Provinces and territories of Canada
Provinces and territories of Canada
In modern Canadian constitutional theory
, the provinces are considered to be co-sovereign
within certain areas based on the divisions of responsibility between the provincial and federal government within the Constitution Act 1867
, and each province thus has its own representative of the Canadian Crown
, the lieutenant governor
. The territories are not sovereign, but instead their authorities and responsibilities are devolved
directly from the federal level, and as a result, have a commissioner that represents the federal government.
- ^ As of Q1 2021.
- ^ Ottawa, the national capital of Canada, is located in Ontario, near its border with Quebec. However, the National Capital Region straddles the border.
- ^ a b c d e f g De facto; French has limited constitutional status.
- ^ Charter of the French Language; English has limited constitutional status in Quebec.
- ^ Nova Scotia dissolved cities in 1996 in favour of regional municipalities; its largest regional municipality is therefore substituted.
- ^ Nova Scotia has very few bilingual statutes (three in English and French; one in English and Polish); some Government bodies have legislated names in both English and French.
- ^ Section Sixteen of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.
- ^ Although Manitoba has above average constitutional protections for the French language, it is not an official language.
There are three territories in Canada. Unlike the provinces, the territories of Canada have no inherent sovereignty
and have only those powers delegated to them by the federal government.
They include all of mainland Canada north of latitude 60° north
and west of Hudson Bay
and all islands north of the Canadian mainland (from those in James Bay
to the Queen Elizabeth Islands
). The following table lists the territories in order of precedence[clarification needed]
(each province has precedence over all the territories, regardless of the date each territory was created).
Another territory, the District of Keewatin
existed from October 7, 1876 until September 1, 1905, when it rejoined the Northwest Territories and became the Keewatin Region
. It was east of the North-West Territories, occupying the area that is now the Kenora District
of Ontario, northern Manitoba, and the eastern half of Nunavut. Government of Keewatin was based in Winnipeg, Manitoba. The territory did not have any representation in federal parliament.
Canada's population grew by 5.0% between the 2006
censuses. Except for New Brunswick
, all territories and provinces increased in population during this time. In terms of percent change, the fastest-growing province or territory was Nunavut
with an increase of 12.7% between 2011 and 2016, followed by Alberta
with 11.6% growth, while New Brunswick's population decreased by 0.5%.
Generally, Canadian provinces have steadily grown in population along with Canada. However, some provinces such as Saskatchewan, Prince Edward Island and Newfoundland and Labrador have experienced long periods of stagnation or population decline. Ontario and Quebec have always been the two biggest provinces in Canada, with together over 60% of the population at any given time. The population of the West
relative to Canada as a whole has steadily grown over time, while that of Atlantic Canada
Territorial evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories
Ontario, Quebec, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia were the original provinces, formed when several British North American colonies federated on July 1, 1867, into the Dominion of Canada and by stages began accruing the indicia of sovereignty from the United Kingdom.
Prior to this, Ontario and Quebec were united as the Province of Canada. Over the following years, Manitoba (1870), British Columbia (1871), and Prince Edward Island (1873) were added as provinces.
The British Crown had claimed two large areas north-west of the Canadian colony, known as Rupert's Land
and the North-Western Territory
, and assigned them to the Hudson's Bay Company
. In 1870, the company relinquished its claims for £
1.5 million), assigning the vast territory to the Government of Canada.
Subsequently, the area was re-organized into the province of Manitoba and the Northwest Territories.
The Northwest Territories were vast at first, encompassing all of current northern
and western Canada, except for the British holdings in the Arctic islands
and the Colony of British Columbia
; the Territories also included the northern two-thirds of Ontario and Quebec, and almost all of present Manitoba, with the 1870 province of Manitoba originally being confined to a small area in the south of today's province.
The British claims to the Arctic islands were transferred to Canada in 1880, adding to the size of the Northwest Territories. The year of 1898 saw the Yukon Territory, later renamed simply as Yukon, carved from the parts of the Northwest Territories surrounding the Klondike gold fields
. On September 1, 1905, a portion of the Northwest Territories south of the 60th parallel north became the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
In 1912, the boundaries of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba were expanded northward: Manitoba's to the 60° parallel, Ontario's to Hudson Bay and Quebec's to encompass the District of Ungava
In 1869, the people of Newfoundland voted to remain a British colony
over fears that taxes would increase with Confederation, and that the economic policy of the Canadian government would favour mainland industries.
In 1907, Newfoundland acquired dominion status.
In the middle of the Great Depression in Canada
with Newfoundland facing a prolonged period of economic crisis
, the legislature turned over political control to the Newfoundland Commission of Government
Following Canada's participation in World War II
, in a 1948 referendum
, a narrow majority of Newfoundland citizens voted to join the Confederation, and on March 31, 1949, Newfoundland became Canada's tenth province.
In 2001, it was officially renamed Newfoundland and Labrador.
In 1903, the Alaska Panhandle Dispute
fixed British Columbia's northwestern boundary.
