A protectorate is different from a colony
as they have local rulers, are not directly possessed and rarely experience colonization
by the suzerain state.
However, some sources term a state that remains under the protection of another state while retaining its independence as a protected state
, different from a protectorate,
while other sources use the terms like synonyms.
Protectorates form one of the oldest features of international relations, dating back to the Roman Empire. Civitates foederatae
were cities that were subordinate to Rome for their foreign relations. In the Middle Ages, Andorra
was a protectorate of France and Spain. Modern protectorate concepts were devised in the nineteenth century.
In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations
only with and transfers the management of all its more important international affairs to the protector.
Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation
in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.
Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates
and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto
A protected state has a form of protection where it continues to retain an "international personality" and enjoys an agreed amount of independence in conducting its foreign policy.
For political and pragmatic reasons, the relationship of protection is not usually advertised, but described in euphemisms such as "an independent state with special treaty relations" with the protecting state.
A protected state appears on world maps just as any other independent state.[a]
International administration of a state can also be regarded as an internationalized form of protection, where the protector is an international organisation rather than a state.
Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto
condition similar to a colony, but the pre-existing native state
continuing as the agent of indirect rule
. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by another form of indirect rule: a chartered company
, which becomes a de facto
state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country with its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.
In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement
of February 26, 1885, allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa
(the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa
. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony
for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories, over which it held (de facto
) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.
In amical protection as of United States of the Ionian Islands
by Britain, the terms are often very favourable for the protectorate.
The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, or dynastic
, historical, or ethnocultural ties). Also, the protector's interest is in countering a rival or enemy power such as preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance. This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations but may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have a similar use of them without the protector's strength.
Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers
to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance.[ambiguous]
After 1815, non-Christian states (such as the Chinese Qing dynasty
) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.
In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates
. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".
De facto protectorates
British protectorates and protected states
Rest of Asia
*protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name
- Trumon Sultanate (1770?), Langkat Sultanate (26 October 1869), Deli Sultanate (22 August 1862), Asahan Sultanate (27 September 1865), Siak Sultanate (1 February 1858) and Indragiri Sultanate (1838?) in Sumatra
- Jogjakarta Sultanate (13 February 1755), Mataram Empire and Surakarta Sunanate (26 February 1677), Duchy of Mangkunegara (24 February 1757) and Duchy of Paku Alaman (22 June 1812) in Java.
- Sumbawa Sultanate (?) and Bima Sultanate (8 December 1669) in Lesser Sunda Islands.
- Pontianak Sultanate (16 August 1819), Sambas Sultanate (1819), Kubu Sultanate (4 June 1823), Landak Sultanate (?), Mempawah Sultanate (?), Matan Sultanate (?), Sanggau Sultanate (?), Sekadau Sultanate (?), Simpang Sultanate (?), Sintang Sultanate (1822), Sukadana Sultanate (?), Kota Waringin Sultanate (?), Kutai Kertanegara Sultanate (8 August 1825), Gunung Tabur Sultanate (?) and Bulungan Sultanate (?) in Borneo.
- Gowa Sultanate (1669), Bone Sultanate (?), Sidenreng Sultanate (?), Soppeng Sultanate (?), Butung Sultanate (?), Muna Sultanate (?) and Banggai Sultanate (?) in Celebes.
- Ternate (12 October 1676) and Batjan Sultanate (?) in The Moluccas.
- Kaimana Sultanate (?) in Dutch New Guinea.
Arab world and Madagascar
- Comoros 21 April 1886 French protectorate (Anjouan) until 25 July 1912 when annexed.
- Present Djibouti was originally, since 24 June 1884, the Territory of Obock and Protectorate of Tadjoura (Territoires Français d'Obock, Tadjoura, Dankils et Somalis), a French protectorate recognized by Britain on 9 February 1888, renamed on 20 May 1896 as French Somaliland (Côte Française des Somalis).
- Mauritania on 12 May 1903 French protectorate; within Mauritanian several traditional states:
- Adrar emirate since 9 January 1909 French protectorate (before Spanish)
- The Taganit confederation's emirate (founded by Idaw `Ish dynasty), since 1905 under French protectorate.
