en.m.wikipedia.org
Qasem Soleimani
Qasem Soleimani[note 1] (Persian: قاسم سلیمانی‎‎, pronounced [ɢɒːˌsem solejˈmɒːniː]; 11 March 1957 – 3 January 2020) was an Iranian military officer who served in the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC). From 1998 until his death in 2020, he was the commander of the Quds Force, an IRGC division primarily responsible for extraterritorial and clandestine military operations. In his later years, he was considered by some analysts to be the right-hand man of the Supreme Leader of Iran, Ali Khamenei, as well as the second-most powerful person in Iran behind him.[21][22][23]
Sardar
Qasem Soleimani

Soleimani in uniform with the Order of Zolfaghar in 2019
Native nameقاسم سلیمانی
Nickname(s)
Born11 March 1957
Qanat-e Malek, Kerman, Imperial State of Iran
Died3 January 2020 (aged 62)[7]
Baghdad International Airport, Iraq
BuriedGolzar Shohada, Kerman, Iran[8] (30.291984°N 57.128931°E)
Allegiance
 Iran
Service/branch
Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps
Years of service1979–2020
RankMajor General Posthumously promoted to Lieutenant General[9]
Commands held
Battles/wars
See wars and battles
Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988)[10]
Awards
Children5
As a civilian, Soleimani initially worked in construction[24][25] before joining the IRGC during the Islamic Revolution in 1979. He assembled and led a company of soldiers when the Iran–Iraq War began in September 1980, eventually rising through the ranks to become the commander of the 41st Tharallah Division in his 20s.[26] He was later involved in extraterritorial operations, and in the late 1990s became commander of the IRGC Quds Force.[27] Following the September 11 attacks on the United States, Iranian diplomats under his direction cooperated with U.S. forces in Afghanistan to fight the Taliban.[2] Soleimani also provided extensive assistance to Hezbollah in Lebanon.[2] In 2012, following the outbreak of the Syrian Civil War, Soleimani helped bolster the Government of Syria and its president, Bashar al-Assad, a key Iranian ally. He ran Iran's operations in the Syrian Civil War and helped plan and organize the Russian military intervention in Syria.[28] Soleimani coordinated KurdishPeshmerga and Shia militia forces in Iraq, and assisted them during the militant expansion Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant in 2014.[29][30][31][32]
Soleimani was amongst the most popular personalities in Iran, viewed by many as a "selfless hero fighting Iran's enemies",[33][34][35] by others as a "murderer".[36][37][38] Soleimani was personally sanctioned by the United Nations and the European Union,[39][40][41] and was designated as a terrorist by the United States in 2005.[42][43][44]
Soleimani was assassinated in a targeted American drone strike on 3 January 2020 in Baghdad, Iraq on the orders of U.S. President Donald Trump. The strike was strongly condemned by some, including the Iranian government, and a mass multi-city funeral was held in both Iraq and Iran for Soleimani and other casualties caused by the drone strike. Hours after his burial on 7 January 2020, the Iranian military launched missiles against U.S. military bases in Iraq; while no lives were lost in the second attack, the Pentagon reported that 110 American troops were wounded in the strikes.[45][46]
Early life
Soleimani was born on 11 March 1957, in the village of Qanat-e Malek, Kerman Province.​[24]​[25]​[26]​[47]​[note 2] After he finished school, he moved to the city of Kerman and worked on a construction site[24][25] to help repay his father's agricultural debts. In 1975, he began working as a contractor for the Kerman Water Organization.[24][27][49] When not at work, he spent his time with weight training in local gyms, or attending the sermons of Hojjat Kamyab, a preacher and a protégé of Ali Khamenei, who according to Soleimani incited him to "revolutionary activities".[2][50]
Military career
General Soleimani in the NAC, a conference of generals of Iran
Soleimani joined the Revolutionary Guard (IRGC) in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution, which saw the shah fall and Ayatollah Khomeini take power. Reportedly, his training was minimal, but he advanced rapidly. Early in his career as a guardsman, he was stationed in northwestern Iran, and participated in the suppression of a Kurdish separatist uprising in West Azerbaijan Province.[2]
I entered the [Iran–Iraq War] on a fifteen-day mission, and ended up staying until the end ... We were all young and wanted to serve the revolution.
— Quoted in Dexter Filkins (30 September 2013), "The Shadow Commander", The New Yorker
On 22 September 1980, when Saddam Hussein launched an invasion of Iran, setting off the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988), Soleimani joined the battlefield serving as the leader of a military company, consisting of men from Kerman whom he assembled and trained.[51] He quickly earned a reputation for bravery,[52] and rose through the ranks because of his role in successful operations to retake the lands Iraq had occupied, and eventually became the commander of the 41st Tharallah Division while still in his 20s, participating in most major operations. He was mostly stationed at the southern front.[51][53] He was seriously injured in Operation Tariq-ol-Qods. In a 1990 interview, he mentioned Operation Fath-ol-Mobin as "the best" operation he participated in and "very memorable", due to its difficulties yet positive outcome.[54] He was also engaged in leading and organizing irregular warfare missions deep inside Iraq by the Ramadan Headquarters.​[​clarification needed] It was at this point that Soleimani established relations with Kurdish Iraqi leaders and the Shia Badr Organization, both opposed to Iraq's Saddam Hussein.[51]
On 17 July 1985, Soleimani opposed the IRGC leadership's plan to deploy forces to two islands in western Arvand Rud, on the Shatt al-Arab River.[55][why?]
