After his victory over Geryon, Hercules passes through the kingdom of Bebryx again, finding the girl's lacerated remains. As is often the case in stories of this hero, the sober Hercules responds with heartbroken grief and remorse at the actions of his darker self, and lays Pyrene to rest tenderly, demanding that the surrounding geography join in mourning and preserve her name:
"struck by Herculean voice, the mountaintops shudder at the ridges; he kept crying out with a sorrowful noise 'Pyrene!' and all the rock-cliffs and wild-beast haunts echo back 'Pyrene!' … The mountains hold on to the wept-over name through the ages." Pliny the Elder
connects the story of Hercules and Pyrene to Lusitania
, but rejects it as fabulosa
, highly fictional.
Other classical sources derived the name from the Greek word for fire, Ancient Greek
: πῦρ (IPA: /pŷːr/).
According to Greek historian Diodorus Siculus
"in ancient times, we are told, certain herdsmen left a fire and the whole area of the mountains was entirely consumed; and due to this fire, since it raged continuously day after day, the surface of the earth was also burned and the mountains, because of what had taken place, were called the Pyrenees."
Composite satellite image of the Pyrenees (NASA
Baretous Valley and Piedmont plain, in the French western Pyrénées
, the Pyrenees may be divided into three sections: the Atlantic (or Western), the Central, and the Eastern Pyrenees. Together, they form a distinct physiographic province of the larger Alpine System division.
In the Western Pyrenees, from the Basque mountains
near the Bay of Biscay
of the Atlantic Ocean, the average elevation gradually increases from west to east.
The Central Pyrenees extend eastward from the Somport
pass to the Aran Valley
, and they include the highest summits of this range:
In the Eastern Pyrenees, with the exception of one break at the eastern extremity of the Pyrénées Ariègeoises
in the Ariège
area, the mean elevation is remarkably uniform until a sudden decline occurs in the easternmost portion of the chain known as the Albères
of the Pyrenees are on the Spanish side, where there is a large and complex system of ranges stretching from Spanish Navarre
, across northern Aragon and into Catalonia, almost reaching the Mediterranean
coast with summits reaching 2,600 m (8,500 ft).
At the eastern end on the southern side lies a distinct area known as the Sub-Pyrenees
On the French side the slopes of the main range descend abruptly and there are no foothills except in the Corbières Massif
in the northeastern corner of the mountain system.
The eastern part of the Pyrenees consists largely of granite
rocks, while in the western part the granite peaks are flanked by layers of limestone
. The massive and unworn character of the chain comes from its abundance of granite, which is particularly resistant to erosion
, as well as weak glacial
The upper parts of the Pyrenees contain low-relief surfaces forming a peneplain
. This peneplain originated no earlier than in Late Miocene
times. Presumably it formed at height as extensive sedimentation raised the local base level
Conspicuous features of Pyrenean scenery are:
- the absence of great lakes, such as those that fill the lateral valleys of the Alps
- the rarity and relative high elevation of usable passes
- the large number of the mountain torrents locally called gaves, which often form lofty waterfalls, surpassed in Europe only by those of Scandinavia
- the frequency with which the upper end of a valley assumes the form of a semicircle of precipitous cliffs, called a cirque.
Low passes are lacking, and the principal roads and the railroads between France and Spain run only in the lowlands at the western and eastern ends of the Pyrenees, near sea level. The main passes of note are:
- the Col de la Perche (1,581 m (5,187 ft)), towards the east, between the valley of the Têt and the valley of the Segre,
- the Pas de la Casa or Port d'Envalira, the highest road pass in the Pyrenees at 2,408 m (7,900 ft), and one of the highest points of the European road network, which provides the route from France to Andorra,
- the nearby Col de Puymorens (1,920 m (6,300 ft)), on European route E09 between France and Spain.
- the Port de la Bonaigua (2,070 m (6,790 ft)), in the middle of the range at the head of the Aran Valley, although the nearly col at Plan de Beret (1,870 m (6,140 ft)) is the lowest point in the main ridge between the Col de la Perche, almost 100 km (62 mi) to the east and the Col du Pourtalet (1,794 m (5,886 ft)), over 100 km (62 mi) to the west.
