Quasi-state - Wikipedia
Quasi-state
  (Redirected from Proto-state)
Not to be confused with protostates or state within a state.
A quasi-state or state-like entity,[2] to include what is termed a proto-state,[3][2] is a political entity that does not represent a fully institutionalized or autonomous sovereign state.[4]
Maximum extent of the territory of the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (frequently described as a proto-state) in Syria and Iraq, on 21 May 2015.[1]
The precise definition of quasi-state in political literature fluctuates depending on the context in which it is used. It has been used by some modern scholars to describe the self-governing British colonies and dependencies that exercised a form of home rule but remained crucial parts of the British Empire and subject firstly to the metropole's administration.[5] Similarly, the Republics of the Soviet Union, which represented administrative units with their own respective national distinctions, have also been described as quasi-states.[4]
In more recent usage, the term quasi-state has most often been evoked in reference to militant secessionist groups who claim, and exercise some form of territorial control over, a specific region, but which lack institutional cohesion.[5][failed verificationsee discussion] Such quasi-states include the Republika Srpska and Herzeg-Bosnia during the Bosnian War[5] and Azawad during the 2012 Tuareg rebellion.[6] The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant is also widely held to be an example of a modern quasi-state or proto-state.[7][3][8][9]
History
Tuareg rebels in the short-lived proto-state of Azawad.
The term "proto-state" has been used in reference to contexts as far back as Ancient Greece, to refer to the phenomenon that the formation of a large and cohesive nation would often be preceded by very small and loose forms of statehood.[10] For instance, historical sociologist Gary Runciman describes the evolution of social organization in the Greek Dark Ages from statelessness, to what he calls semistates based on patriarchal domination but lacking inherent potential to achieve the requirements for statehood, sometimes transitioning into protostates with governmental roles able to maintain themselves generationally, which could evolve into larger and more centralised entities fulfilling the requirements of statehood by 700 BC in the archaic period.[10][11]
Most ancient proto-states were the product of tribal societies, consisting of relatively short-lived confederations of communities that united under a single warlord or chieftain endowed with symbolic authority and military rank.[10] These were not considered sovereign states since they rarely achieved any degree of institutional permanence and authority was often exercised over a mobile people rather than measurable territory.[10] Loose confederacies of this nature were the primary means of embracing a common statehood by people in many regions, such as the Central Asian steppes, throughout ancient history.[12]
Proto-states proliferated in Western Europe during the Middle Ages, likely as a result of a trend towards political decentralisation following the collapse of the Western Roman Empire and the adoption of feudalism.[13] While theoretically owing allegiance to a single monarch under the feudal system, many lesser nobles administered their own fiefs as miniature "states within states" that were independent of each other.[14] This practice was especially notable with regards to large, decentralised political entities such as the Holy Roman Empire, that incorporated many autonomous and semi-autonomous proto-states.[15]
Following the Age of Discovery, the emergence of European colonialism resulted in the formation of colonial proto-states in Asia, Africa, and the Americas.[16] A few colonies were given the unique status of protectorates, which were effectively controlled by the metropole but retained limited ability to administer themselves, self-governing colonies, dominions, and dependencies.[5] These were distinct administrative units that each fulfilled many of the functions of a state without actually exercising full sovereignty or independence.[16] Colonies without a sub-national home rule status, on the other hand, were considered administrative extensions of the colonising power rather than true proto-states.[17] Colonial proto-states later served as the basis for a number of modern nation states, particularly on the Asian and African continents.[16]
During the twentieth century, some proto-states existed as not only distinct administrative units, but their own theoretically self-governing republics joined to each other in a political union such as the socialist federal systems observed in Yugoslavia, Czechoslovakia, and the Soviet Union.[5][4][18]
Territory controlled by the Anti-Fascist Council of Yugoslavia, which established its own proto-state in 1942
