. cão
, and their plurals -anes
normally became -ães
, cf. cães
The Portuguese language is the only Romance language
that preserves the clitic case mesoclisis
: cf. dar-te-ei
(I'll give thee), amar-te-ei
(I'll love you), contactá-los-ei
(I'll contact them). Like Galician
, it also retains the Latin synthetic pluperfect
tense: eu estivera
(I had been), eu vivera
(I had lived), vós vivêreis
(you had lived). Romanian
also has this tense, but uses the -s- form.
Linguistic map of Pre-Roman Iberia
The Central Post Office of Macau, Macau
Incidence of Germanic toponymy in Portugal-Galicia
Most of the lexicon of Portuguese is derived, directly or through other Romance languages, from Latin. Nevertheless, because of its original Lusitanian
and Celtic Gallaecian
heritage, and the later participation of Portugal in the Age of Discovery
, it has a relevant number of words from the ancient Hispano-Celtic group
and adopted loanwords
from other languages around the world.
In the 5th century, the Iberian Peninsula (the Roman Hispania
) was conquered by the Germanic
. As they adopted the Roman civilization and language, however, these people contributed with some 500 Germanic
words to the lexicon. Many of these words are related to warfare – such as espora
('stake'), and guerra
('war'), from Gothic *spaúra
, and *wirro
respectively; the natural world i.e. suino
('swine') from *sweina
('hawk') from *gabilans
('wave') from *vigan'
human emotions such as orgulho
('pride', 'proud') from Old Germanic *urguol
or verbs like gravar
('to craft, record, graft') from *graba
('to squeeze, quash, grind') from Suebian *magōn
('to shred') from *harpō
. The Germanic languages
influence also exists in toponymic surnames
and patronymic surnames
borne by Visigoth sovereigns and their descendants, and it dwells on placenames such as Ermesinde
are derived from the Germanic sinths
('military expedition') and in the case of Resende, the prefix re
comes from Germanic reths
('council'). Other examples of Portuguese names, surnames and town names of Germanic toponymic
origin include Henrique, Henriques
, Vermoim, Mandim, Calquim, Baguim, Gemunde, Guetim, Sermonde and many more, are quite common mainly in the old Suebi
and later Visigothic
dominated regions, covering today's Northern half of Portugal and Galicia
Between the 9th and early 13th centuries, Portuguese acquired some 400 to 600 words from Arabic
by influence of Moorish Iberia
. They are often recognizable by the initial Arabic article a(l)-
, and include common words such as aldeia
('village') from الضيعة alḍaiʿa
('lettuce') from الخس alkhass
('warehouse') from المخزن almakhzan
, and azeite
('olive oil') from الزيت azzait
Starting in the 15th century, the Portuguese maritime explorations led to the introduction of many loanwords from Asian languages. For instance, catana
') from Japanesekatana
('tea') from Chinese chá
, and canja
('chicken-soup, piece of cake') from Malay
From the 16th to the 19th centuries, because of the role of Portugal as intermediary in the Atlantic slave trade
, and the establishment of large Portuguese colonies in Angola, Mozambique, and Brazil, Portuguese acquired several words of African and Amerind
origin, especially names for most of the animals and plants found in those territories. While those terms are mostly used in the former colonies, many became current in European Portuguese as well. From Kimbundu
, for example, came kifumate
('head caress') (Brazil), kusula
('youngest child') (Brazil), marimbondo
('tropical wasp') (Brazil), and kubungula
('to dance like a wizard') (Angola). From South America came batata
'), from Taino
, from Tupi–Guarani naná
and Tupi ibá cati
, respectively (two species of pineapple
), and pipoca
') from Tupi and tucano
') from Guarani tucan
Finally, it has received a steady influx of loanwords from other European languages, especially French and English
. These are by far the most important languages when referring to loanwords. There are many examples such as: colchete
('lipstick'), and filé
('street'), respectively, from French crochet
; and bife
, from English "beef", "football", "revolver", "stock", "folklore".