After the war, during the 1990s, he was an IRGC commander in Kerman Province.[53] In this region, which is relatively close to Afghanistan, Afghan-grown opium travels to Turkey and on to Europe.[citation needed] Soleimani's military experience helped him earn a reputation as a successful fighter against drug trafficking.[2]
During the 1999 student revolt in Tehran, Soleimani was one of the IRGC officers who signed a letter to President Mohammad Khatami. The letter stated that if Khatami did not crush the student rebellion, the military would and it might also launch a coup against Khatami.[2][56] Moreover, he had also a role in suppressing the Iranian Green Movement in 2009, according to the former IRGC commander, Mohammad Ali Jafari.[57]
Command of Quds Force
Soleimani receiving the Order of Zolfaghar from Ayatollah Ali Khamenei
The exact date of his appointment as commander of the IRGC's Quds Force is not clear, but Ali Alfoneh cites it as between 10 September 1997 and 21 March 1998.[27] He was considered one of the possible successors to the post of commander of the IRGC when General Yahya Rahim Safavi left this post in 2007. In 2008, he led a group of Iranian investigators looking into the death of Imad Mughniyah. Soleimani helped arrange a ceasefire between the Iraqi Army and Mahdi Army in March 2008.[58]
Following the September 11 attacks in 2001, senior U.S. State Department official Ryan Crocker flew to Geneva to meet with Iranian diplomats who were under the leadership of Soleimani with the purpose of collaborating to destroy the Taliban.[2] This collaboration was instrumental in defining the targets of air bombing operations in Afghanistan and in capturing key Al-Qaeda operatives, but suddenly ended in January 2002, when President George W. Bush named Iran as part of the "Axis of evil" in his State of the Union address.[2]
Soleimani strengthened the relationship between Quds Force and Hezbollah upon his appointment, and supported the latter by sending in operatives to retake southern Lebanon.[2] In an interview aired in October 2019, he said he was in Lebanon during the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War to manage the conflict.[59]
In 2009, The Economist stated on the basis of a leaked report that Christopher R. Hill and General Raymond T. Odierno (America's two most senior officials in Baghdad at the time) met with Soleimani in the office of Iraq's president, Jalal Talabani, but withdrew the story after Hill and Odierno denied the occurrence of the meeting.[60][61][62]
On 24 January 2011, Soleimani was promoted to Major General by Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei.[53][63] Khamenei was described as having a close relationship with him, calling Soleimani a "living martyr" and helping him financially.[2]
Soleimani was described by an ex-CIA operative, responsible for clandestine operations, as "the single most powerful operative in the Middle East today" and the principal military strategist and tactician in Iran's effort to deter Western influence and promote the expansion of Shia and Iranian influence throughout the Middle East.[2] In Iraq, as the commander of the Quds Force, he was believed to have strongly influenced the organization of the Iraqi government, notably supporting the election of previous Iraqi Prime Minister Nuri Al-Maliki.[2][64]
A report issued, late January 2020, by government fractions close to IRGC and published by Fars News Agency reveals some of Quds force's infiltration, under the command of Qassem Soleimani, in other countries. The 1992–95 Bosnian War is brought as an example.[65]
Syrian Civil War
See also: Syrian Civil War
We're not like the Americans. We don't abandon our friends.
— Attributed to Soleimani by a former Iraqi leader, referring to Syria. Quoted by Dexter Filkins.[2]
Map of Al-Qusayr and its environs. The Al-Qusayr offensive was reportedly orchestrated by Soleimani.[2]
According to several sources, including Riad Hijab, a former Syrian premier who deserted in August 2012, Soleimani was one of the strongest supporters of the Syrian government of Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian Civil War.[2][64] Soleimani was involved in planning and carrying out the Siege of Baba Amr during the Siege of Homs since 2011, according to the Syrian Minister of Defense, Ali Abdullah Ayyoub.[66][67] In the later half of 2012, Soleimani assumed personal control of the Iranian intervention in the Syrian Civil War, when the Iranians became deeply concerned about the Assad government's inability to fight the opposition, and the negative consequences to the Islamic Republic if the Syrian government fell. He reportedly coordinated the war from a base in Damascus at which a Lebanese Hezbollah commander and an Iraqi Shia militia coordinator were mobilized, in addition to Syrian and Iranian officers. Under Soleimani, the command "coordinated attacks, trained militias, and set up an elaborate system to monitor rebel communications". According to a Middle Eastern security official Dexter Filkins talked to, thousands of Quds Force and Iraqi Shia militiamen in Syria were "spread out across the entire country".[2] The retaking of Qusayr in May 2013 from rebel forces and Al-Nusra Front[68] was, according to John Maguire, a former CIA officer in Iraq, "orchestrated" by Soleimani.[2]
Brigadier General Hossein Hamadani, the Basij's former deputy commander, helped to run irregular militias that Soleimani hoped would continue the fight if Assad fell.[2] Soleimani helped establish the National Defence Forces (NDF) in 2013 which would formalize the coalition of pro-Assad groups.[69]
Soleimani was much credited in Syria for the strategy that assisted President Bashar al-Assad in finally repulsing rebel forces and recapturing key cities and towns.[70] He was involved in the training of government-allied militias and the coordination of decisive military offensives.[2] The sighting of Iranian UAVs in Syria strongly suggested that his command, the Quds Force, was involved in the civil war.[2]