Another form of proto-state that has become especially common since the end of World War II[citation needed] is established through the unconstitutional seizure of territory by an insurgent or militant group that proceeds to assume the role of a de facto government.[7] Although denied recognition and bereft of civil institutions, insurgent proto-states may engage in external trade, provide social services, and even undertake limited diplomatic activity.[19] These proto-states are usually formed by movements drawn from geographically concentrated ethnic or religious minorities, and are thus a common feature of inter-ethnic civil conflicts.[20] This is often due to the inclinations of an internal cultural identity group seeking to reject the legitimacy of a sovereign state's political order, and create its own enclave where it is free to live under its own sphere of laws, social mores, and ordering.[20] Since the 1980s a special kind of insurgent statehood has emerged in form of the "Jihadi proto-state", as the Islamist concept of statehood is extremely flexible. For instance, a Jihadi emirate can be simply understood as a territory or group ruled by an emir; accordingly, it might rule a significant area or just a neighborhood. Regardless of its extent, the assumption of statehood provides Jihadi militants with important internal legitimacy and cementes their self-identification as frontline society opposed to certain enemies.[7]
The accumulation of territory by an insurgent force to form a sub-national geopolitical system and eventually, a proto-state, was a calculated process in China during the Chinese Civil War that set a precedent for many similar attempts throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries.[21] Proto-states established as a result of civil conflict typically exist in a perpetual state of warfare and their wealth and populations may be limited accordingly.[22] One of the most prominent examples of a wartime proto-state in the twenty-first century is the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant,[23][24][25] that maintained its own administrative bureaucracy and imposed taxes.[26]
Theoretical basis
The definition of a proto-state is not concise, and has been confused by the interchangeable use of the terms state, country, and nation to describe a given territory.[27] The term proto-state is preferred to "proto-nation" in an academic context, however, since some authorities also use nation to denote a social, ethnic, or cultural group capable of forming its own state.[27]
A proto-state does not meet the four essential criteria for statehood as elaborated upon in the declarative theory of statehood of the 1933 Montevideo Convention: a permanent population, a defined territory, a government with its own institutions, and the capacity to enter into relations with other states.[27] A proto-state is not necessarily synonymous with a state with limited recognition that otherwise has all the hallmarks of a fully functioning sovereign state, such as Rhodesia or the Republic of China, also known as Taiwan.[27] However, proto-states frequently go unrecognised since a state actor that recognises a proto-state does so in violation of another state actor's external sovereignty.[28] If full diplomatic recognition is extended to a proto-state and embassies exchanged, it is defined as a sovereign state in its own right and may no longer be classified as a proto-state.[28]
Territory of Croatia controlled by the Republic of Serbian Krajina proto-state 1991–1995.
Throughout modern history, partially autonomous regions of larger recognised states, especially those based on a historical precedent or ethnic and cultural distinctiveness that places them apart from those who dominate the state as a whole, have been considered proto-states.[5] Home rule generates a sub-national institutional structure that may justifiably be defined as a proto-state.[29] When a rebellion or insurrection seizes control and begins to establish some semblance of administration in regions within national territories under its effective rule, it has also metamorphosed into a proto-state.[30] These wartime proto-states, sometimes known as insurgent states, may eventually transform the structure of a state altogether, or demarcate their own autonomous political spaces.[30] While not a new phenomenon, the modern formation of a proto-states in territory held by a militant non-state entity was popularised by Mao Zedong during the Chinese Civil War, and the national liberation movements worldwide that adopted his military philosophies.[21] The rise of an insurgent proto-state was sometimes also an indirect consequence of a movement adopting Che Guevara's foco theory of guerrilla warfare.[21]
Secessionist proto-states are likeliest to form in preexisting states that lack secure boundaries, a concise and well-defined body of citizens, or a single sovereign power with a monopoly on the legitimate use of military force.[31] They may be created as a result of putsches, insurrections, separatist political campaigns, foreign intervention, sectarian violence, civil war, and even the bloodless dissolution or division of the state.[31]
Proto-states can be important regional players, as their existence impacts the options available to state actors, either as potential allies or as impediments to their political or economic policy articulations.[30]
List of modern proto-states
This list is incomplete; you can help by adding missing items with reliable sources.