Examples from other European languages: macarrão ('pasta'), piloto ('pilot'), carroça ('carriage'), and barraca ('barrack'), from Italian maccherone, pilota, carrozza, and baracca; melena ('hair lock'), fiambre ('wet-cured ham') (in Portugal, in contrast with presunto 'dry-cured ham' from Latin prae-exsuctus 'dehydrated') or ('canned ham') (in Brazil, in contrast with non-canned, wet-cured (presunto cozido) and dry-cured (presunto cru)), or castelhano ('Castilian'), from Spanish melena ('mane'), fiambre and castellano.
Classification and related languages
Map showing the historical retreat and expansion of Portuguese (Galician-Portuguese
) within the context of its linguistic neighbors between the year 1000 and 2000.
Map showing mostly contemporary West Iberian
languages, as well many of their mainland European dialects (areas colored green, gold
or pink/purple represent languages deemed endangered
by UNESCO, so this may be outdated in less than a few decades). It shows European Portuguese, Galician
and the Fala
as not only closely related but as dialect continuum
, though it excludes dialects spoken in insular Portugal (Azores and Madeira–Canaries
is not shown either).
Portuguese and other Romance languages (namely French
) share considerable similarities in both vocabulary and grammar. Portuguese speakers will usually need some formal study before attaining strong comprehension in those Romance languages, and vice versa. However, Portuguese and Galician are fully mutually intelligible
, and Spanish is considerably intelligible for lusophones, owing to their genealogical proximity and shared genealogical history as West Iberian
), historical contact between speakers and mutual influence, shared areal features
as well as modern lexical, structural, and grammatical similarity (89%) between them.
/Portunhol, a form of code-switching
, has a more lively use and is more readily mentioned in popular culture in South America. Said code-switching is not to be confused with the Portuñol spoken on the borders of Brazil with Uruguay (dialeto do pampa
) and Paraguay (dialeto dos brasiguaios
), and of Portugal with Spain (barranquenho
), that are Portuguese dialects spoken natively by thousands of people, which have been heavily influenced by Spanish.
Portuguese and Spanish are the only Ibero-Romance languages, and perhaps the only Romance languages with such thriving inter-language forms, in which visible and lively bilingual contact dialects and code-switching have formed, in which functional bilingual communication is achieved through attempting an approximation to the target foreign language (known as 'Portuñol') without a learned acquisition process, but nevertheless facilitates communication. There is an emerging literature focused on such phenomena (including informal attempts of standardization of the linguistic continua and their usage).
Galician-Portuguese in Spain
The closest relative of Portuguese is Galician, which is spoken in the autonomous community (region) and historical nationality
(northwestern Spain). The two were at one time a single language, known today as Galician-Portuguese
, but they have diverged especially in pronunciation and vocabulary due to the political separation of Portugal from Galicia. There is, however, still a linguistic continuity consisting of the variant of Galician referred to as galego-português baixo-limiao
, which is spoken in several Galician villages between the municipalities of Entrimo
and the transborder region of the natural park of Peneda-Gerês/Xurês
. It is "considered a rarity, a living vestige of the medieval language that ranged from Cantabria
As reported by UNESCO, due to the pressure of the Spanish language on the standard official version of the Galician language, the Galician language was on the verge of disappearing.
According to the UNESCO philologist Tapani Salminen, the proximity to Portuguese protects Galician.
Nevertheless, the core vocabulary and grammar of Galician are still noticeably closer to Portuguese than to those of Spanish. In particular, like Portuguese, it uses the future subjunctive, the personal infinitive, and the synthetic pluperfect. Mutual intelligibility (estimated at 90% by R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989)
is excellent between Galicians and northern Portuguese. Many linguists consider Galician
to be a co-dialect of the Portuguese language.
Another member of the Galician-Portuguese group, most commonly thought of as a Galician dialect, is spoken in the Eonavian
region in a western strip in Asturias
and the westernmost parts of the provinces of León
, along the frontier with Galicia, between the Eo
rivers (or more exactly Eo and Frexulfe rivers). It is called eonaviego
by its speakers.
The Fala language, known by its speakers as xalimés
, a fala de Xálima
and in Portuguese as a fala de Xálima
, a fala da Estremadura
, o galego da Estremadura
, is another descendant of Galician-Portuguese, spoken by a small number of people in the Spanish towns of Valverde del Fresno
(Valverdi du Fresnu
) and San Martín de Trevejo
(Sa Martín de Trevellu
) in the autonomous community of Extremadura
, near the border with Portugal.
