Present tense - Wikipedia
Present tense
  (Redirected from Present indicative)
For other uses, see Present tense (disambiguation).
The present tense (abbreviated pres or prs) is a grammatical tense whose principal function is to locate a situation or event in the present time.[1] The present tense is used for actions which are happening now. In order to explain and understand present tense, it is useful to imagine time as a line on which the past tense, the present and the future tense are positioned. The term present tense is usually used in descriptions of specific languages to refer to a particular grammatical form or set of forms; these may have a variety of uses, not all of which will necessarily refer to present time. For example, in the English sentence "My train leaves tomorrow morning", the verb form leaves is said to be in the present tense, even though in this particular context it refers to an event in future time. Similarly, in the historical present, the present tense is used to narrate events that occurred in the past.
There are two common types of present tense form in most Indo-European languages: the present indicative (the combination of present tense and indicative mood) and the present subjunctive (the combination of present tense and subjunctive mood). The present tense is mainly classified into four parts:
  1. Simple present
  2. Present perfect
  3. Present continuous
  4. Present perfect continuous
Use
The present indicative of most verbs in modern English has the same form as the infinitive, except for the third-person singular form, which takes the ending -[e]s. The verb be has the forms am, is, are. For details see English verbs. For the present subjunctive, see English subjunctive.
A number of multi-word constructions exist to express the combinations of present tense with the basic form of the present tense is called the simple present; there are also constructions known as the present progressive (or present continuous) (e.g. am writing), the present perfect (e.g. have written), and the present perfect progressive (e.g. have been writing).
Use of the present tense does not always imply the present time. In particular, the present tense is often used to refer to future events (I am seeing James tomorrow; My train leaves at 3 o'clock this afternoon). This is particularly the case in condition clauses and many other adverbial subordinate clauses: If you see him,...; As soon as they arrive... There is also the historical present, in which the present tense is used to narrate past events.
For details of the uses of present tense constructions in English, see Uses of English verb forms.
Hellenic languages
Modern Greek present indicative tense
In Modern Greek, the present tense is used in a similar way to the present tense in English and can represent the present continuous as well. As with some other conjugations in Greek, some verbs in the present tense accept different (but equivalent) forms of use for the same person. What follows are examples of present tense conjugation in Greek for the verbs βλέπω (see), τρώω (eat) and αγαπώ (love).
 βλέπωτρώω, τρώγωαγαπώ, αγαπάω
εγώ Iβλέπωτρώω, τρώγωαγαπώ, αγαπάω
εσύ thouβλέπειςτρως, τρώειςαγαπάς
αυτός/αυτή/αυτό he/she/itβλέπειτρώει, τρώγειαγαπά(ει)
εμείς weβλέπουμετρώμε, τρώγομε, τρώγουμεαγαπάμε, αγαπούμε
εσείς you (pl.)βλέπετετρώτε, τρώγετεαγαπάτε
αυτοί/αυτές/αυτά theyβλέπουν(ε)τρών(ε), τρώγουν(ε)αγαπούν(ε), αγαπάν(ε)
Romance languages
The Romance languages are derived from Latin, and in particular western Vulgar Latin. As a result, their usages and forms are similar.
Latin present indicative tense
The Latin present tense can be translated as progressive or simple present. Here are examples of the present indicative tense conjugation in Latin.
 plicāredebēredicerecuperescīre
conjugation1st2nd3rd3rd4th
egoplicōdebeōdīcōcupiōsciō
tuplicāsdebēsdīciscupisscīs
is, ea, idplicatdebetdicitcupitscit
nosplicāmusdebēmusdīcimuscupimusscīmus
vosplicātisdebētisdīcitiscupitisscītis
ei, eae, eaplicantdebentdīcuntcupiuntsciunt
French present indicative tense
In French, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. Below is an example of present tense conjugation in French.
 parler
jeparleperdsfinispars
tuparlesperdsfinispars
il/elle/onparleperdfinitpart
nousparlonsperdonsfinissonspartons
vousparlezperdezfinissezpartez
ils/ellesparlentperdentfinissentpartent
The present indicative is commonly used to express the present continuous. For example, Jean mange may be translated as John eats, John is eating. To emphasise the present continuous, expressions such as "en train de" may be used. For example, Jean est en train de manger may be translated as John is eating, John is in the middle of eating. On est en train de chercher un nouvel appartement may be translated as We are looking for a new apartment, We are in the process of finding a new apartment.