In a visit to the Lebanese capital Beirut on 29 January 2015, Soleimani laid wreaths at the graves of the slain Hezbollah members, including Jihad Mughniyah, which strengthened suspicions about a collaboration between Hezbollah and the Quds Force.[71]
Orchestration of military escalation in 2015
In 2015, Soleimani began gathering support from various sources to combat the newly resurgent Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) and rebel groups which had both successfully taken large swaths of territory from Assad's forces. He was reportedly the main architect of the joint intervention involving Russia as a new partner with Assad and Hezbollah.[72][73]
According to Reuters, at a meeting in Moscow in July, Soleimani unfurled a map of Syria to explain to his Russian hosts how a series of defeats for President Bashar al-Assad could be turned into victory—with Russia's help. Soleimani's visit to Moscow was the first step in planning for a Russian military intervention that has reshaped the Syrian war and forged a new Iran–Russia alliance in support of the Syrian (and Iraqi) governments. Iran's supreme leader, Ali Khamenei, also sent a senior envoy to Moscow to meet President Vladimir Putin. "Putin reportedly told [a senior Iranian envoy] 'Okay we will intervene. Send Qassem Soleimani.'" General Soleimani went to explain the map of the theatre and coordinate the strategic escalation of military forces in Syria.[73]
Operations in Aleppo
Map of the 2015 Aleppo offensives[74][75][76][77][78][79]
Soleimani had a decisive impact on the theater of operations, which led to a strong advance in southern Aleppo with the government and allied forces re-capturing two military bases and dozens of towns and villages in a matter of weeks. There was also a series of major advances towards Kuweiris air-base to the north-east.[80] By mid-November, the Syrian army and its allies had gained ground in southern areas of Aleppo Governorate, capturing numerous rebel strongholds. Soleimani was reported to have personally led the drive deep into the southern Aleppo countryside where many towns and villages fell into government hands. He reportedly commanded the Syrian Arab Army's 4th Mechanized Division, Hezbollah, Harakat Al-Nujaba (Iraqi), Kata'ib Hezbollah (Iraqi), Liwaa Abu Fadl Al-Abbas (Iraqi), and Firqa Fatayyemoun (Afghan/Iranian volunteers).[81]
In early February 2016, backed by Russian and Syrian air force airstrikes, the 4th Mechanized Division—in close coordination with Hezbollah, the National Defense Forces (NDF), Kata'eb Hezbollah, and Harakat Al-Nujaba—launched an offensive in Aleppo Governorate's northern countryside,[82] which eventually broke the three-year siege of Nubl and Al-Zahraa and cut off the rebels' main supply route from Turkey. According to a senior, non-Syrian security source close to Damascus, Iranian fighters played a crucial role in the conflict. "Qassem Soleimani is there in the same area", he said.[83] In December 2016, new photos emerged of Soleimani at the Citadel of Aleppo, though the exact date of the photos is unknown.[84][85]
In late March 2017, Soleimani was seen in the northern Hama Governorate countryside in Syria, reportedly aiding Major General Suheil al-Hassan to repel a major rebel offensive.[18]
War against ISIL in Iraq
See also: Iraqi Civil War (2014–2017)
A map of Saladin Governorate in Iraq. Soleimani was involved in breaking the Siege of Amirli by ISIL in the eastern part of the governorate.[86]
Soleimani had a significant role in Iran's fight against ISIL in Iraq. He was described as the "linchpin" bringing together Kurdish and Shia forces to fight ISIS, overseeing joint operations conducted by the two groups.[29]
In 2014, Soleimani was in the Iraqi city of Amirli, to work with Iraqi forces to push back ISIL militants.[30] The Los Angeles Times reported that Amirli was the first town to successfully withstand an ISIL invasion, and was secured thanks to "an unusual partnership of Iraqi and Kurdish soldiers, Iranian-backed Shia militias and U.S. warplanes".[87][88]
Soleimani praying in the Syrian desert in 2017
A senior Iraqi official told the BBC that when the city of Mosul fell, the rapid reaction of Iran, rather than American bombing, was what prevented a more widespread collapse.[12] Soleimani also seems to have been instrumental in planning the operation to relieve Amirli in Saladin Governorate, where ISIL had laid siege to an important city.[86] In fact, the Quds force operatives under Soleimani's command seem to have been deeply involved not only with the Iraqi army and Shia militias but also with the Kurdish forces in the Battle of Amirli,[89] providing liaisons for intelligence-sharing along with arms, munitions and expertise.[90]
In the operation to liberate Jurf Al Sakhar, he was reportedly "present on the battlefield". Some Shia militia commanders described Soleimani as "fearless", one pointing out that the Iranian general never wears a flak jacket even on the front lines.[91]
In November 2014, Shia and Kurdish forces under Soleimani's command pushed ISIL out of the Iraqi villages of Jalawla and Saadia in the Diyala Governorate.[29][92][93]
Soleimani played an integral role in the organization and planning of the crucial operation to retake the city of Tikrit in Iraq from ISIL. The city of Tikrit rests on the left bank of the Tigris river and is the largest and most important city between Baghdad and Mosul, giving it a high strategic value. The city fell to ISIL during 2014 when ISIL made immense gains in northern and central Iraq. After its capture, ISIL's massacre at Camp Speicher led to 1,600 to 1,700 deaths of Iraqi Army cadets and soldiers. After months of careful preparation and intelligence gathering an offensive to encircle and capture Tikrit was launched in early March 2015.[93]
In 2016, photos published by a Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF) source showed Soleimani attending a meeting of PMF commanders in Iraq to discuss the Battle of Fallujah.[94]