Constituent proto-states
Current
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Find sources: "Quasi-state" – news ·newspapers · books · scholar · JSTOR (April 2021)
Proto-stateParent stateAchieved statehoodSinceSource
 Adjara
 Georgia
No1921[5]
 Adygea
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Åland
 FinlandNo1921[5][32]
 Altai Republic
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Aosta Valley
 Italy
No1948[5]
 Aruba
 Netherlands
No1986[5]
Ashanti
 Ghana
No1957[33]
 Azad Kashmir
 Pakistan
No1949[5]
 Azores
 Portugal
No1816[5]
 Bashkortostan
 Russia
No1919[5]
 British Virgin Islands United KingdomNo1960[5]
 Bougainville
 Papua New Guinea
No2001[5]
 Buryatia
 Russia
No1923[5]
 Canary Islands
 Spain
No1816[5]
 Catalonia
 Spain
No1978[5]
 Cayman Islands United KingdomNo1962[5]
 Chechnya
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Chin State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Christmas Island AustraliaNo1958[5]
 Chuvashia
 Russia
No1920[5]
 Cook Islands New ZealandNo1888[5]
 Corsica
 France
No1978[5]
 Curaçao
 Netherlands
No1816[5]
 Dagestan
 Russia
No1921[5]
 Easter Island
 Chile
No1944[5]
 Euskadi
 Spain
No1978[5]
 Falkland Islands United KingdomNo1833[5]
 Faroe Islands
 Denmark
No1816[5]
 Flanders
 Belgium
No1970[5]
 French Polynesia
 France
No1847[5]
 Friuli-Venezia Giulia
 Italy
No1963[5]
 Gagauzia MoldovaNo1991[5]
 Galicia
 Spain
No1978[5]
 Gaza Strip
 Israel
 Palestine
De facto1994[note 1]
 Greenland
 Denmark
No1816[5]
 Guam United StatesNo1816[5]
 Guernsey
 United KingdomNo1204[5]
Indian reservations United StatesNo1658[5]
 Ingushetia
 Russia
No1924[5]
 Iraqi Kurdistan
 Iraq
De facto1991[35]
 Isle of Man United KingdomNo1828[5]
 Jammu and Kashmir
 India
No1921[5]
 Jersey United KingdomNo1204[5]
Jewish Autonomous Oblast
 Russia
No1934
 Jubaland
 Somalia
No2001[note 2]
 Kabardino-Balkaria
 Russia
No1921[5]
 Kachin State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Kalmykia
 Russia
No1920[5]
 Karachay-Cherkessia
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Karelia
 Russia
No1923[5]
 Kayah State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Kayin State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Khakassia
 Russia
No1934[5]
 Komi Republic
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Kosovo
 Serbia
De facto2008[5]
 Madeira
 Portugal
No1816[5]
 Mari El
 Russia
No1920[5]
 Marquesas Islands
 France
No1844[5]
 Montserrat United KingdomNo1632[5]
 Mon State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Mordovia
 Russia
No1934[5]
 New Caledonia
 France
No1853[5]
 Northern Ireland United KingdomNo1922[5]
 Northern Marianas United StatesNo1899[5]
 North Ossetia-Alania
 Russia
No1921[5]
 Nunavut CanadaNo1999[5]
 Palestinian National Authority
 Israel
De jure1993[38]
 Puerto Rico
 United StatesNo1816[5]
 Puntland
 Somalia
No1998[39]
 Quebec
 CanadaNo1816[5]
 Saint Helena United KingdomNo1834[5]
 Sardinia
 Italy
No1816[5]
 Sakha Republic
 Russia
No1922[5]
 Scotland United KingdomNo1816[5]
 Shan State
 Myanmar
No1949[5]
 Sicily
 Italy
No1816[5]
 Sint Maarten
 Netherlands
No1848[5]
 Svalbard
 Norway
No1992[5]
 Tatarstan
 Russia
No1920[5]
 Temotu Solomon IslandsNo1981[5]
 Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol
 Italy
No1948[5]
 Turks and Caicos United KingdomNo1973[5]
 Tuva
 Russia
No1911[5]
 Udmurtia
 Russia
No1920[5]
 United States Virgin Islands
 United StatesNo1816[5]
 Wales United KingdomNo1816[5]
 Wallonia
 Belgium
No1970[5]
 Wa State
 Myanmar
No1989[40][41]
 Zanzibar
 Tanzania
No1964[5]
Former
Proto-stateParent stateAchieved statehoodDatesSource
 Bophuthatswana
 South Africa