- the Col de Somport or Port de Canfranc (1,632 m (5,354 ft)), where there were old Roman roads.
- the Roncevaux Pass (1,057 m (3,468 ft)), entirely in Navarre (Spain) is an important point on the Santiago de Compostela pilgrimage route
Because of the lack of low passes a number of tunnels have been created, beneath the passes at Somport, Envalira, and Puymorens and new routes in the center of the range at Bielsa
Ibón (glacial lake) Basa Mora, in Gistain valley, Aragon
The metallic ores
of the Pyrenees are not in general of much importance now, though there were iron
mines at several locations in Andorra
, as well as at Vicdessos
in Ariège, and the foot of Canigou
long ago. Coal
deposits capable of being profitably worked are situated chiefly on the Spanish slopes, but the French side has beds of lignite
The open pit of Trimoun near the commune of Luzenac
(Ariège) is one of the greatest sources of talc
are abundant and remarkable, and especially noteworthy are the hot springs
. The hot springs, among which those of Les Escaldes
in Andorra, Panticosa
in Spain, Ax-les-Thermes
in France may be mentioned, are sulfurous
and mostly situated high, near the contact of the granite with the stratified rocks. The lower springs, such as those of Bagnères-de-Bigorre
), and Campagne-sur-Aude
(Aude), are mostly selenitic and not hot.
The amount of precipitation
the range receives, including rain and snow, is much greater in the western than in the eastern Pyrenees
because of the moist air that blows in from the Atlantic Ocean over the Bay of Biscay
. After dropping its moisture over the western and central Pyrenees, the air is left dry over the eastern Pyrenees. The winter average temperature is −2 °C (28 °F).
Sections of the mountain range vary in more than one respect. There are some glaciers
in the western and snowy central Pyrenees, but there are no glaciers in the eastern Pyrenees because there is insufficient snowfall to cause their development. Glaciers are confined to the northern slopes of the central Pyrenees, and do not descend, like those of the Alps, far down into the valleys but rather have their greatest lengths along the direction of the mountain chain. They form, in fact, in a narrow zone near the crest of the highest mountains. Here, as in the other great mountain ranges of central Europe, there is substantial evidence of a much wider expanse of glaciation during the glacial periods
. The best evidence of this is in the valley of Argeles Gazost, between Lourdes and Gavarnie, in the département
The annual snow-line varies in different parts of the Pyrenees from about 2,700 to 2,800 metres (8,900 to 9,200 ft) above sea level.
In average the seasonal snow is observed at least 50% of the time above 1,600 metres (5,200 ft) between December and April.
Flora and fauna
Aigualluts cascade in Benasque Valley, Aragon
A still more marked effect of the preponderance of rainfall in the western half of the chain is seen in the vegetation. The lower mountains in the extreme west are wooded, but the extent of forest declines as one moves eastwards. The eastern Pyrenees are peculiarly wild and barren, all the more since it is in this part of the chain that granitic masses prevail. Also moving from west to east, there is a change in the composition of the flora, with the change becoming most evident as one passes the centre of the mountain chain from which point the Corbières Massif
stretch north-eastwards towards the central plateau of France. Though the difference in latitude is only about 1°, in the west the flora resembles that of central Europe while in the east it is distinctly Mediterranean in character. The Pyrenees are nearly as rich in endemic
species as the Alps, and among the most remarkable instances of that endemism
is the occurrence of the monotypic genus Xatardia
), which grows only on a high alpine pass between the Val d'Eynes and Catalonia
. Other examples include Arenaria montana
, Bulbocodium vernum
, and Ranunculus glacialis
. The genus most abundantly represented in the range is that of the saxifrages
, several species of which are endemic here.