CIA chief Mike Pompeo said he sent Soleimani and other Iranian leaders a letter holding them responsible for any attacks on U.S. interests by forces under their control. According to Mohammad Mohammadi Golpayegani, a senior aide for Iran's supreme leader, Soleimani ignored the letter when it was handed over to him during the Abu Kamal offensive against ISIL, saying "I will not take your letter nor read it and I have nothing to say to these people."[95][96]
In politics
Soleimani speaking at International Day of Mosque conference
In 1999, Soleimani, along with other senior IRGC commanders, signed a letter to then-President Mohammad Khatami regarding the student protests in July. They wrote "Dear Mr. Khatami, how long do we have to shed tears, sorrow over the events, practice democracy by chaos and insults, and have revolutionary patience at the expense of sabotaging the system? Dear president, if you don't make a revolutionary decision and act according to your Islamic and national missions, tomorrow will be so late and irrecoverable that cannot be even imagined."[97]
Iranian media reported in 2012 that he might be replaced as the commander of Quds Force in order to allow him to run in the 2013 presidential election.[98] He reportedly refused to be nominated for the election.[97] According to BBC News, in 2015 a campaign started among conservative bloggers for Soleimani to stand for 2017 presidential election.[70] In 2016, he was speculated as a possible candidate,[97][99] however in a statement published on 15 September 2016, he called speculations about his candidacy as "divisive reports by the enemies" and said he will "always remain a simple soldier serving Iran and the Islamic Revolution".[100]
In the summer of 2018, Soleimani and Tehran exchanged public remarks related to Red Sea shipping with American President Donald Trump which heightened tensions between the two countries and their allies in the region.[101]
Sanctions
In March 2007, Soleimani was included on a list of Iranian individuals targeted with sanctions in United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747.[102] On 18 May 2011, he was sanctioned again by the U.S. along with Syrian president Bashar al-Assad and other senior Syrian officials due to his alleged involvement in providing material support to the Syrian government.[55]
On 24 June 2011, the Official Journal of the European Union said the three Iranian Revolutionary Guard members now subject to sanctions had been "providing equipment and support to help the Syrian government suppress protests in Syria".[103] The Iranians added to the EU sanctions list were two Revolutionary Guard commanders, Soleimani, Mohammad Ali Jafari, and the Guard's deputy commander for intelligence, Hossein Taeb.[104] Soleimani was also sanctioned by the Swiss government in September 2011 on the same grounds cited by the European Union.[105]
In 2007, the U.S. included him in a "Designation of Iranian Entities and Individuals for Proliferation Activities and Support for Terrorism", which forbade U.S. citizens from doing business with him.[58][106] The list, published in the EU's Official Journal on 24 June 2011, also included a Syrian property firm, an investment fund and two other enterprises accused of funding the Syrian government. The list also included Mohammad Ali Jafari and Hossein Taeb.[107]
On 13 November 2018, the U.S. sanctioned an Iraqi military leader named Shibl Muhsin 'Ubayd Al-Zaydi and others who allegedly were acting on Soleimani's behalf in financing military actions in Syria or otherwise providing support for terrorism in the region.[108]
Personal life and public image
Soleimani at the farewell ceremony of his father in 2017
Soleimani's father, Hassan, was a farmer who died in 2017. His mother, Fatemeh, died in 2013.[109] He left behind four siblings.[110] His younger brother, Sohrab, who lived and worked with Soleimani in his youth,[111] is now a warden and former director general of the Tehran Prisons Organization. The U.S. imposed sanctions on Sohrab Soleimani in April 2017 "for his role in abuses in Iranian prisons".[112] He left five children: three sons and two daughters.[113][114] One of his daughters, Zeinab, was asking for revenge after her father's death.[115] He was described as having "a calm presence",[116] and as carrying himself "inconspicuously and rarely rais[ing] his voice", exhibiting "understated charisma".[52] Unlike other IRGC commanders, he usually did not appear in his official military clothing, even on the battlefield.[117][118] In January 2015, Hadi Al-Ameri, the head of the Badr Organization in Iraq, said of him: "If Qasem Soleimani was not present in Iraq, Haider al-Abadi would not be able to form his cabinet within Iraq".[119]
Soleimani was a popular national figure in Iran,[120] considered a hero by the conservatives.[121] According to a poll conducted in collaboration with IranPoll for the University of Maryland School of Public Policy, by October 2019 Soleimani was viewed favorably by 82% of Iranians with 59% of them very favorable toward him.[35] He was often considered the second most powerful person and general in Iran, behind Ayatollah Khamenei.[21][22][122] Since the Iran–Iraq War (1980–88), in which Iran was attacked by Saddam Hussein's Iraq and also felt attacked by other countries which sided with Iraq,[123] including the U.S., which supplied weapons and intelligence to Iraq,[124] Soleimani had developed into an architect of Iran's foreign policies in the Middle East[21][121][125] and a key figure behind Iran's foreign and defence policies.[21]
Soleimani cultivated public relations and a personality cult that formed part of his image.[126][127][128] After his death, the Iranian propaganda campaign intensified disinformation efforts in coordinating the international public opinion toward idolization of Soleimani. These efforts included using state-run TV channels and several social media accounts, a large proportion of which had newly been created, and posting images such as heroic, "noble warrior" depictions of Soleimani, appealing to both nationalists and religious conservatives.​[129]​[130]​[131]​[132]​[133]​[134]​[135] It is believed by many that these measures have been at least partially successful, arguing that even some American outlets were biased.​[136]​[137]​[138]​[139]
