is an affix
which is placed before the stem
of a word.
Adding it to the beginning of one word changes it into another word. For example, when the prefix un-
is added to the word happy
, it creates the word unhappy
. Particularly in the study of languages, a prefix is also called a preformative
, because it alters the form of the words to which it is affixed.
, there are no inflectional prefixes; English uses suffixes
instead for that purpose.
The word prefix
is itself made up of the stem fix
(meaning "attach", in this case), and the prefix pre-
(meaning "before"), both of which are derived from Latin roots
List of English derivational prefixes
This is a fairly comprehensive, although not exhaustive, list of derivational prefixes in English. Depending on precisely how one defines a derivational prefix, some of the neoclassical combining forms
may or may not qualify for inclusion in such a list. This list takes the broad view that acro-
count as English derivational prefixes because they function the same way that prefixes such as over-
The one, old, fat farmer goes.
Bad child! (scolding)
As a part of the formation of nouns, prefixes are less common in Russian than suffixes, but alter the meaning of a word.
пред- and положение 'position' becomesпредположение 'supposition'
'formation (verb)' becomes преобразование
In German, derivatives
formed with prefixes may be classified in two categories: those used with substantives and adjectives, and those used with verbs.
For derivative substantives and adjectives, only two productive
prefixes are generally addable to any substantive or adjective as of 1970: un-
, which expresses negation (as in ungesund
, from gesund
), and ur-
, which means "original, primitive" in substantives, and has an emphatic function in adjectives. ge-
, on the other hand, expresses union or togetherness, but only in a closed group of words—it cannot simply be added to any noun or adjective.
Verbal prefixes commonly in use are be-
, and zer-
(see also Separable verb
expresses strengthening or generalization. ent-
expresses negation. ge-
indicates the completion of an action, which is why its most common use has become the forming of the past participle
of verbs; ver-
has an emphatic function, or it is used to turn a substantive or an adjective into a verb.
In some cases, the prefix particle ent-
(negation) can be considered the opposite of particle be-
, while er-
can be considered the opposite of ver-
The prefix er-
usually indicates the successful completion of an action, and sometimes the conclusion means death.
With fewer verbs, it indicates the beginning of an action.
The prefix er-
is also used to form verbs from adjectives (e.g. erkalten
is equivalent to kalt werden
which means "to get cold").
- ^ a b Wilson 2011, p. 152–153.
- ^ Beard, Robert (1998). "She Derivation". The Handbook of Morphology. Blackwell. pp. 44–45.
- ^ Miyake, Yoshimi (1999). The Japanese deferential prefix o: A natural history (PhD). University of Michigan. hdl:2027.42/131729. Retrieved 2021-05-12.
- ^ Kaiser, Stefan; Ichikawa, Yasuko; Kobayashi, Noriko; Yamamoto, Hilofumi (2013). Japanese: A Comprehensive Grammar. pp. 29–31. ISBN 9780415687393.
- ^ Nurse & Philippson (2003). The Bantu Languages. Routledge. pp. 103–110.
- ^ Young & Morgan (1980). The Navajo Language: A Grammar and Colloquial Dictionary. University of New Mexico Press. p. 99.
- ^ Borchers, D. (2008). A Grammar of Sunwar: Descriptive Grammar, Paradigms, Texts and Glossary. Brill Academic Publishers. p. 169.
- ^ Wade, T. (2000). A Comprehensive Russian Grammar. Blackwell Publishers. pp. 32, 33. ISBN 9781405136396.
- ^ a b c Chambers, W. Walker and Wilkie, John R. (1970) A Short History of the German Language, London: Methuen & Company, Ltd., p. 63
- ^ a b Cf. Chambers, W. Walker and Wilkie, John R. (1970) A Short History of the German Language, London: Methuen & Company, Ltd., p. 63
- ^ Daniel Boileau (1820) The Nature and Genius of the German Language pp. 203, 211
- ^ Maylor, B. Roger (2002) Lexical template morphology: change of state and the verbal prefixes in German p. 12
- ^ a b c Schmidt, Karla (1974) Easy ways to enlarge your German vocabulary p. 86
Look up prefix
in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
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Last edited on 9 June 2021, at 19:53
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