In their fauna
the Pyrenees present some striking instances of endemism
. The Pyrenean desman
is found only in some of the streams of the northern slopes of these mountains; the only other desmans
are confined to the rivers of the Caucasus
in southern Russia. The Pyrenean brook salamander (Calotriton asper
), an endemic amphibian, also lives in streams and lakes located at high altitudes. Among other peculiarities of Pyrenean fauna are blind insects in the caverns
of Ariège, the principal genera of which are Anophthalmus
The Pyrenean ibex
mysteriously became extinct in January 2000; the native Pyrenean brown bear
was hunted to near-extinction in the 1990s, but it was re-introduced in 1996 when three bears were brought from Slovenia
. The bear population has bred successfully, and there are now believed to be about 15 brown bears in the central region around Fos
, but only four native ones are still living in the Aspe Valley
Principal nature reserves and national parks:
Demographics and culture
An important feature of rural life in the Pyrenees is 'transhumance
', the moving of livestock from the farms in the valleys up to the higher grounds of the mountains for the summer.
In this way the farming communities could keep larger herds than the lowland farms could support on their own. The principal animals moved were cows
, but historically most members of farming families also moved to the higher pastures along with their animals, so they also took with them pigs
Transhumance thus took the form of a mass biannual migration, moving uphill in May or June
and returning to the farms in September or October. During the summer period, the families would live in basic stone cabins
in the high mountains.
Nowadays, industrialisation and changing agriculture practices have diminished the custom. However, the importance of transhumance continues to be recognised through its celebration in popular festivals.
The Pic du Midi Observatory
is an astronomical observatory located at 2877 meters on top of the Pic du Midi de Bigorre in the French Pyrenees. Construction of the observatory began in 1878 and the 8 metres dome was completed in 1908.
The observatory housed a powerful mechanical equatorial reflector which was used in 1909 to formally discredit the Martian canal theory. A 1.06-meter (42-inch) telescope was installed in 1963, funded by NASA
and was used to take detailed photographs of the surface of the Moon in preparation for the Apollo missions. Other studies conducted in 1965 provided a detailed analysis of the composition of the atmospheres on Mars and Venus, this served as a basis for Jet Propulsion Laboratory
scientists to predict that these planets had no life.
Since 1980, the observatory has had a 2-metre telescope, which is the largest telescope in France. Overtaken by the giant telescopes built in recent decades, today the observatory is widely open to amateur astronomy.
Odeillo solar furnace
The Odeillo solar furnace is the world's largest solar furnace. It is situated in Font-Romeu-Odeillo-Via, in the department of Pyrénées-Orientales
, in south of France. Built between 1962 and 1968, it is 54 metres (177 ft) high and 48 metres (157 ft) wide, and includes 63 heliostats. The site was chosen because of the length and the quality of sunshine with direct light (more than 2,500 h/year) and the purity of its atmosphere (high altitude and low average humidity).
This furnace serves as a science research site studying materials at very high temperatures. Temperatures above 3,500 °C (6,330 °F) can be obtained in a few seconds, in addition it provides rapid temperature changes and therefore allow studying the effect of thermal shocks.
No big cities are in the range itself. The largest urban area close to the Pyrenees is Toulouse
with a population of 1,330,954 in its metropolitan area. On the Spanish side Pamplona
) is the closest city with a population of 319,208 in its metropolitan area. Inside the Pyrenees the main towns are Andorra la Vella
(12,813) in Spain and Lourdes
(13,976) and Foix
(10,046) in France.