Assassination
Main article: Assassination of Qasem Soleimani
Qasem Soleimani (left) with Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis at a 2017 ceremony commemorating the father of Soleimani, in Mosalla, Tehran
Soleimani was assassinated on 3 January 2020 around 1:00 a.m. local time (22:00 UTC 2 January),[140] by U.S. drone strike near Baghdad International Airport.[141][142] BBC News, NBC News, DW News, Time, The Guardian and other media outlets have said Soleimani was assassinated or described the killing as an assassination.​[9]​[31]​[143]​[144]​[145] The New York Times compared it to Operation Vengeance in World War II, when American pilots shot down the plane carrying Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto.[146] Soleimani had just left his plane, which arrived in Iraq from Lebanon or Syria.[147] His body was identified using a ring he wore on his finger, with DNA confirmation still pending.[148][when?] CNBC reported that the U.S. had been in pursuit of the general for decades.[149] Also assassinated were four members of the Popular Mobilization Forces (PMF), including Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis, the Iraqi-Iranian military commander who headed the PMF.[150]
Iraqi prime minister Adil Abdul Mahdi said Soleimani was bringing Iran's response to a letter that Iraq had sent out on behalf of Saudi Arabia in order to ease tensions between the two countries in the region. The prime minister did not reveal the message's exact content.[151] Soleimani was posthumously promoted to the rank of Lieutenant General[9] and praised as a martyr by speaker of the Iranian parliament Ali Larijani[152] and Mohsen Rezaei, a former commander of the IRGC.[153] Soleimani was succeeded by Esmail Ghaani as commander of the Quds Force.[154]
According to the Iranian Students News Agency quoting the Iraqi Al-Ahd network, there are diverse narratives concerning the drones which assassinated Qasim-Soleimani (and Abu-Mahdi al-Muhandis). A narrative mentions about the American drones which took-off from Kuwait land, and entered Iraq and did the mentioned operation, on the other hand, the headquarters of the Kuwaiti Armed Forces denied the news after a few hours. The second news says that an American UAV rises from the Al-Adeed base in Qatar and do the mentioned assassination-operation.​[155] Also, according to Ahmed al-Asadi, a member of the Iraqi Parliament: "The drones which carried out the assassination-operation, were 3 American UAVs that took-off from the military-base of "Ain al-Assad" and flew in the sky of Baghdad for 20 hours on Thursday morning and then came back directly to the "Ain al-Assad" base after carrying out the assassination operation."[156] According to Radio-Farda quoting American-media, the drones which did the assassination were from the type of "MQ-9 Reaper".[157]
U.S. decision-making
President Trump had expressed a desire to target Soleimani in a 2017 meeting with then National Security Adviser H.R. McMaster.[158][159] On 13 January 2020, five senior current and former Trump administration officials told NBC News that President Trump had authorized the killing of Soleimani in June 2019 on the condition that he had been involved in the killing of any Americans, a decision backed by U.S. Secretary of State Mike Pompeo.[158][159] In making the 2020 strike, the Pentagon focused on Soleimani's past actions and on deterring future such actions.[160] The strike followed attacks on the American embassy in Baghdad by supporters of an Iran-backed Iraqi Shia militia and the 2019 K-1 Air Base attack.[161] Anonymous officials told The New York Times that Trump had initially decided to strike at the Shia militia, but instead chose the most extreme option proposed (killing Soleimani) after seeing television footage of the attack on the embassy.[146] The death of an Iraqi-American contractor in a rocket attack in December 2019 was reportedly also used as justification for the strike,[158][159] contradicting the Trump Administration's claim that Soleimani was targeted because he was plotting "imminent" attacks on Americans and had to be targeted in order to stop these attacks.[158][159]
The U.S. Defense Department said the strike was carried out "at the direction of the President" and asserted that Soleimani had been planning further attacks on American diplomats and military personnel and had approved the attacks on the American embassy in Baghdad in response to U.S. airstrikes in Iraq and Syria on 29 December 2019, and that the strike was meant to deter future attacks.[162][163] As part of the administration's changing justification for the strike, a national security adviser asserted that Soleimani had intended further attacks on American diplomats and troops,[164] and Mark Esper asserted the general had been expected to mastermind an attack within days.[165] Trump stated in a Fox News interview that four embassies, including the U.S. embassy in Baghdad, had been targeted; Secretary of StateMike Pompeo said it was not known where or when the attacks would have taken place.[166]
Legal status of the assassination
The strike was not approved by the U.S. Congress or consented to by the Iraqi government, leading to controversy regarding the legality of killing an Iranian military leader over Iraqi airspace.[167]
An arrest warrant was issued by an Iraqi court for President Donald Trump in connection with the killing of Soleimani. The arrest warrant was for a charge of premeditated murder, which carries the death penalty on conviction.[168]
Under U.S. law
On 14 February 2020, in a legally required unclassified memorandum to Congress,[169] the Trump administration said it was authorized under both the Constitution and the 2002 Authorization of Use of Military Force Against Iraq.
