Protectorate - Wikipedia
Protectorate
For the 17th Century British Protectorate, see The Protectorate.
Not to be confused with Protecting power.
A protectorate is a state that is controlled and protected by another sovereign state. It is a dependent territory that has been granted local autonomy over most internal affairs while still recognizing the suzerainty of a more powerful sovereign state without being its direct possession.[1][2][3] In exchange, the protectorate usually accepts specified obligations depending on the terms of their arrangement.[3] Usually protectorates are established de jure by a treaty.[1][2] Under certain conditions as of Egypt under British rule (1882–1914) e.g., a state can also be labelled as a de facto protectorate or a "veiled protectorate".[4][5][6]
A protectorate is different from a colony as they have local rulers, are not directly possessed and rarely experience colonization by the suzerain state.[7][8] However, some sources term a state that remains under the protection of another state while retaining its independence as a protected state, different from a protectorate,[9] while other sources use the terms like synonyms.[10]
History
Protectorates form one of the oldest features of international relations, dating back to the Roman Empire. Civitates foederatae were cities that were subordinate to Rome for their foreign relations. In the Middle Ages, Andorra was a protectorate of France and Spain. Modern protectorate concepts were devised in the nineteenth century.[11]
Typology
Foreign relations
In practice, a protectorate often has direct foreign relations only with and transfers the management of all its more important international affairs to the protector.[12][3][1][2] Similarly, the protectorate rarely takes military action on its own but relies on the protector for its defence. This is distinct from annexation in that the protector has no formal power to control the internal affairs of the protectorate.
Protectorates differ from League of Nations mandates and their successors, United Nations Trust Territories, whose administration is supervised, in varying degrees, by the international community. A protectorate formally enters into the protection through a bilateral agreement with the protector, while international mandates are stewarded by the world community-representing body, with or without a de facto administering power.
Protected state
A protected state has a form of protection where it continues to retain an "international personality" and enjoys an agreed amount of independence in conducting its foreign policy.[13][14] For political and pragmatic reasons, the relationship of protection is not usually advertised, but described in euphemisms such as "an independent state with special treaty relations" with the protecting state.[15] A protected state appears on world maps just as any other independent state.[a]
International administration of a state can also be regarded as an internationalized form of protection, where the protector is an international organisation rather than a state.[16]
Colonial protection
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Conditions regarding protection are generally much less generous for areas of colonial protection. The protectorate was often reduced to a de facto condition similar to a colony, but the pre-existing native state continuing as the agent of indirect rule. Occasionally, a protectorate was established by another form of indirect rule: a chartered company, which becomes a de facto state in its European home state (but geographically overseas), allowed to be an independent country with its own foreign policy and generally its own armed forces.
In fact, protectorates were declared despite not being duly entered into by the traditional states supposedly being protected, or only by a party of dubious authority in those states. Colonial protectors frequently decided to reshuffle several protectorates into a new, artificial unit without consulting the protectorates, a logic disrespectful of the theoretical duty of a protector to help maintain its protectorates' status and integrity. The Berlin agreement of February 26, 1885, allowed European colonial powers to establish protectorates in Black Africa (the last region to be divided among them) by diplomatic notification, even without actual possession on the ground. This aspect of history is referred to as the Scramble for Africa. A similar case is the formal use of such terms as colony and protectorate for an amalgamation, convenient only for the colonizer or protector, of adjacent territories, over which it held (de facto) sway by protective or "raw" colonial logic.
Amical protection
In amical protection as of United States of the Ionian Islands by Britain, the terms are often very favourable for the protectorate.[17][18] The political interest of the protector is frequently moral (a matter of accepted moral obligation, prestige, ideology, internal popularity, or dynastic, historical, or ethnocultural ties). Also, the protector's interest is in countering a rival or enemy power such as preventing the rival from obtaining or maintaining control of areas of strategic importance. This may involve a very weak protectorate surrendering control of its external relations but may not constitute any real sacrifice, as the protectorate may not have been able to have a similar use of them without the protector's strength.
Amical protection was frequently extended by the great powers to other Christian (generally European) states and to smaller states that had no significant importance.[ambiguous] After 1815, non-Christian states (such as the Chinese Qing dynasty) also provided amical protection towards other much weaker states.