The following is the complete list of the summits of the Pyrenees above 3,000 meters:
- Aneto (3,404 m) (Aragon)
- Posets (3,375 m) (Aragon)
- Monte Perdido (3,355 m) (Aragon)
- Punta de Astorg (3,355 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Maldito (3,350 m) (Aragon)
- Espalda del Aneto (3,350 m) (Aragon)
- Pico del Medio (3,346 m) (Aragon)
- Espadas Peak (3,332 m) (Aragon)
- Cilindro de Marboré (3,325 m) (Aragon)
- Maladeta (3,312 m) (Aragon)
- Vignemale (3,298 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Coronas (3,293 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Tempestades (3,290 m) (Aragon)
- Clot de la Hount (3,289 m) (Aragon-France)
- Soum de Ramond (3,259 m) (Aragon)
- 1st Western Peak Maladeta (3,254 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Marboré (3,252 m) (Aragon-France)
- Cerbillona (3,247 m) (Aragon-France)
- Perdiguero (3,221 m) (Aragon-France)
- 2nd Western Peak Maladeta (3,220 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Montferrat (3,219 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Russell (3,205 m) (Aragon)
- Pointe Chausenque (3,204 m) (France)
- Piton Carré (3,197 m) (France)
- Pic Long (3,192 m) (France)
- 3rd Western Peak Maladeta (3,185 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Schrader (3,177 m) (Aragon-France)
- Campbieil (3,173 m) (France)
- Pic de la cascade oriental (3,161 m) (Aragon-France)
- Les Jumeaux Ravier (3,160 m) (Aragon)
- Grand Tapou (3,160 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Badet (3,150 m) (France)
- Balaïtous (3,144 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic du Taillon (3,144 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pica d'Estats (3,143 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Punta del Sabre (3,136 m) (Aragon)
- Diente de Alba (3,136 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de la Munia (3,134 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pointe de Literole (3,132 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Verdaguer (3,131 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Pic du Milieu (3,130 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic des Gourgs Blancs (3,129 m) (Aragon-France)
- Les Veterans (3,125 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Pavots (3,121 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Royo (3,121 m) (Aragon-France)
- Punta Ledormeur (3,120 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Alba (3,118 m) (Aragon)
- Pic des Crabioules (3,116 m) (Aragon-France)
- Seil Dera Baquo (3,110 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Maupas (3,109 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Lézat (3,107 m) (France)
- Western Crabioules (3,106 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Brulle (3,106 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de la cascade occidental (3,095 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Néouvielle (3,091 m) (France)
- Serre Mourene (3,090 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Troumouse (3,085 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Posets (3,085 m) (Aragon)
- Infierno central (3,083 m) (Aragon)
- Pics d'Enfer (3,082 m) (France)
- Pico de Bardamina (3,079 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de la Paul (3,078 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Montcalm (3,077 m) (France)
- Infierno oriental (3,076 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Maou (3,074 m) (France)
- Infierno occidental (3,073 m) (Aragon)
- Épaule du Marboré (3,073 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic du port de Sullo (3,072 m) (Catalonia-France)
- Frondella NE (3,071 m) (Aragon)
- Grand pic d' Astazou (3,071 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico de Vallibierna (3,067 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Marcos Feliu (3,067 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic des Spijeoles (3,066 m) (France)
- Pico Jean Arlaud (3,065 m) (Aragon)
- Tuca de Culebras (3,062 m) (Aragon-France)
- Grand Quayrat (3,060 m) (France)
- Pic Maubic (3,058 m) (France)
- Pico Gran Eriste (3,053 m) (Aragon)
- Garmo negro (3,051 m) (Aragon)