However, the Chairman of the House Committee on Foreign Affairs Engel said "The 2002 authorization was passed to deal with Saddam Hussein. This law had nothing to do with Iran or Iranian government officials in Iraq. To suggest that 18 years later this authorization could justify killing an Iranian official stretches the law far beyond anything Congress ever intended," adding that he "looked forward" to Pompeo testifying in a 28 February hearing.[170]
Under international law
The United States, as a member of the United Nations, has ratified the Charter of the United Nations and, therefore, is bound by its provisions. Agnès Callamard, United Nations Special Rapporteur on extrajudicial, summary or arbitrary executions, and Director of Columbia University's Global Freedom of Expression project, researched the alleged legal basis for the killing of Suleimani advanced by the United States government and stated that the Suleimani's killing could have been justified under international law only if it had been a response to an "imminent threat." However, she said that the United States had provided no evidence to support that contention. "Absent an actual imminent threat to life, the course of action taken by the U.S. was unlawful," Ms. Callamard wrote in a report that she presented in July 2020 to the U.N. Human Rights Council in Geneva.[171] The Trump administration's February 2020 memorandum to Congress was "remarkably vague and inconsequential as far as a possible imminent threat is concerned," Ms. Callamard wrote in the report. "Even at the most basic level, the U.S. did not demonstrate that striking Suleimani was 'necessary.'"[172]
Callamard also concluded that the killing sets an alarming precedent—it was the first targeted drone killing of a senior foreign government official on the territory of a third country. The world now faced "the very real prospect that states may opt to ‘strategically’ eliminate high-ranking military officials outside the context of a 'known' war, and seek to justify the killing on the grounds of the target's classification as a 'terrorist' who posed a potential future threat," Callamard said in her report. Also, she noted that scores of countries and many non-state actors now have operational drones, and that drones kill many non-combatants for every person targeted.[173]
Reaction
Further information: Reactions to the assassination of Qasem Soleimani
According to Agnès Callamard, the UN special rapporteur on extrajudicial killing, "the killings of Qassem Suleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis violates international human rights law". She said the U.S. is required to confirm "the individual targeted constituted an imminent threat to others." Callamard also described the killing of other individuals alongside Soleimani as "unlawful"[174] and other scholars argue it violates international law.[175] Russian Foreign Minister Sergei Lavrov, Medea Benjamin (the founder of anti-war advocacy group Code Pink) and Hillary Mann Leverett (a political risk consultant and former director of Iran affairs at the White House's National Security Council) called the assassination of Soleimani "flatly illegal".[176][177]
Analysts Ali Vaez and Iain King and some Twitter users compared the event to the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand,[178][179][180] and Ferdinand and #WWIII began trending on Twitter because of what BBC News called "obvious parallels [...] a single strike bringing existing tensions to boiling point".[181] Some protesters raised concerns that Iraq could become a site of open clashes between Iran and the U.S. following the assassination of Soleimani in Baghdad and Iran's retaliatory missile attacks on U.S. bases.[182]
Democrats, including top 2020 presidential candidates, condemned the killing of Soleimani, arguing that it escalated the conflict with Iran, and risked retaliation or war.[183]
The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) praised the killing of Soleimani as a divine intervention, saying it helped jihadists.[184]
UK Foreign Secretary Dominic Raab, however, backed the strike, describing the American action as self-defense.[185]
According to a Facebook spokesperson, Instagram and its parent company Facebook are removing posts "that voice support for slain Iranian commander Qassem Soleimani to comply with U.S. sanctions."[186]
In June 2020, Iran placed an arrest warrant for President Donald Trump, with an Iranian prosecutor saying Trump and 35 others "faced murder and terrorism charges" over the killing of Soleimani.[187]
Funeral and burial
Main article: Funeral of Qasem Soleimani
Mourners at Azadi Square, Tehran
Soleimani's grave
On 4 January, a funeral procession for Soleimani was held in Baghdad with thousands of mourners in attendance, waving Iraqi and militia flags[9] and chanting "death to America, death to Israel".[188] The procession started at the Al-Kadhimiya Mosque in Baghdad. Iraq's prime minister, Adil Abdul-Mahdi, and leaders of Iran-backed militias attended the funeral procession.[189] Soleimani's remains were taken to the holy Shia cities of Karbala and Najaf.[190] On 5 January, the remains of the bodies arrived in Ahvaz, and then Mashhad. Tens of thousands of mourners in black clothes attended the funeral procession with green, white, and red flags.[191][192] Muqtada al-Sadr paid a visit to Soleimani's house to express his condolence to his family.[193]
On 6 January, the body of Soleimani and other casualties arrived at the Iranian capital Tehran. Huge crowds, reportedly hundreds of thousands or millions, packed the streets. Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei, who had a close relationship with Soleimani, led the traditional Islamic prayer for the dead, weeping at one point in front of the flag-draped coffins.[194][195] Ali Khamenei mourned openly near the coffin while the general's successor swore revenge. Esmail Ghaani, who was named commander of the Quds Force hours after Soleimani's killing, said: "God the Almighty has promised to get his revenge, and God is the main avenger."[196] Iranian foreign minister Mohammad Javad Zarif asked if Trump had ever seen "such a sea of humanity".[197] He was given a multi-city funeral, and his funeral procession was said to be the second largest after that of Ayatollah Khomeini.[198] On 7 January 2020, a stampede took place at the burial procession for Soleimani in Kerman attended by hundreds of thousands of mourners, killing 56 and injuring 212 more.[199][200]
Internet censorship in Iran and people's fear of government surveillance led to speculation in the press that some might be forced to attend to protect their livelihood.[201][202][136] Some activists living out of reach of the Iranian authorities, such as Saghar Erica Kasraie, Reza Alijani, and Masih Alinejad, condemned Soleimani.[201][203][204] Iranians mourning for the dead of Ukraine International Airlines Flight 752 less than a week after his death called him a murderer and tore up his pictures during the protests.[205][206][207]
Anniversary
On 3 January 2021, the first anniversary was marked of Qassem Soleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis in Baghdad.[208] Tens of thousands of Iraqis marched on the highway leading to the Baghdad airport while chanting anti-American slogans.[209]
Commemoration ceremony (anniversary) of "Qasem-Soleimani", in Tehran
There have been held commemoration ceremonies by the name of "Commemoration-Ceremony (Anniversary) of Martyr Qassem-Soleimani" (and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis) in presence and virtually (via web conferencing) in the cities of the Islamic Republic of Iran[210][211][212] and several countries, such as Oman, Iraq, Syria and Portugal​.​[213]​[214]​[215]​[216]​[217]​[218]
According to Fars News Agency, the anniversary of the commemoration of Qasem Soleimani, Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis and their colleagues was held with the presence of local and foreign officials in University of Tehran, Iran.[219][220]
Retaliation
See also: Operation Martyr Soleimani
On 7 January 2020, the Supreme National Security Council of Iran announced that it had drafted a 13 revenge scenarios document.