There are a number of other places in Spain in which the native language of the common people is a descendant of the Galician-Portuguese group, such as La Alamedilla
), Herrera de Alcántara
) and Olivenza
), but in these municipalities, what is spoken is actually Portuguese, not disputed as such in the mainstream.
The diversity of dialects of the Portuguese language is known since the time of medieval Portuguese-Galician language when it coexisted with the Lusitanian-Mozarabic dialect, spoken in the south of Portugal. The dialectal diversity becomes more evident in the work of Fernão d'Oliveira, in the Grammatica da Lingoagem Portuguesa
, (1536), where he remarks that the people of Portuguese regions of Beira, Alentejo, Estremadura, and Entre Douro e Minho, all speak differently from each other. Also Contador d'Argote (1725) distinguishes three main varieties of dialects: the local dialects, the dialects of time, and of profession (work jargon). Of local dialects he highlights five main dialects: the dialect of Estremadura, of Entre-Douro e Minho, of Beira, of Algarve and of Trás-os-Montes. He also makes reference to the overseas dialects, the rustic dialects, the poetic dialect and that of prose.
In the kingdom of Portugal, Ladinho
(or Lingoagem Ladinha
) was the name given to the pure Portuguese romance language, without any mixture of Aravia or Gerigonça Judenga.
While the term língua vulgar
was used to name the language before D. Dinis decided to call it "Portuguese language",
the erudite version used and known as Galician-Portuguese (the language of the Portuguese court) and all other Portuguese dialects were spoken at the same time. In a historical perspective the Portuguese language was never just one dialect. Just like today there is a standard Portuguese (actually two) among the several dialects of Portuguese, in the past there was Galician-Portuguese as the "standard", coexisting with other dialects.
Influence on other languages
See also: List of English words of Portuguese origin
, Loan words in Malayalam § Portuguese
, Loan words in Indonesian
, Japanese words of Portuguese origin
, List of Malay loanwords
, Portuguese loanwords in Sinhala
, Loan words in Sri Lankan Tamil § Portuguese
, Sri Lanka Indo-Portuguese language
, Hindustani etymology § Loanwords from Portuguese
, Gujarati language § Portuguese
, Burmese language
, Bengali vocabulary § Portuguese (পর্তুগিজ Pôrtugij)
, Thai language § Portuguese-origin
, Chittagonian language
, and Tok Pisin
Portuguese has provided loanwords
to many languages, such as Indonesian
, Manado Malay
, Sri Lankan Tamil
(spoken in Iran) and Sranan Tongo
(spoken in Suriname). It left a strong influence on the língua brasílica
, a Tupi–Guarani language
, which was the most widely spoken in Brazil until the 18th century, and on the language spoken around Sikka
. In nearby Larantuka
, Portuguese is used for prayers in Holy Week rituals. The Japanese–Portuguese dictionary Nippo Jisho
(1603) was the first dictionary of Japanese in a European language, a product of Jesuit
missionary activity in Japan. Building on the work of earlier Portuguese missionaries, the Dictionarium Anamiticum, Lusitanum et Latinum (Annamite–Portuguese–Latin dictionary) of Alexandre de Rhodes
(1651) introduced the modern orthography of Vietnamese
, which is based on the orthography of 17th-century Portuguese. The Romanization
was also influenced by the Portuguese language (among others), particularly regarding Chinese surnames
; one example is Mei
. During 1583–88 Italian Jesuits Michele Ruggieri
and Matteo Ricci
created a Portuguese–Chinese dictionary – the first ever European–Chinese dictionary.