- Brakna confederation's emirate
- Emirate of Trarza: 15 December 1902 placed under French protectorate status.
- Morocco – most of the sultanate was under French protectorate (30 March 1912 – 7 April 1956) although, in theory, it remained a sovereign state under the Treaty of Fez; this[which?] fact was confirmed by the International Court of Justice in 1952.
- Traditional Madagascar States
Kingdom of Imerina
under French protectorate, 6 August 1896. French Madagascar colony, 28 February 1897.
- Tunisia (12 May 1881 – 20 March 1956): became a French protectorate by treaty
The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces
expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa
was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule
gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles
, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.
- Benin traditional states
- Independent of Danhome , under French protectorate, from 1889
- Porto-Novo a French protectorate, 23 February 1863 – 2 January 1865. Cotonou a French Protectorate, 19 May 1868. Porto-Novo French protectorate, 14 April 1882.
- Central African Republic traditional states:
- French protectorate over Dar al-Kuti (1912 Sultanate suppressed by the French), 12 December 1897
- French protectorate over the Sultanate of Bangassou, 1894
- Burkina Faso was since 20 February 1895 a French protectorate named Upper Volta (Haute-Volta)
- Chad: Baghirmi state 20 September 1897 a French protectorate
- Côte d'Ivoire: 10 January 1889 French protectorate of Ivory Coast
- Guinea: 5 August 1849 French protectorate over coastal region; (Riviéres du Sud).
- Niger, Sultanate of Damagaram (Zinder), 30 July 1899 under French protectorate over the native rulers, titled Sarkin Damagaram or Sultan
- Senegal: 4 February 1850 First of several French protectorate treaties with local rulers
- French Polynesia , mainly the Society Islands (several others were immediately annexed). All eventually were annexed by 1889.
- Otaheiti (native king styled Ari`i rahi) becomes a French protectorate known as Tahiti, 1842–1880
- Raiatea and Tahaa (after temporary annexation by Otaheiti; (title Ari`i) a French protectorate, 1880)
- Mangareva (one of the Gambier Islands; ruler title `Akariki) a French protectorate, 16 February 1844 (unratified) and 30 November 1871
- Wallis and Futuna:
- Wallis declared to be a French protectorate by King of Uvea and Captain Mallet, 4 November 1842. Officially in a treaty becomes a French protectorate, 5 April 1887.
- Sigave and Alo on the islands of Futuna and Alofi signed a treaty establishing a French protectorate on 16 February 1888.
The German Empire
used the word Schutzgebiet
, literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included:
Indian protectorates and protected states
In the colonial empire:
- Ethiopia : 2 May 1889 Treaty of Wuchale, in the Italian language version, stated that Ethiopia was to become an Italian protectorate, while the Ethiopian Amharic language version merely stated that the Emperor could, if he so chose, go through Italy to conduct foreign affairs. When the differences in the versions came to light, Emperor Menelik II abrogated first the article in question (XVII), and later the whole treaty. The event culminated in the First Italo-Ethiopian War, in which Ethiopia was victorious and defended her sovereignty in 1896.
- Libya: on 15 October 1912 Italian protectorate declared over Cirenaica (Cyrenaica) until 17 May 1919.
- Somalia: 3 August 1889 Benadir Coast Italian protectorate (in the northeast; unoccupied until May 1893), until 16 March 1905 when it changed to Italian Somaliland.
- Majeerteen Sultanate since 7 April 1889 under Italian protectorate (renewed 7 April 1895), then in 1927 incorporated into the Italian colony.
- Sultanate of Hobyo since December 1888 under Italian protectorate (renewed 11 April 1895), then in October 1925 incorporated into the Italian colony (known as Obbia).
De facto protectorates
protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone (Cape Juby
) until 2 April 1958).
De facto protectorate
United States protectorates
Contemporary usage by the United States
Some agencies of the United States government
, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency
, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas
of the United States such as Guam
, the Northern Mariana Islands
, Puerto Rico
and the U.S. Virgin Islands
This was also the case with the Philippines
and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment
) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule
was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States
but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society
. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence
from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans
and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States
and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society
However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs
(OIA) within the United States Department of Interior
, uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate.