This was one of only two provinces in Canadian history to have its size reduced. The second reduction, in 1927, occurred when a boundary dispute
between Canada and the Dominion of Newfoundland saw Labrador increased at Quebec's expense—this land returned to Canada, as part of the province of Newfoundland, in 1949.
In 1999, Nunavut was created from the eastern portion of the Northwest Territories.
Yukon lies in the western portion of Northern Canada, while Nunavut is in the east.
All three territories combined are the most sparsely populated region in Canada, covering 3,921,739 km2
(1,514,192 sq mi) in land area.
They are often referred to as a single region, The North, for organisational and economic purposes.
For much of the Northwest Territories
' early history it was divided into several districts
for ease of administration.
The District of Keewatin
was created as a separate territory from 1876 to 1905, after which, as the Keewatin Region
, it became an administrative district of the Northwest Territories.
In 1999, it was dissolved when it became part of Nunavut.
Theoretically, provinces have a great deal of power relative to the federal government, with jurisdiction over many public goods
such as health care, education, welfare, and intra-provincial transportation.
They receive "transfer payments
" from the federal government to pay for these, as well as exacting their own taxes.
In practice, however, the federal government can use these transfer payments to influence these provincial areas. For instance, in order to receive healthcare funding under Medicare
, provinces must agree to meet certain federal mandates, such as universal access to required medical treatment.
Provincial and territorial legislatures have no second chamber like the Canadian Senate
. Originally, most provinces had such bodies, known as legislative councils
, with members titled councillors. These upper houses were abolished one by one, Quebec's being the last in 1968.
In most provinces, the single house of the legislature is known as the Legislative Assembly; the exceptions are Nova Scotia and Newfoundland and Labrador, where the chamber is called the House of Assembly
, and Quebec where it is called the National Assembly
Ontario has a Legislative Assembly but its members are called Members of the Provincial Parliament or MPPs.
The legislative assemblies use a procedure similar to that of the House of Commons of Canada
. The head of government of each province, called the premier
, is generally the head of the party with the most seats.
This is also the case in Yukon, but the Northwest Territories and Nunavut have no political parties at the territorial level.
The Queen's representative in each province is the Lieutenant Governor
In each of the territories there is an analogous Commissioner
, but they represent the federal government rather than the monarch.
Federal, Provincial, and Territorial terminology compared
* Members were previously titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly".
† Quebec's lower house was previously called the "Legislative Assembly" with members titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly". The name was changed at the same time Quebec's upper house was abolished.
§ Prince Edward Island's lower house was previously called the "House of Assembly" and its members were titled "Assemblyman". After abolition of its upper house, assemblymen and councillors both sat in the renamed "Legislative Assembly". Later, this practice was abolished so that all members would be titled "Member of the Legislative Assembly".
‖ In Northwest Territories and Yukon the head of government was previously titled "Government Leader".
Provincial legislature buildings
Territorial legislature buildings
Provincial political parties
Most provinces have rough provincial counterparts to major federal parties. However, these provincial parties are not usually formally linked to the federal parties that share the same name.
For example, no provincial Conservative or Progressive Conservative Party shares an organizational link to the federal Conservative Party of Canada
, and neither do provincial Green Parties to the Green Party of Canada
Provincial New Democratic Parties, on the other hand, are fully integrated with the federal New Democratic Party
—meaning that provincial parties effectively operate as sections, with common membership, of the federal party.
The governing political party(s) in each Canadian province. Multicoloured provinces are governed by a coalition or minority government consisting of more than one party.
The governing political party(s) in each Canadian province by political position
Current provincial/territorial governments (as of June 2021)
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial, dedicated to those killed, missing, and presumed dead in World War I
The Canadian National Vimy Memorial
, near Vimy
, Pas-de-Calais, and the Beaumont-Hamel Newfoundland Memorial
, near Beaumont-Hamel
, both in France, are ceremonially considered Canadian territory.
In 1922, the French government donated the land used for the Vimy Memorial "freely, and for all time, to the Government of Canada the free use of the land exempt from all taxes".
The site of the Somme battlefield near Beaumont-Hamel site was purchased in 1921 by the people of the Dominion of Newfoundland
These sites do not, however, enjoy extraterritorial status
and are thus subject to French law.
Proposed provinces and territories
Since Confederation in 1867, there have been several proposals for new Canadian provinces and territories. The Constitution of Canada requires an amendment
for the creation of a new province
but the creation of a new territory requires only an act of Parliament
, a legislatively
In late 2004, Prime Minister Paul Martin
surprised some observers by expressing his personal support for all three territories gaining provincial status "eventually". He cited their importance to the country as a whole and the ongoing need to assert sovereignty in the Arctic
, particularly as global warming
could make that region more open to exploitation leading to more complex international waters disputes
History by province or territory
- ^ Name changed only in Canada by Canada Act, 1982 (UK), s. 1--see Talk
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Last edited on 14 July 2021, at 17:38
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