Italian present indicative tense
In Italian, the present tense is used similarly to that of English. What follows is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Italian.
 parlarevederesentire
ioparlovedosento
tuparlivedisenti
egli/ellaparlavedesente
noiparliamovediamosentiamo
voiparlatevedetesentite
essi/esseparlanovedonosentono
Portuguese and Spanish present indicative tense
The present tenses of Portuguese and Spanish are similar in form, and are used in similar ways. What follows are examples of the present indicative conjugation in Portuguese.
Pronounfalarcomerinsistirterser
eufalocomoinsistotenhosou
tufalascomesinsistestensés
ele/ela/vocêfalacomeinsistetemé
nósfalamoscomemosinsistimostemossomos
vósfalaiscomeisinsististendessois
eles/elas/vocêsfalamcomeminsistemtêmsão
There follow examples of the corresponding conjugation in Spanish.
Pronounhablarcomerinsistirtenerser
yohablocomoinsistotengosoy
hablascomesinsistestieneseres
él/ella/ustedhablacomeinsistetienees
nosotroshablamoscomemosinsistimostenemossomos
vosotroshabláiscoméisinsistístenéissois
ellos/ellas/ustedeshablancomeninsistentienenson
Slavic languages
Bulgarian present indicative tense
In Bulgarian, the present indicative tense of imperfective verbs is used in a very similar way to the present indicative in English. It can also be used as present progressive. Below is an example of present indicative tense conjugation in Bulgarian.
 писати*
pisati
говорити*
govoriti
искати*
iskati
отваряти*
otvarjati
аз
az
пиша
piša
говоря
govorja
искам
iskam
отварям
otvarjam
ти
ti
пишеш
pišeš
говориш
govoriš
искаш
iskaš
отваряш
otvarjaš
той, тя, то
toj, tja, to
пише
piše
говори
govori
иска
iska
отваря
otvarja
ние
nie
пишем
pišem
говорим
govorim
искаме
iskame
отваряме
otvarjame
вие
vie
пишете
pišete
говорите
govorite
искате
iskate
отваряте
otvarjate
те
te
пишат
pišat
говорят
govorjat
искат
iskat
отварят
otvarjat
*Archaic, no infinitive in the modern language.
Macedonian present tense
The present tense of the Macedonian language is made of the imperfective verbs. The following table shows the conjugation of the verbs write (пишува/pišuva), speak (зборува/zboruva), want (сака/saka) and open (отвaра/otvara).
 пишува
pišuva
зборува
zboruva
сака
saka
отвaрa
otvara
јас
jas
пишувам
pišuvam
зборувам
zboruvam
сакам
sakam
отвaрам
otvaram
ти
ti
пишуваш
pišuvaš
зборуваш
zboruvaš
сакаш
sakaš
отвaраш
otvaraš
тој, таа, тоа
toj, taa, toa
пишува
pišuva
зборува
zboruva
сака
saka
отвaра
otvara
ние
nie
пишуваме
pišuvame
зборуваме
zboruvame
сакаме
sakame
отвaраме
otvarame
вие
vie
пишувате
pišuvate
зборувате
zboruvate
сакате
sakate
отвaрате
otvarate
тие
tie
пишуваат
pišuvaat
зборуваат
zboruvaat
сакаат
sakaat
отвaраат
otvaraat
See also
References
^ Comrie, Bernard (1985). Tense. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-23652-5.
Last edited on 1 June 2021, at 19:23
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