For instance, as Portuguese merchants
were presumably the first to introduce the sweet orange
in Europe, in several modern Indo-European languages
the fruit has been named after them. Some examples are Albanian portokall
, Bosnian (archaic) portokal
, Bulgarian портокал
), Greek πορτοκάλι
), Macedonian portokal
, Persian پرتقال
), and Romanian portocală
Related names can be found in other languages, such as Arabic البرتقال
), Turkish portakal
and Amharic birtukan
Also, in southern Italian dialects
), an orange is portogallo
, literally "(the) Portuguese (one)", in contrast to standard Italian arancia
Beginning in the 16th century, the extensive contacts between Portuguese travelers and settlers, African and Asian slaves, and local populations led to the appearance of many pidgins
with varying amounts of Portuguese influence. As each of these pidgins became the mother tongue of succeeding generations, they evolved into fully fledged creole languages, which remained in use in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America until the 18th century. Some Portuguese-based or Portuguese-influenced creoles are still spoken today, by over 3 million people worldwide, especially people of partial Portuguese
There is a maximum of 9 oral vowels, 2 semivowels and 21 consonants; though some varieties of the language have fewer phonemes
. There are also five nasal vowels
, which some linguists regard as allophones
of the oral vowels. Galician-Portuguese developed in the region of the former Roman province of Gallaecia
, from the Vulgar Latin
(common Latin) that had been introduced by Roman soldiers, colonists and magistrates during the time of the Roman Empire
. Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism, completely extinguished the native languages, leading to the evolution of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features.
An early form of Galician-Portuguese was already spoken in the Kingdom of the Suebi
and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese had already become the vernacular
of northwestern Iberia.
The first known phonetic
changes in Vulgar Latin, which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese, took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suebi
(411–585) and Visigoths
The Galician-Portuguese "inflected infinitive" (or "personal infinitive")
and the nasal vowels
may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic
, (as in Old French
The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman Gallaecia
, but they are not attested in writing until after the 6th and 7th centuries.
Chart of monophthongs of the Portuguese of Lisbon, with its /ɐ, ɐ̃/ in central schwa
, Portuguese uses vowel quality to contrast stressed syllables with unstressed syllables. Unstressed isolated vowels tend to be raised
and sometimes centralized.
- Semivowels contrast with unstressed high vowels in verbal conjugation, as in (eu) rio /ˈʁi.u/ and (ele) riu /ˈʁiw/. Phonologists discuss whether their nature is vowel or consonant.
- In most of Brazil and Angola, the consonant hereafter denoted as /ɲ/ is realized as a nasal palatal approximant [j̃], which nasalizes the vowel that precedes it: [ˈnĩj̃u].
- Bisol (2005:122) proposes that Portuguese possesses labio-velar stops /kʷ/ and /ɡʷ/ as additional phonemes rather than sequences of a velar stop and /w/.
- The consonant hereafter denoted as /ʁ/ has a variety of realizations depending on dialect. In Europe, it is typically a uvular trill [ʀ]; however, a pronunciation as a voiced uvular fricative [ʁ] may be becoming dominant in urban areas. There is also a realization as a voiceless uvular fricative [χ], and the original pronunciation as an alveolar trill [r] also remains very common in various dialects. A common realization of the word-initial /r/ in the Lisbon accent is a voiced uvular fricative trill [ʀ̝]. In Brazil, /ʁ/ can be velar, uvular, or glottal and may be voiceless unless between voiced sounds. It is usually pronounced as a voiceless velar fricative [x], a voiceless glottal fricative [h] or voiceless uvular fricative [χ]. See also Guttural R in Portuguese.
- /s/ and /z/ are normally lamino-alveolar, as in English. However, a number of dialects in northern Portugal pronounce /s/ and /z/ as apico-alveolar sibilants (sounding somewhat like a soft [ʃ] or [ʒ]), as in the Romance languages of northern Iberia. A very few northeastern Portugal dialects still maintain the medieval distinction between apical and laminal sibilants (written s/ss and c/ç/z, respectively).
- As a phoneme, /tʃ/ occurs only in loanwords, with a tendency for speakers to substitute in /ʃ/. However, [tʃ] is an allophone of /t/ before /i/ in a number of Brazilian dialects. Similarly, [dʒ] is an allophone of /d/ in the same contexts.
- In northern and central Portugal, the voiced stops (/b/, /d/, and /ɡ/) are usually lenited to fricatives [β], [ð], and [ɣ], respectively, except at the beginning of words or after nasal vowels.