De jure1977–1994[42]
Bosnia-Herzegovina YugoslaviaYes1943–1992[18]
 Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic Russian SFSRSoviet UnionYes1920–1991
 Ciskei
 South Africa
De jure1981–1994[42]
Republic of Crimea
 Ukraine
NoMarch 11–18, 2014[43][44]
Croatia YugoslaviaYes1943–1991[18]
Carpathian Ruthenia
 Czechoslovakia
De facto1919–1939
 Czech Socialist Republic
 Czechoslovakia
Yes1969–1993[31]
 East Caprivi
 South Africa
No1972–1989[42]
Finnish Socialist Workers' Republic
 FinlandNo1918
Galician Ruthenians
 Austria-Hungary
De facto1848–1918
 Gazankulu
 South Africa
No1971–1994[42]
 Hereroland
 South Africa
No1970–1989[42]
 KaNgwane
 South Africa
No1972–1994[42]
Karelian ASSR Russian SFSRSoviet Unionunion republic1923–1940
 Kavangoland
 South Africa
No1973–1989[42]
 KwaNdebele
 South Africa
No1981–1994[42]
 KwaZulu
 South Africa
No1981–1994[42]
 Lebowa
 South Africa
No1972–1994[42]
Macedonia YugoslaviaYes1945–1991[18]
Montenegro YugoslaviaSerbia and MontenegroYes1945–2006[18]
Moldavian ASSR Ukrainian SSRSoviet Unionunion republic1924–1940
 Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic Soviet UnionYes1940–1991
 Ovamboland
 South Africa
No1973–1989[42]
 QwaQwa
 South Africa
No1974–1994[42]
 Russian SFSR Soviet UnionYes1917–1991[4]
Serbia YugoslaviaSerbia and MontenegroYes1945–2006[18]
Singapore
 MalaysiaYes1963–1965[5]
 Slovak Socialist Republic
 Czechoslovakia
Yes1969–1993[31]
Slovenia YugoslaviaYes1945–1991[18]
South West Africa (Namibia)
 South Africa
Yes1915–1991[45]
Southern Sudan SudanYes2005–2011[46]
 Transkei
 South Africa
De jure1976–1994[42]
 Trucial States United KingdomYes1820–1971[47]
Turkestan ASSR Russian SFSRNo1918–1924[48]
 Ukrainian People's Republic of Soviets
 Russian SFSRNo1917–1918
 Ukrainian Soviet Republic Russian SFSRNo1918
 Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic Russian SFSRSoviet UnionYes1919–1991[49]
 Venda
 South Africa
De jure1979–1994[42]
Secessionist, insurgent, and self-proclaimed autonomous proto-states
Current
Proto-stateParent stateAchieved statehoodSinceSource
Abkhazia
 Georgia
De facto1992
Al-Shabaab
 Somalia
No2009[50]
Allied Democratic Forces
 Democratic Republic of the Congo
 Uganda
No1996[51]
Ambazonia
 Cameroon
No2017
Ansar al-Sharia (Yemen)
 Yemen
No2011[50]
Dar El Kuti
 Central African Republic
De facto2015[52]
 Donetsk People's Republic and
 Ukraine
De facto2014[53]
Islamic State (ISIL)
 Iraq
 Syria
 Afghanistan
 Somalia
 Yemen
 Nigeria
 Libya
 Mozambique
De facto2013[27][54][55]
Islamic Movement of Uzbekistan
 Pakistan
Noc. 2006[50]
Republic of Artsakh AzerbaijanArmeniaDe facto1991
Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
 Syria
Partial2013[56]
 Sahrawi Republic
 Morocco
Partial1976[57]
South Ossetia
 Georgia
De facto1991
Tigray People's Liberation Front
 EthiopiaPartial2020
Transnistria MoldovaDe facto1990
Southern Transitional Council
 Yemen
De facto2017
Taliban
 Afghanistan
No2002[58][50]
Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan
 Pakistan
No2002[50]
West Papua IndonesiaNo1971
Zapatista Autonomous Municipalities MexicoDe facto1994
Former
Proto-stateParent stateAchieved statehoodDatesSource
Al-Nusra Front
 Syria
No2012–2017[54]
Ansar al-Islam IraqNo2001–2003[50]
Angola
 Portugal
Yes1961–1975
Ansar al-Sharia (Libya) LibyaNo2014–2017[54]
Ansar Dine
 MaliNo2012–2013[54]
Armed Forces of South Russia
 RussiaNo1919–1920[59]
 Azawad MaliDe facto2012–2013[6]
Boko Haram
 Nigeria
 Cameroon
No2013–2015[54]
 Carpatho-Ukraine
 CzechoslovakiaHungary
De facto1938–1939
Chechen Ichkeria
 Russia
No1991–2000[28]
 Chinese Soviet RepublicChinaNo1931–1937[21]