The next day, the Iranian military responded to Soleimani's death by launching ballistic missiles at two U.S. bases in Iraq,[221][222] resulting in no reported casualties but 100 traumatic brain injuries.[223][224][225] Iranian officials[226] and some Western media analysts suggested the strike was deliberately designed to avoid causing any casualties to avoid an American response.[227][228] The Iranian president cautioned the U.S. that Iran will take more retaliatory actions if the U.S. continues to interfere in the region.[229]
Execution of spy
On 20 July 2020, it was reported by Iranian state television that Mahmoud Mousavi Majd had been executed following his conviction for providing information to the US and Israel about Soleimani and the Quds force.[230]
Cultural depictions and legacy
Soleimani behind the scenes of the film 23 People
In 2015, the British magazine The Week featured a cartoon of Soleimani in bed with Uncle Sam, which alluded to both sides' fighting ISIL.[231]
The 2016 Persian book Noble Comrades 17: Hajj Qassem, written by Ali Akbari Mozdabadi, contains memoirs of Qassem Soleimani.[232]
Resalat Expressway in Tehran was renamed "Shahid Sardar Qasem Soleimani" in his honor.[233]
On 13 January 2020, Syrian Minister of Defense Ali Abdullah Ayyoub presented the medal of "The Champion of the Syrian Arab Republic", which President Bashar al-Assad granted posthumously to Qassem Soleimani, to his Iranian counterpart, Amir Hatami.[234]
Shortly after his death, various representations of Qasem Soleimani appeared in many wall paintings and propaganda posters in Iran.[235] Since then, his portrait has become more and more an integral part of the iconographic representation of the Islamic Republic.[citation needed] Iran named a new ballistic missile after him.[citation needed]
"Shahid Soleimani Plan" (also "Martyr Soleiman Project") is the name of a complementary project to fight SARS-CoV-2​,​[236]​[237]​[238]​[239] in which more than 17 million households were screened, and this screening has been performed by more than 4.5 million "health ambassadors" in Iran.[240][241][242][243]
Awards and decorations
Order of Fath (1st class)
Order of Fath (2nd class)
Order of Fath (3rd class)
See also
Footnotes
  1. ^ His first name and surname are variously transliterated as Qassem, Qassim, Qasim, Ghasem, Suleimani, Soleymani.
  2. ^ In a 2007 memo, the U.S. State Department listed his birthplace as Qom, Qom Province, instead.[48]
References
  1. ^ "Qassem Suleimani not Just a Commander! – Taking a Closer Look at Religious Character of Iranian General". abna24. 10 March 2015. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u Filkins, Dexter (30 September 2013). "The Shadow Commander". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2014.
  3. ^ Joanna Paraszczuk (16 October 2014). "Iran's 'Shadow Commander' Steps Into the Light". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  4. ^ Kambiz Foroohar. "Iran's Shadow Commander". Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  5. ^ "Syria's Iranian Shadow Commander". RealClearWorld. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  6. ^ "Iran's 'shadow commander' steps into the spotlight". The Observers. Archived from the original on 8 July 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  7. ^ "Qasem Soleimani among those killed in Baghdad Airport attack – report". The Jerusalem Post. Reuters. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  8. ^ "Soleimani To Be Buried In Kerman After Ceremony Led By Khamenei In Tehran". RFE/RL. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  9. ^ a b c d "Thousands mourn assassinated Iranian general". BBC News. 4 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  10. ^ "لشکر 41 ثارالله (ع) | دفاع‌مقدس". defamoghaddas.ir. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  11. ^ "عملیاتی که در آن سردار سلیمانی شدیداً مجروح شد". yjc.ir. Archived from the original on 5 September 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  12. ^ a b "El iraní Qasem Soleimani, "el hombre más poderoso en Irak"". Terra. Peru. Archived from the original on 15 October 2014. Retrieved 11 October 2014.