In modern times, a form of amical protection can be seen as an important or defining feature of microstates. According to the definition proposed by Dumienski (2014): "microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for benign protection of their political and economic viability against their geographic or demographic constraints".[19]
Argentine protectorates
De facto protectorates
British protectorates and protected states
Main article: British protectorate
Americas
Arab world
Asia
South Asia
Rest of Asia
Europe
Sub-Saharan Africa
*protectorates which existed alongside a colony of the same name
 Kingdom of Egypt (1922–1936)[22]
Oceania
Chinese protectorates
Further information: Protectorate (Duhu Fu)
Dutch protectorates
Various sultanates in the Dutch East Indies (present Indonesia)
French protectorates
Americas
Second Mexican EmpireNapoleon III was convinced by coup opponents to establish by war against state a kingdom in Mexico in 1861 by many period reasons; establishment was successful, starting invasion in 8 December 1861 and taking Mexico City in 10 June 1863.
Arab world and Madagascar
Asia
French Indochina until 1953/54:
Europe
Sub-Saharan Africa
1960 stamp of Bechuanaland Protectorate with the portraits of Queen Victoria and Queen Elizabeth II
The legal regime of "protection" was the formal legal structure under which French colonial forces expanded in Africa between the 1830s and 1900. Almost every pre-existing state in the area later covered by French West Africa was placed under protectorate status at some point, although direct rule gradually replaced protectorate agreements. Formal ruling structures, or fictive recreations of them, were largely retained as the lowest level authority figure in the French Cercles, with leaders appointed and removed by French officials.[38]
Oceania
German protectorates
The German Empire used the word Schutzgebiet, literally protectorate, for all of its colonial possessions until they were lost during World War I, regardless of the actual level of government control. Cases involving indirect rule included:
Before and during World War II, Nazi Germany designated the rump of occupied Czechoslovakia and Denmark as protectorates:
Indian protectorates and protected states
Italian protectorates
In Europe:
In the colonial empire:
Japanese protectorates
Polish protectorates
Kaffa (1462–1475)
Portuguese protectorates
Russian protectorates
De facto protectorates
Some sources mention following states as de facto Russian protectorates:​[42]​[43]​[44]​[45]
Spanish protectorates
Spanish Morocco
protectorate from 27 November 1912 until 2 April 1958 (Northern zone until 7 April 1956, Southern zone (Cape Juby) until 2 April 1958).
Turkish protectorates
Main article: Vassal and tributary states of the Ottoman Empire
De facto protectorate
Northern Cyprus (1983 – )
United States protectorates
Contemporary usage by the United States
Some agencies of the United States government, such as the United States Environmental Protection Agency, still use the term protectorate to refer to insular areas of the United States such as Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands.[53] This was also the case with the Philippines and (it can be argued via the Platt Amendment) Cuba at the end of Spanish colonial rule.[48] Liberia was the only African nation that was a colony for the United States but the government had no control over the land as it was controlled by the privately owned American Colonization Society. It was, however, a protectorate from January 7, 1822 until the Liberian Declaration of Independence from the American Colonization Society on July 26, 1847. Liberia was founded and established as a homeland for freed African-Americans and ex-Caribbean slaves who left the United States and the Caribbean islands with help and support from the American Colonization Society.[46][47] However, the agency responsible for the administration of those areas, the Office of Insular Affairs (OIA) within the United States Department of Interior, uses only the term "insular area" rather than protectorate.
United Nations protectorates
East Timor : United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor (1999–2002)[54][55]
Joint protectorates
Further information: Condominium (international law)
See also
Notes
  1. ^ Protected state in this technical sense is distinguished from the informal usage of "protected state" used for distinguishing the receiving state of protection from the protecting state.
  2. ^ Some scholars regard the relationship as one of Priest-patron rather than a protectorate.[33][34][35]
References
  1. ^ a b c Fuess, Albrecht (1 January 2005). "Was Cyprus a Mamluk protectorate? Mamluk policies toward Cyprus between 1426 and 1517". Journal of Cyprus Studies. 11 (28–29): 11–29. ISSN 1303-2925. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  2. ^ a b c Reisman, W. (1 January 1989). "Reflections on State Responsibility for Violations of Explicit Protectorate, Mandate, and Trusteeship Obligations". Michigan Journal of International Law. 10 (1): 231–240. ISSN 1052-2867. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  3. ^ a b c Bojkov, Victor D. "Democracy in Bosnia and Herzegovina: Post-1995 political system and its functioning" (PDF). Southeast European Politics 4.1: 41–67.
  4. ^ Leys, Colin (2014). "The British ruling class". Socialist Register. 50. ISSN 0081-0606. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  5. ^ Kirkwood, Patrick M. (21 July 2016). ""Lord Cromer's Shadow": Political Anglo-Saxonism and the Egyptian Protectorate as a Model in the American Philippines". Journal of World History. 27 (1): 1–26. doi​:​10.1353/jwh.2016.0085​. ISSN 1527-8050. S2CID 148316956. Retrieved 23 October 2020.