Communist ChinaChinaYes1927–1949[21]
Dubrovnik RepublicYugoslaviaNo1991–1992[5]
Eastern Slavonia, Baranja and Western SyrmiaYugoslaviaNo1995–1998[5]
FARC ColombiaNo1964–2017[58]
Groupe islamique armé AlgeriaNo1993–1995[50]
Herzeg-Bosnia Bosnia-HerzegovinaNo1991–1996[5]
 Hyderabad State
 India
De facto1947–1948[5]
Idel-Ural State
Russia
No1917–1918[60]
Irish Republic United KingdomYes1919–1922[61]
Jamiat-e Islami AfghanistanNo1982–1989[62]
Republic of Kosova FR YugoslaviaNo1992–1999[63]
 Jubaland
 Somalia
No1998–2001[36]
Junbish-e Milli AfghanistanNo1992-1997[64]
Liberated Yugoslavia Independent State of Croatia
Occupied Serbia
Yes1942–1945[65]
 Mozambique
 Portugal
Yes1964–1974[note 3]
Revolutionary Vietnam South VietnamNo1969–1976[57]
Republika Srpska Bosnia-HerzegovinaNo1991–1995[5]
Red Spears' rebel area in DengzhouChinaNo1929[66]
Serbian Krajina CroatiaNo1991–1995[67]
Sudetenland
 Czechoslovakia
No1918–1938[68]
"Taylorland" or Greater Liberia LiberiaNo1990–1995/97[note 4]
Tamil Eelam Sri LankaNo1983–2008[58]
 Ukrainian National Government
 Soviet UnionNazi GermanyNo1941
 Ukrainian People's Republic Russian RepublicRussian SFSRYes1917–1921
UNITA AngolaNo1975–2002[71]
 United States Great BritainYes1776-1783
 West Ukrainian People's Republic
 Austria-HungaryPoland
No1918–1919
Autonomous Province of Western BosniaYugoslaviaNo1993–1995[5]
 Zaporozhian SichPolish–Lithuanian CommonwealthYes16th century–1649[72]
Islamic Emirate of KunarAfghanistanNo1989–1991[50]
Islamic Republic of Imbaba EgyptNo1989–1992[50]
Fatah al-Islam LebanonNo2007[50]
See also
Notes and references
Annotations
  1. ^ Although officially controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, the Gaza Strip is administered separately and has achieved its own unique sub-national status as a Palestinian proto-state.[34]
  2. ^ Jubaland declared itself independent of Somalia in 1998.[36] It technically rejoined Somalia in 2001 when its ruling Juba Valley Alliance became part of the country's Transitional Federal Government. However, Jubaland has continued to persist as a more or less autonomous state.[37]
  3. ^ The erosion of Portuguese military control over northern Mozambique during the Mozambican War of Independence allowed local guerrillas to establish a proto-state there, which survived until the war ended in 1974. Home to about a million people, the miniature insurgent proto-state was managed by FRELIMO's civilian wing and was able to provide administrative services, open trade relations with Tanzania, and even supervise the construction of its own schools and hospitals with foreign aid.[19]
  4. ^ In course of the First Liberian Civil War, the Liberian central government effectively collapsed, allowing warlords to establish their own fiefs. One of the most powerful rebel leaders in Liberia, Charles Taylor, set up his own domain in a way resembling an actual state: He reorganized his militia into a military-like organization (split into Army, Marines, Navy, and Executive Mansion Guard), established his de facto capital at Gbarnga, and created a civilian government and justice system under his control that were supposed to enforce law and order. The area under his control was commonly called "Taylorland" or "Greater Liberia" and even became somewhat stable and peaceful until it largely disintegrated in 1994/5 as result of attacks by rival militias. In the end, however, Taylor won the civil war and was elected President of Liberia, with his regime becoming the new central government.[69][70]
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Bibliography
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