- Pic du Portillon (3,050 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Argualas (3,046 m) (Aragon)
- Baudrimont NW) (3,045 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Eristé sur (3,045 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Camboue (3,043 m) (France)
- Trois Conseillers (3,039 m) (France)
- Pico Aragüells (3,037 m) (Aragon)
- Pico Algas (3,036 m) (Aragon)
- Turon de Néouvielle (3,035 m) (France)
- Pic de Batoua (3,034 m) (Aragon)
- Gabietou occidental (3,034 m) (Aragon-France)
- Comaloforno (3,033 m) (Catalonia)
- Petit Vignemale (3,032 m) (France)
- Gabietou oriental (3,031 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic de Bugarret (3,031 m) (France)
- South Besiberri Massif (3,030 m) (Catalonia)
- Pic de l'Abeille (3,029 m) (Aragon-France)
- Baudrimont SE (3,026 m) (Aragon)
- Pic Béraldi (3,025 m) (Aragon)
- Pico de la Pez (3,024 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Lustou (3,023 m) (France)
- Pic Heid (3,022 m) (France)
- Pic de Crabounouse (3,021 m) (France)
- Pico de Clarabide (3,020 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico del puerto de la pez (3,018 m) (Aragon-France)
- Dent d'Estibère male (3,017 m) (France)
- North Besiberri Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia)
- Punta Alta Massif (3,014 m) (Catalonia)
- Petit Astazou (3,012 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Ramougn (3,011 m) (France)
- Pico de Gias (3,011 m) (Aragon)
- Tuc de Molières (3,010 m) (Catalonia-Aragon)
- Tour du Marboré (3,009 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pic Belloc (3,008 m) (France)
- Pic Forqueta (3,007 m) (Aragon)
- Pic d'Estaragne (3,006 m) (France)
- Pico de Boum (3,006 m) (Aragon-France)
- Casque du Marboré (3,006 m) (Aragon-France)
- Arnales (3,006 m) (Aragon)
- Grande Fache (3,005 m) (Aragon-France)
- Pico Robiñera (3,005 m) (Aragon)
- Pic de Saint Saud (3,003 m) (France)
- Middle Besiberri S (3,003 m) (Catalonia)
- Middle Besiberri N (3,002 m) (Catalonia)
- Pointe Célestin Passet (3,002 m) (Catalonia)
- Punta de las Olas (3,002 m) (Aragon)
- Frondella SW (3,001 m) (Aragon)
Notable summits below 3,000 metres
Aiguilles d'Ansabère and Mesa de los Tres Reyes reflected in the lake of Ansabère
- Pic de Palas (2,974 m)
- Pic de Comapedrosa (2,942 m) - highest point of Andorra
- Pic Carlit (2,921 m)
- Puigmal (2,913 m)
- Cotiella (2,912 m)
- Pic de Sanfonts (2,894 m)
- Pic d'Envalira (2,827 m)
- Collarada (2,886 m)
- Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,885 m)
- Pic du Midi de Bigorre (2,876 m)
- Mont Valier (2,838 m)
- Petit Pic du Midi d'Ossau (2,812 m)
- Pic du Canigou (2,786 m)
- Peña Telera (2,764 m)
- Casamanya (2,740 m)
- Cap de la cometa del forn (2,691 m)
- Visaurin (2,668 m)
- Pic del Port Vell (2,655 m)
- Aspe peak (2,645 m)
- Pic dels Aspres (2,562 m)
- Pedraforca (2,506 m)
- Pic d'Anie (2,504 m)
- Pic de Pedraforca (2,498 m)
- Pic de Madrès (2,469 m)
- Mesa de los Tres Reyes (2,428 m)
- Grande Aiguille d'Ansabère (2,376 m)
- Pic du Soularac (2,368 m)
- Pic du Saint Barthélémy (2,348 m)
- Peña Montañesa (2,291 m)
- Peña Foratata (2,282 m)
- Pic des Trois Seigneurs (2,199 m)
- Pic d'Orhy (2,017 m)
- Chamanchoya (1,935 m)
- Otsogorrigaina (1,922 m)
- Pic de Cagire (1,912 m)
- Pic du Gar (1,785 m)
- Urkulu (1,419 m)
- Larrun (905 m)
Sports and leisure
Both sides of the Pyrenees are popular spots for winter sports such as alpine skiing
. The Pyrenees are also a good place for athletes, such as Gary Wood, to do high-altitude training in the summertime, such as by bicycling and cross-country running.
In the summer
and the autumn
, the Pyrenees are usually featured in two of cycling's grand tours, the Tour de France
held annually in July and the Vuelta a España
held in September. The stages held in the Pyrenees are often crucial legs of both tours, drawing hundreds of thousands of spectators to the region.
Three main long-distance footpaths
run the length of the mountain range: the GR 10
across the northern slopes, the GR 11
across the southern slopes, and the HRP
which traverses peaks and ridges along a high altitude route. In addition, there are numerous marked and unmarked trails throughout the region.