  6. ^ Rubenson, Sven (1966). "Professor Giglio, Antonelli and Article XVII of the Treaty of Wichale". The Journal of African History. 7 (3): 445–457. doi​:​10.1017/S0021853700006526​. ISSN 0021-8537. JSTOR 180113. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  7. ^ Archer, Francis Bisset (1967). The Gambia Colony and Protectorate: An Official Handbook. Psychology Press. ISBN 978-0-7146-1139-6.
  8. ^ Johnston, Alex. (1905). "The Colonization of British East Africa". Journal of the Royal African Society. 5 (17): 28–37. ISSN 0368-4016. JSTOR 715150. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  9. ^ a b c Hoffmann, Gerhard (1987). "Protectorates". Encyclopedia of Disputes Installment 10. Elsevier: 336–339. doi​:​10.1016/B978-0-444-86241-9.50085-3​. ISBN 9780444862419. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  10. ^ Reisman, W. Michael (1989). "Reflections on State Responsibility for Violations of Explicit Protectorate, Mandate, and Trusteeship Obligations". Michigan Journal of International Law. 10: 231.
  11. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16.
  12. ^ Yoon, Jong-pil (17 August 2020). "Establishing expansion as a legal right: an analysis of French colonial discourse surrounding protectorate treaties". History of European Ideas. 46 (6): 811–826. doi​:​10.1080/01916599.2020.1722725​. ISSN 0191-6599. S2CID 214425740. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  13. ^ Meijknecht, Towards International Personality (2001), p. 42.
  14. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), p. 16: "First, protected states are entities which still have substantial authority in their internal affairs, retain some control over their foreign policy, and establish their relation to the protecting state on a treaty or another legal instrument. Protected states still have qualifications of statehood."
  15. ^ a b c d e f g Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), p. 50.
  16. ^ Willigen, Peacebuilding and International Administration (2013), pp. 16–17.
  17. ^ Wick, Alexis (2016), The Red Sea: In Search of Lost Space, Univ of California Press, pp. 133–, ISBN 978-0-520-28592-7
  18. ^ Αλιβιζάτου, Αικατερίνη (12 March 2019). "Use of GIS in analyzing archaeological sites: the case study of Mycenaean Cephalonia, Greece". Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  19. ^ Dumieński, Zbigniew (2014). "Microstates as Modern Protected States: Towards a New Definition of Micro-Statehood" (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small State Studies. Archived from the original (PDF) on 14 July 2014.
  20. ^ History of Equatorial Guinea
  21. ^ a b Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), p. 51.
  22. ^ a b "Histories of the Modern Middle East". Laits.utexas.edu. Retrieved 21 April 2019.
  23. ^ Francis Carey Owtram (1999). "Oman and the West: State Formation in Oman since 1920"(PDF). University of London. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
  24. ^ Onley, The Raj Reconsidered (2009), pp. 50–51.
  25. ^ Cunningham, Joseph Davy (1849). A History of the Sikhs: From the Origin of the Nation to the Battles of the Sutlej. John Murray.
  26. ^ Meyer, William Stevenson (1908). "Ferozepur district". The Imperial Gazetteer of India. XII. p. 90. But the British Government, established at Delhi since 1803, interevened with an offer of protection to all the CIS-SUTLEJ STATES; and Dhanna Singh gladly availed himself of the promised aid, being one of the first chieftains to accept British protection and control.
  27. ^ "Timeline – Story of Independence". Archived from the original on 2019-07-27. Retrieved 2020-05-11.
  28. ^ Mullard, Saul (2011), Opening the Hidden Land: State Formation and the Construction of Sikkimese History, BRILL, p. 184, ISBN 978-90-04-20895-7
  29. ^ "A History of Korea: From Antiquity to the Present, by Michael J. Seth", p112
  30. ^ Goldstein, Melvyn C. (April 1995), Tibet, China and the United States (PDF), The Atlantic Council, p. 3 – via Case Western Reserve University
  31. ^ Norbu, Dawa (2001), China's Tibet Policy, Routledge, p. 78, ISBN 978-1-136-79793-4
  32. ^ Lin, Hsaio-ting (2011). Tibet and Nationalist China's Frontier: Intrigues and Ethnopolitics, 1928–49. UBC Press. p. 8. ISBN 978-0-7748-5988-2.