United Nations protectorates
- ^ Protected state in this technical sense is distinguished from the informal usage of "protected state" used for distinguishing the receiving state of protection from the protecting state.
- ^ Some scholars regard the relationship as one of Priest-patron rather than a protectorate.
- ^ a b c Fuess, Albrecht (1 January 2005). "Was Cyprus a Mamluk protectorate? Mamluk policies toward Cyprus between 1426 and 1517". Journal of Cyprus Studies. 11 (28–29): 11–29. ISSN 1303-2925. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ a b c Reisman, W. (1 January 1989). "Reflections on State Responsibility for Violations of Explicit Protectorate, Mandate, and Trusteeship Obligations". Michigan Journal of International Law. 10 (1): 231–240. ISSN 1052-2867. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ a b c Bojkov, Victor D. "Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Post-1995 political system and its functioning" (PDF). Southeast European Politics 4.1: 41–67.
- ^ Leys, Colin (2014). "The British ruling class". Socialist Register. 50. ISSN 0081-0606. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- ^ Kirkwood, Patrick M. (21 July 2016). ""Lord Cromer's Shadow": Political Anglo-Saxonism and the Egyptian Protectorate as a Model in the American Philippines". Journal of World History. 27 (1): 1–26. doi:10.1353/jwh.2016.0085. ISSN 1527-8050. S2CID 148316956. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
- ^ Rubenson, Sven (1966). "Professor Giglio, Antonelli and Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale". The Journal of African History. 7 (3): 445–457. doi:10.1017/S0021853700006526. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 180113. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ Archer, Francis Bisset (1967). The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Handbook. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-1139-6.
- ^ Johnston, Alex. (1905). "The Colonization of British East Africa". Journal of the Royal African Society. 5 (17): 28–37. ISSN 0368-4016. JSTOR 715150. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ a b c Hoffmann, Gerhard (1987). "Protectorates". Encyclopedia of Disputes Installment 10. Elsevier: 336–339. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-86241-9.50085-3. ISBN 9780444862419. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ Reisman, W. Michael (1989). "Reflections on State Responsibility for Violations of Explicit Protectorate, Mandate, and Trusteeship Obligations". Michigan Journal of International Law. 10: 231.
- ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16.
- ^ Yoon, Jong-pil (17 August 2020). "Establishing expansion as a legal right: an analysis of French colonial discourse surrounding protectorate treaties". History of European Ideas. 46 (6): 811–826. doi:10.1080/01916599.2020.1722725. ISSN 0191-6599. S2CID 214425740. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16: "First, protected states are entities which still have substantial authority in their internal affairs, retain some control over their foreign policy, and establish their relation to the protecting state on a treaty or another legal instrument. Protected states still have qualifications of statehood."
- ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), pp. 16–17.
- ^ Wick, Alexis (2016), The Red Sea: In Search of Lost Space, Univ of California Press, pp. 133–, ISBN 978-0-520-28592-7
- ^ Αλιβιζάτου, Αικατερίνη (12 March 2019). "Use of GIS in analyzing archaeological sites: the case study of Mycenaean Cephalonia, Greece". Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ Dumieński, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
- ^ History of Equatorial Guinea
- ^ a b "Histories of the Modern Middle East". Laits.utexas.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
- ^ Francis Carey Owtram (1999). "Oman and the West: State Formation in Oman since 1920"(PDF). University of London. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), pp. 50–51.
- ^ Cunningham, Joseph Davy (1849). A History of the Sikhs: From the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. John Murray.
- ^ Meyer, William Stevenson (1908). "Ferozepur district". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. XII. p. 90. But the British Government, established at Delhi since 1803, interevened with an offer of protection to all the CIS-SUTLEJ STATES; and Dhanna Singh gladly availed himself of the promised aid, being one of the first chieftains to accept British protection and control.
