A provisional government
, also called an interim government
, an emergency government
, or a transitional government
is an emergency governmental
authority set up to manage a political transition generally in the cases of new nations or following the collapse
of the previous governing administration. Provisional governments are generally appointed, and frequently arise, either during or after civil
or foreign wars.
In opinion of Yossi Shain and Juan J. Linz, provisional governments can be classified to four groups:
- Revolutionary provisional governments (when the former regime is overthrown and the power belongs to the people who have overthrown it).
- Power sharing provisional governments (when the power is shared between former regime and the ones who are trying to change it).
- Incumbent provisional governments (when the power during transitional period belongs to the former regime).
- International provisional governments (when the power during the transitional period belongs to the international community).
The establishment of provisional governments is frequently tied to the implementation of transitional justice
Decisions related to transitional justice can determine who is allowed to participate in a provisional government.
The practice of using "provisional government" as part of a formal name can be traced to Talleyrand
's government in France in 1814. In 1843, American pioneers
in the Oregon Country
, in the Pacific Northwest
region of North America established the Provisional Government of Oregon
—as the U.S. federal government had not yet extended its jurisdiction over the region—which existed until March 1849. The numerous provisional governments during the Revolutions of 1848
gave the word its modern meaning: A liberal government established to prepare for elections.
List of provisional governments
Numerous provisional governments have been established since the 1850s.
As of 2021 in Africa, only Libya
, and Chad
currently have provisional governments.
- Provisional Government of the Algerian Republic (1958–62) (guerrilla movement)
- Transitional Government of National Unity (Namibia) (1985-1989), interim government during the end of the South African Border War
- Transitional Government of Ethiopia (1991–1995), established after the end of the Ethiopian Civil War
- Provisional Government of Eritrea (1993), established after independence from Ethiopia
- Transitional Government of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (2003-2006), established in 2003 following the conclusion of the Second Congo War
- National Transitional Legislative Assembly of Liberia (2003–2006), Liberia's legislative body during the country's transition from civil war to democratic rule
- National Transitional Council of Libya (2011-2012), formed during the 2011 civil war in Libya against the Gaddafi-led government
- Interim government of Egypt (2013–2014), established following the June 2013 Egyptian protests and subsequent coup
- The UN-supported Government of National Unity In Libya (2021–present), formed following the Libyan Political Dialogue Forum in Sirte
- Sovereignty Council of Sudan (2019–present), established in August 2019 after 8 month-long protests against President Bashir and a subsequent military coup
- Transitional Military Council in Chad (2021-present), formed in April 2021 after the killing of President Idriss Déby during the Northern Chad offensive
World War I and Interbellum
World War II
- Provisional Government of the Republic of China (1937–40), established by the Empire of Japan when invading Eastern China.
- Provisional Government of Free India (1943–1945), commonly known as Azad Hind, established by Indian nationalists in southeast Asia, had nominal sovereignty over Axis controlled Indian territories, and had diplomatic relationships with eleven countries including Germany, Italy, Japan, Philippines, and the Soviet Union. It was headed by Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose, who was the Head of the State and Prime Minister. He was also the Supreme Commander of the Indian National Army. The government had its own cabinet and banks. It was also the first government to recruit women for combat roles.
Cold War and aftermath
- Interim Government of India (1946–1947), an interim government formed by the newly created Constituent Assembly of India to administer what would become the Dominion of India and the Dominion of Pakistan in the transitional period between British rule and independence.
- Provisional government of Israel (1948–49), established after Israel's declaration of independence and in place until after the first Knesset elections.
- Provisional Central Government of Vietnam (1948-1949), established as a puppet government by French during the First Indochina War.
- Provisional Government of the Syrian Arab Republic (1949), established by national consensus to draft a new constitution and reintroduce civilian rule after a series of military governments.
- Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam (1969–1976), established during the Vietnam War against the United States and Republic of Vietnam
- Provisional Government of the People's Republic of Bangladesh (1970–1972), established after the declaration of freedom of Bengalis exiled to Calcutta.
- Interim Government of Iran, a provisional government established after the 1979 Iranian Revolution
- Executive Committee of the Palestine Liberation Organization (1988–), after it was entrusted with the powers and responsibilities of the Provisional Government of the State of Palestine.
- United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia (1992–1993)
- Palestinian National Authority (1994–), the administrative organization, established to govern parts of the West Bank and Gaza Strip, following the Oslo Accords.
As of 2020 in Asia, only Syria
currently have provisional governments. However the Syrian provisional governments were established as umbrella governments of the oppositions, in parallel with a pre-existent internationally recognized government
; both provisional governments are not recognized internationally.
World War I and Interbellum
- Provisional Government of Albania (1912–14), established after the First Balkan War
- Provisional Government of Western Thrace (1913), established in modern Greece in opposition to annexation by Bulgaria during the Second Balkan War.
- Provisional Government of Northern Epirus (1914), established against annexation to Albania.
- Provisional Government of the Irish Republic (1916), a title adopted by the leadership of the short-lived Easter Rising.
- Provisional Government of National Defence (northern Greece), 1916
- Russian Provisional Government (1917), established as a result of the February Revolution which led to the abdication of TsarNicholas II.
- State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs, established in 1918 as the unrecognized first incarnation of Yugoslavia and later merged with the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro to form the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes.
- Estonian Provisional Government (1918–1919).
- Latvian Provisional Government (1918–1920).
- Ukrainian Provisional Government (1918).
- Provisional Government of the Northern Region (1918-1920).
- Provisional Government of Ireland (1922), established by the Anglo-Irish Treaty between the British government and Irish revolutionaries, in order to pave the way for the establishment of the Irish Free State in the same year.
World War II
Collapse of the USSR and aftermath
- ^ Google Ngram Viewer
- ^ "caretaker government". Credo Reference. Dictionary of politics and government. Retrieved 18 December 2015.
- ^ a b Shain(1) Linz(2), Yossi(1) Linz(2) (January 1992). "The Role of Interim Governments". Journal of Democracy. doi:10.1353/jod.1992.0012.
- ^ Yossi Shain, Juan J. Linz, "Between States: Interim Governments in Democratic Transitions", 1995, ISBN 9780521484985 , p. 5
- ^ McAuliffe, Padraig (09/01/2010). "Transitional Justice and the Rule of Law". ague Journal of the Rule of Law. doi:10.1017/S1876404510200015.Check date values in: |date= (help)
- ^ Sayigh, Yezid (1999). Armed Struggle and the Search for State: The Palestinian National Movement, 1949–1993 (illustrated ed.). Oxford University Press. p. 624. ISBN 9780198296430. "The Palestinian National Council also empowered the central council to form a government-in-exile when appropriate, and the executive committee to perform the functions of government until such time as a government-in-exile was established."
- ^ United Nations General Assembly Session 67 Resolution 19. A/RES/67/19 Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- ^ "The Palestinian Authority".
- ^ "Syria: Who's in control of Idlib?". BBC News. 2020-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-22.
- ^ "The Provisional National Government (1945)". The Orange Files: Notes on Illiberal Democracy in Hungary. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
- ^ 
Last edited on 29 April 2021, at 19:03
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