A notable aspect of the grammar of Portuguese is the verb. Morphologically, more verbal inflections from classical Latin have been preserved by Portuguese than by any other major Romance language
. Portuguese and Spanish share very similar grammar. Portuguese also has some grammatical innovations not found in other Romance languages (except Galician and Fala):
- The present perfect has an iterative sense unique to the Galician-Portuguese language group. It denotes an action or a series of actions that began in the past but expected to occur again in the future. For instance, the sentence Tenho tentado falar consigo would be translated to "I have been trying to talk to her", not "I have tried to talk to her." On the other hand, the correct translation of "Have you heard the latest news?" is not *Tens ouvido as últimas? but Ouviste as últimas? since no repetition is implied.
- Vernacular Portuguese makes use of the future subjunctive mood, which developed from medieval West Iberian Romance. In modern Spanish and Galician, it has almost entirely fallen into disuse. The future subjunctive appears in dependent clauses that denote a condition that must be fulfilled in the future so that the independent clause will occur. English normally employs the present tense under the same circumstances:
Se eu for eleito presidente, mudarei a lei.
If I am elected president, I will change the law.
Quando fores mais velho, vais entender.
When you grow older, you will understand.
The personal infinitive
according to its subject in person
. It often shows who is expected to perform a certain action. É melhor voltares
"It is better [for you] to go back," É melhor voltarmos
"It is better [for us] to go back." Perhaps for that reason, infinitive clauses replace subjunctive clauses more often in Portuguese than in other Romance languages.
The spelling of Portuguese is largely phonemic
, but some phonemes
can be spelled in more than one way. In ambiguous cases, the correct spelling is determined through a combination of etymology
and tradition; so there is not a perfect one-to-one correspondence between sounds and letters or digraphs. Knowing the main inflectional
paradigms of Portuguese and being acquainted with the orthography of other Western European languages can be helpful.
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- ^ "Livro do MEC ensina o português errado ou apenas valoriza as formas linguísticas?". Jornal de Beltrão (in Portuguese). 26 May 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2012.
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- ^ "Fala Norte" [North Speech]. FalaUNASP (in Portuguese). 24 November 2010. Archived from the original on 22 December 2012. Retrieved 25 September 2012.
- ^ Giorgi, Alessandra; Pianesi, Fabio (1997). "On the Italian, Latin, and Portuguese Temporal Systems". Tense and Aspect: From Semantics to Morphosyntax. ISBN 978-0-19-509193-9.
- ^ "Canja". Dicionário Priberam.
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- ^ Penny, Ralph (2000). Variation and Change in Spanish. Cambridge University Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-521-78045-2.
- ^ Dalby, Andrew (1998). Dictionary of Languages: The Definitive Reference to More Than 400 Languages. Columbia University Press. p. 501. ISBN 978-0-231-11568-1. how well do spanish speakers understand portuguese?.
- ^ Ginsburgh, Victor; Weber, Shlomo (2011). How Many Languages Do We Need?: The Economics of Linguistic Diversity. Princeton University Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-691-13689-9.
- ^ a b Lipski, John M (2006). Face, Timothy L; Klee, Carol A (eds.). Too close for comfort? the genesis of 'portuñol/portunhol' (PDF). Selected Proceedings of the 8th Hispanic Linguistics Symposium. pp. 1–22. Retrieved 21 June 2015.
- ^ a b A Fala Galego-Portuguesa da Baixa-Limia e Castro Laboreiro [The Galician-Portuguese Speech of Baixa-Limia and Castro Laboreiro] (PDF) (in Portuguese), retrieved 5 October 2018
- ^ "O galego deixa de ser unha das linguas 'en perigo' para a Unesco" [Galician is no longer one of the "endangered" languages for Unesco]. Galicia Hoxe (in Galician). 20 February 2009. Retrieved 30 May 2015.
- ^ "Galician". Ethnologue. Retrieved 21 April 2010.
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- ^ Camus, Yves. "Jesuits' Journeys in Chinese Studies" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
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- ^ a b "Multilingual Multiscript Plant Name Database: Sorting Citrus Names". University of Melbourne <http://www.search.unimelb.edu.au>. Retrieved 11 December 2012.
- ^ Ostergren, Robert C. & Le Bosse, Mathias (2011). The Europeans, Second Edition: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment. Guilford Press. p. 129. ISBN 978-1-60918-140-6.