- ^ "Timeline – Story of Independence". Archived from the original on 2019-07-27. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
- ^ Mullard, Saul (2011), Opening the Hidden Land: State Formation and the Construction of Sikkimese History, BRILL, p. 184, ISBN 978-90-04-20895-7
- ^ "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112
- ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (April 1995), Tibet, China and the United States (PDF), The Atlantic Council, p. 3 – via Case Western Reserve University
- ^ Norbu, Dawa (2001), China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, p. 78, ISBN 978-1-136-79793-4
- ^ Lin, Hsaio-ting (2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928–49. UBC Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
- ^ Sloane, Robert D. (Spring 2002), "The Changing Face of Recognition in International Law: A Case Study of Tibet", Emory International Law Review, 16 (1), note 93, p. 135: "This ["priest-patron"] relationship reemerged during China's prolonged domination by the Manchu Ch'ing dynasty (1611-1911)." – via Hein Online
- ^ Karan, P. P. (2015), "Suppression of Tibetan Religious Heritage", in S.D. Brunn (ed.), The Changing World Religion Map, Spriger Science, p. 462, doi:10.1007/978-94-017-9376-6_23
- ^ Sinha, Nirmal C. (May 1964), "Historical Status of Tibet" (PDF), Bulletin of Tibetology, 1 (1): 27
- ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1 January 1991). International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9231027166 – via Google Books.
- ^ Capaldo, Giuliana Ziccardi (1 January 1995). Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice (1947–1992). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0792329937 – via Google Books.
- ^ See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent statndard studies on French expansion include:
Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996) ISBN 0-312-16000-3.
Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa 1895–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4.
Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. Cambridge University Press (1998) ISBN 0-521-64255-8.
Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971).
- ^ C. W. Newbury. Aspects of French Policy in the Pacific, 1853–1906. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1958), pp. 45–56
- ^ Gonschor, Lorenz Rudolf (August 2008). Law as a Tool of Oppression and Liberation: Institutional Histories and Perspectives on Political Independence in Hawaiʻi, Tahiti Nui/French Polynesia and Rapa Nui. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 56–59. hdl:10125/20375.
- ^ Poulose, T. T. (April 1971), "Bhutan's External Relations and India", The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 20 (2): 195–212, JSTOR 758028
- ^ Gerrits, Andre W. M.; Bader, Max (2 July 2016). "Russian patronage over Abkhazia and South Ossetia: implications for conflict resolution". East European Politics. 32 (3): 297–313. doi:10.1080/21599165.2016.1166104. ISSN 2159-9165. S2CID 156061334.
- ^ Greene, Sam (26 April 2019). "Putin's 'Passportization' Move Aimed At Keeping the Donbass Conflict on Moscow's Terms". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
- ^ Robinson, Paul (1 October 2016). "Russia's role in the war in Donbass, and the threat to European security". European Politics and Society. 17 (4): 506–521. doi:10.1080/23745118.2016.1154229. ISSN 2374-5118. S2CID 155529950.
- ^ Pieńkowski, Jakub (2016). "Renewal of Negotiations on Resolving the Transnistria Conflict".
- ^ a b "The World: Two Decades of Decline; When Liberians Looked to America in Vain". The New York Times. 13 July 2003.
- ^ a b "A case of double conciousness americo-liberians and indigenous liberian relations 1840-1930 liberian relations 1840-1930". University of Central Florida. 2012.
- ^ a b "Platt Amendment (1903)".
- ^ Gould, Lewis L. "William McKinley: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center.
- ^ "U.S. De Facto Protectorate of Cuba, 1898-1934". dwkcommentaries.
- ^ "The Philippines, 1898–1946". History.house.gov.
- ^ Nelson, Karen Cherese. "The U.S. Protectorate in Panama: An Analysis of Recent U.S.-Panamanian Relations". Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
- ^ "Notice of Finding of Failure To Submit State Plans for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Emission Guidelines". Environmental Protection Agency. 12 March 2020.
- ^ "From the Archive 1999: Timor the defiant". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 August 2019.
- ^ "East Timor". Human Rights Watch.
- Onley, James (March 2009), "The Raj Reconsidered: British India's Informal Empire and Spheres of Influence in Asia and Africa"(PDF), Asian Affairs, 11 (1)
- Meijknecht, Anna (2001), Towards International Personality: The Position of Minorities and Indigenous Peoples in International Law, Intersentia NV, ISBN 978-90-5095-166-1
- Willigen, Niels van (2013), Peacebuilding and International Administration: The Cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo, Routledge, ISBN 978-1-134-11718-5
Larousse, Pierre; Paul Augé
; Claude Augé
(1925). Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré: Dictionnaire Encyclopédique
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