Ski Center, Cerler (Spain)
resorts in the Pyrenees include:
- ^ Barnolas, A. y Pujalte, V. (2004). «La Cordillera Pirenaica». Vera Torres, J. A. (ed.), ed. Geología de España. Sociedad Geológica de España e Instituto Geológico y Minero de España. pp. 231-343. ISBN 84-7840-546-1.
- ^ Preamble of the "Charter of the Catalan Language" Archived 2009-03-25 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Collins Road Atlas of Europe. London: Harper Collins. 1995. pp. 28–29. ISBN 0-00-448148-8.
- ^ Herodotus, Histories 2.33. Archived 2012-04-04 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Silius Italicus, Punica 3.415–441.
- ^ Although Geryon was usually located in the mythical west of the setting sun, he was also associated with Iberia; according to Strabo, his triple-body was preserved at Cadiz in the form of a tree.
- ^ Ben Tipping, Exemplary Epic: Silius Italicus' Punica (Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 20–21 online.
- ^ Pliny the Elder, Natural History 3.3.Archived 2012-10-14 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography (1854) William Smith, LLD, Ed.
- ^ Diodorus Siculus, The Library of History Vol III, 35 
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Pyrenees". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Pirineus-Prepirineus Archived 2008-07-23 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Jordi Sacasas i Lluís, Geografía de Catalunya, Publicacions L'Abadia de Montserrat. ISBN 978-84-8415-915-5
- ^ Christophe Neff : Les Corbières maritimes – forment-elles un étage de végétation méditerranéenne thermophile masqué par la pression humaine ? In: Eric Fouache (Edit.): The Mediterranean World Environment and History. IAG Working Group on Geo-archeology, Symposium Proceedings. Environmental Dynamics and History in Mediterranean Areas, Paris, Université de Paris – Sorbonne 24 – 26 avril 2002. Paris, 2003, 191 – 202, (Elsevier France, ISBN 2-84299-452-3).
- ^ Babault, Julien; Van Den Driessche, Jean; Bonnet, Stephanie; Castelltort, Sébastien; Crave, Alain (2005). "Origin of the highly elevated Pyrenean peneplain". Tectonics. 24 (2): n/a. Bibcode:2005Tecto..24.2010B. doi:10.1029/2004TC001697.
- ^ Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sánchez, R. (2015). "A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products". Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. 19 (5): 2337–2351. Bibcode:2015HESS...19.2337G. doi:10.5194/hess-19-2337-2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-29. Retrieved 2015-05-29.
- ^ a b c "The Transhumance". Ariege.com. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^ a b "The traditional transhumance of pyrenean horses". Archived from the original on 2016-02-07. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^ a b "Transhumance in the Midi-Pyrenees region of south west France". Archived from the original on 2016-10-08. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^ "Transhumances dans les Hautes-Pyrénées : un peu de civisme, SVP !" (in French). Archived from the original on 2015-10-07. Retrieved 2016-02-01.
- ^ 1 of 3 summits (archive)
- ^ "El monte del lobo rojo. Otsogorrigaina (1.922 m). El Correo". El Correo. Archived from the original on 2012-01-31. Retrieved 2012-03-09.
- ^ Pays Toy Ski Resort Archived 2009-03-29 at the Wayback Machine (archive)
- Belloc, Hilaire (1909). The Pyrenees. Methuen & Co., London.
- Edelmayer, Friedrich (2012). The Pyrenees Region (in German and English). Institute of European History.
- Paegelow, Claus (2008). Pyrenäen Bibliografie. Andorra, spanische & französische Pyrenäen, Pyrenees Bibliography. Andorra, Spain & French Pyrenees (in German and English). Verlag Claus Paegelow. ISBN 978-3-00-023936-6.
- Milne, Tony (2015). 10 Manuels and a Manolete. Handmaid Books, Herblay. ASIN 1507691408.
Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Pyrenees
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Pyrenees
Last edited on 3 May 2021, at 20:55
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