- ^ Handbook of the International Phonetic Association pp. 126–130
- ^ Luján Martínez, Eugenio R. (2006). "The language(s) of the Callaeci". E-Keltoi: Journal of Interdisciplinary Celtic Studies. 6: 715–748. ISSN 1540-4889.
- ^ Piel, Joseph-Maria (1989). "Origens e estruturação histórica do léxico português" [Origins and historical structure of the Portuguese lexicon]. Estudos de Linguística Histórica Galego-Portuguesa [Studies in Galician-Portuguese Historical Linguistics] (PDF) (in Portuguese). Lisboa: IN-CM. pp. 9–16. Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 February 2008.
- ^ Such as Bolso: A Toponímia Céltica e os vestígios de cultura material da Proto-História de Portugal. Freire, José. Revista de Guimarães, Volume Especial, I, Guimarães, 1999, pp. 265–275 Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. (PDF) . Retrieved on 14 November 2011.
- ^ Cabeza Quiles, Fernando (2014). A toponimia celta de Galicia. Noia: Toxosoutos. ISBN 978-84-942224-4-3.
- ^ a b "As origens do romance galego-português" [The origins of the Galician-Portuguese romance language]. História da Língua Portuguesa em linha (in Portuguese). Instituto Camões.
- ^ Alinei, Mario; Benozzo, Francesco (2008). Alguns aspectos da Teoria da Continuidade Paleolítica aplicada à região galega [Some aspects of the Paleolithic Continuity Theory applied to the Galician region] (PDF) (in Portuguese). ISBN 978-989-618-200-7. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- ^ Raposo, Eduardo. "Prepositional Infinitival Constructions in European Portuguese". doi:10.1007/978-94-009-2540-3_10.
- ^ "Comparative Grammar of Latin 34: Language Contact" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 September 2007.
- ^ Silva, Luís Fraga da. "Ethnologic Map of Pre-Roman Iberia (circa 200 B.C.)". Arkeotavira.com. Archived from the original on 25 November 2011. Retrieved 14 November 2011.
- ^ "Fonética histórica" [Historical phonetics]. História da Língua Portuguesa em linha (in Portuguese). Instituto Camões. Archived from the original on 22 September 2007.
- ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:91)
- ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228–229)
- ^ Carvalho, Joana (2012). "Sobre os Ditongos do Português Europeu" (PDF). ELingUp (in Portuguese). 4 (1): 20. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 November 2015. A conclusão será que nos encontramos em presença de dois segmentos fonológicos /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/, respetivamente, com uma articulação vocálica. Bisol (2005:122), tal como Freitas (1997), afirma que não estamos em presença de um ataque ramificado. Neste caso, a glide, juntamente com a vogal que a sucede, forma um ditongo no nível pós-lexical. Esta conclusão implica um aumento do número de segmentos no inventário segmental fonológico do português.
- ^ a b Bisol (2005:122). Quotation: A proposta é que a sequencia consoante velar + glide posterior seja indicada no léxico como uma unidade monofonemática /kʷ/ e /ɡʷ/. O glide que, nete caso, situa-se no ataque não-ramificado, forma com a vogal seguinte um ditongo crescente em nível pós lexical. Ditongos crescentes somente se formam neste nível. Em resumo, a consoante velar e o glide posterior, quando seguidos de a/o, formam uma só unidade fonológica, ou seja, um segmento consonantal com articulação secundária vocálica, em outros termos, um segmento complexo.
- ^ Rodrigues (2012:39–40)
- ^ Bisol (2005:123)
- ^ Thomas (1974:8)
- ^ Perini, Mário Alberto (2002), Modern Portuguese (A Reference Grammar), New Haven: Yale University Press, ISBN 978-0-300-09155-7
- ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:5–6, 11)
- ^ Grønnum (2005:157)
- ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:228)
- ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
- ^ Mateus & d'Andrade (2000:11)
- ^ Squartini, Mario (1998). Verbal Periphrases in Romance: Aspect, Actionality, and Grammaticalization. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-016160-1. OCLC 39007172.
Phonology, orthography and grammar
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- Grønnum, Nina (2005), Fonetik og fonologi, Almen og Dansk (3rd ed.), Copenhagen: Akademisk Forlag, ISBN 978-87-500-3865-8
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