  33. ^ Sloane, Robert D. (Spring 2002), "The Changing Face of Recognition in International Law: A Case Study of Tibet", Emory International Law Review, 16 (1), note 93, p. 135: "This ["priest-patron"] relationship reemerged during China's prolonged domination by the Manchu Ch'ing dynasty (1611-1911)." – via Hein Online
  34. ^ Karan, P. P. (2015), "Suppression of Tibetan Religious Heritage", in S.D. Brunn (ed.), The Changing World Religion Map, Spriger Science, p. 462, doi​:​10.1007/978-94-017-9376-6_23
  35. ^ Sinha, Nirmal C. (May 1964), "Historical Status of Tibet" (PDF), Bulletin of Tibetology, 1 (1): 27
  36. ^ Bedjaoui, Mohammed (1 January 1991). International Law: Achievements and Prospects. Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 9231027166 – via Google Books.
  37. ^ Capaldo, Giuliana Ziccardi (1 January 1995). Repertory of Decisions of the International Court of Justice (1947–1992). Martinus Nijhoff Publishers. ISBN 0792329937 – via Google Books.
  38. ^ See the classic account on this in Robert Delavignette. Freedom and Authority in French West Africa. London: Oxford University Press, (1950). The more recent statndard studies on French expansion include:
    Robert Aldrich. Greater France: A History of French Overseas Expansion. Palgrave MacMillan (1996) ISBN 0-312-16000-3.
    Alice L. Conklin. A Mission to Civilize: The Republican Idea of Empire in France and West Africa 1895–1930. Stanford: Stanford University Press (1998), ISBN 978-0-8047-2999-4.
    Patrick Manning. Francophone Sub-Saharan Africa, 1880–1995. Cambridge University Press (1998) ISBN 0-521-64255-8.
    Jean Suret-Canale. Afrique Noire: l'Ere Coloniale (Editions Sociales, Paris, 1971); Eng. translation, French Colonialism in Tropical Africa, 1900 1945. (New York, 1971).
  39. ^ C. W. Newbury. Aspects of French Policy in the Pacific, 1853–1906. The Pacific Historical Review, Vol. 27, No. 1 (Feb., 1958), pp. 45–56
  40. ^ Gonschor, Lorenz Rudolf (August 2008). Law as a Tool of Oppression and Liberation: Institutional Histories and Perspectives on Political Independence in Hawaiʻi, Tahiti Nui/French Polynesia and Rapa Nui. Honolulu: University of Hawaii at Manoa. pp. 56–59. hdl:10125/20375.
  41. ^ Poulose, T. T. (April 1971), "Bhutan's External Relations and India", The International and Comparative Law Quarterly, 20 (2): 195–212, JSTOR 758028
  42. ^ Gerrits, Andre W. M.; Bader, Max (2 July 2016). "Russian patronage over Abkhazia and South Ossetia: implications for conflict resolution". East European Politics. 32 (3): 297–313. doi​:​10.1080/21599165.2016.1166104​. ISSN 2159-9165. S2CID 156061334.
  43. ^ Greene, Sam (26 April 2019). "Putin's 'Passportization' Move Aimed At Keeping the Donbass Conflict on Moscow's Terms". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 24 October 2020.
  44. ^ Robinson, Paul (1 October 2016). "Russia's role in the war in Donbass, and the threat to European security". European Politics and Society. 17 (4): 506–521. doi​:​10.1080/23745118.2016.1154229​. ISSN 2374-5118. S2CID 155529950.
  45. ^ Pieńkowski, Jakub (2016). "Renewal of Negotiations on Resolving the Transnistria Conflict".
  46. ^ a b "The World: Two Decades of Decline; When Liberians Looked to America in Vain". The New York Times. 13 July 2003.
  47. ^ a b "A case of double conciousness americo-liberians and indigenous liberian relations 1840-1930 liberian relations 1840-1930". University of Central Florida. 2012.
  48. ^ a b "Platt Amendment (1903)".
  49. ^ Gould, Lewis L. "William McKinley: Foreign Affairs". Miller Center.
  50. ^ "U.S. De Facto Protectorate of Cuba, 1898-1934". dwkcommentaries.
  51. ^ "The Philippines, 1898–1946". History.house.gov.
  52. ^ Nelson, Karen Cherese. "The U.S. Protectorate in Panama: An Analysis of Recent U.S.-Panamanian Relations". Southern Illinois University Carbondale.
  53. ^ "Notice of Finding of Failure To Submit State Plans for the Municipal Solid Waste Landfills Emission Guidelines". Environmental Protection Agency. 12 March 2020.
  54. ^ "From the Archive 1999: Timor the defiant". The Sydney Morning Herald. 30 August 2019.
  55. ^ "East Timor". Human Rights Watch.
Bibliography
French
Larousse, Pierre; Paul Augé; Claude Augé (1925). Nouveau Petit Larousse Illustré: Dictionnaire Encyclopédique. Larousse.
Last edited on 12 May 2021, at 16:41
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