  13. ^ Soleimani Reveals Details of Role He Played in the 2006 Israel-Hezbollah War Archived 24 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine aawsat.com
  14. ^ Shadowy Iran commander Qassem Soleimani gives rare interview on 2006 Israel-Hezbollah war Archived 24 October 2019 at the Wayback Machine thenational.ae
  15. ^ "Pictures reportedly place Iranian general in Daraa". Archived from the original on 12 February 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  16. ^ "Iran's Revolutionary Guards executes 12 Assad's forces elements". Iraqi News. Archived from the original on 29 March 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  17. ^ Hermann, Rainer (15 October 2016). "Die Völkerschlacht von Aleppo". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 15 October 2016. Retrieved 15 October 2016.
  18. ^ a b Amir Toumaj (2 April 2017). "Qassem Soleimani reportedly spotted in Syria's Hama province". Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 3 April 2017. Retrieved 3 April 2017.
  19. ^ "Leader awards General Soleimani with Iran's highest military order". Press TV. Archived from the original on 11 March 2019. Retrieved 11 March 2019.
  20. ^ "عکس/ مدال های فرمانده نیروی قدس سپاه". Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  21. ^ a b c d (in Dutch) 'VS doden topgeneraal Iran, vrees voor escalatie groeit' (US kill top general Iran, fear for escalation grows). NRC Handelsblad, 3 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  22. ^ a b U.S. killing of Iran's second most powerful man risks regional conflagration reuters.com
  23. ^ "Was America's assassination of Qassem Suleimani justified?". The Economist. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  24. ^ a b c d Jamie Dettmer, Iran's Shadowy Military Commander May Prove Tough Foe in DeathArchived 4 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, 3 January 2020, VOA
  25. ^ a b c Najmeh Bozorgmehr, Qassem Soleimani, Iranian military commander, 1957-2020Archived 4 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, 3 January 2020, Financial Times
  26. ^ a b General Qassim Soleimani, charismatic leader of Iran's elite Quds Force who wrong-footed the West to become a key power broker in the Middle East—obituary Archived 5 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, 3 January 2020, The Daily Telegraph
  27. ^ a b c Alfoneh, Ali (January 2011). "Brigadier General Qassem Suleimani: A Biography"(PDF). Middle Eastern Outlook. 1: 2 of 7. Archived (PDF) from the original on 25 September 2019. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  28. ^ How Iranian general plotted out Syrian assault in Moscow Archived 7 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, by Reuters
  29. ^ a b c Afshon Ostovar. Vanguard of the Imam: Religion, Politics, and Iran's Revolutionary Guards. Oxford University Press. p. 227.
  30. ^ a b "Iraqi and Kurdish troops enter the sieged Amirli". BBC Arabic. 31 August 2014. Archived from the original on 31 August 2014. Retrieved 31 August 2014.
  31. ^ a b "Why the U.S. Is Bracing for Retaliation After Assassinating Iran's Qasem Soleimani". Time. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  32. ^ Chotiner, Isaac. "The Meaning of Qassem Suleimani's Death in the Middle East". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  33. ^ "In major escalation, U.S. airstrike kills top Iranian commander Gen. Qassem Soleimani". Japan Times Online. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  34. ^ "Analysis | Trump's order to kill Soleimani is already starting to backfire". Washington Post. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  35. ^ a b Gallagher, Nancy; Mohseni, Ebrahim; Ramsay, Clay (October 2019), "Iranian Public Opinion under "Maximum Pressure", A public opinion study" (PDF), The Center for International and Security Studies at Maryland (CISSM), archived (PDF) from the original on 3 January 2020, retrieved 6 January 2020
  36. ^ "تجمع در چند شهر ایران در اعتراض به انکار اصابت موشک به هواپیمای اوکراینی؛ گاز اشک‌آور و شعار علیه رهبر و سپاه در تهران". BBC News فارسی‎ (in Persian). 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  37. ^ "Iran's 'Unforgivable Mistake' Downing Jet Elicits Furor At Home And Abroad". npr. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  38. ^ "Iran plane crash: Protesters condemn 'lies' on downed jet". BBC News. 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  39. ^ Ali H. M. Abo Rezeg (3 January 2020). "PROFILE—Who is Qasem Soleimani?". Anadolu Agency. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020. Soleimani was declared a "terrorist and supporter of terrorism" by the U.S. He was among the Iranian individuals who were sanctioned by the UN Security Council resolution 1747 [...] on June 24, 2011, an official statement by the European Union said that European sanctions were imposed on three Iranian commanders of the Revolutionary Guards including Soleimani
  40. ^ He was designated as a terrorist by the United States and by the European Union (8 January 2020). "Assertion: Iranian general Qassem Soleimani was in Bosnia-Herzegovina during the War". Archived from the original on 8 January 2020.
  41. ^ Rikar Hussein; Mehdi Jedinia (8 April 2019). "Factbox: Iran's Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps". Voice of America. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020. The United Nations and the European Union have refrained from designating the IRGC as a terror entity but have blacklisted key individuals of the force, including its leader Qasem Soleimani
  42. ^ "Donald Trump kills General Qasem Soleimani". The Daily Telegraph (Sydney). Retrieved 8 January 2020. General Soleimani was a U.S.-designated terrorist
  43. ^ In 2011, the Obama administration sanctioned Soleimani for an alleged plot to assassinate the Saudi ambassador to the U.S. in Washington, D.C. (8 January 2020). "Trump Says Obama Designated Qassem Soleimani a Terrorist but 'Did Nothing About It'". Archived from the original on 1 July 2020.
  44. ^ Jennifer Griffin; Lucas Tomlinson (6 August 2015). "Exclusive: Quds Force commander Soleimani visited Moscow, met Russian leaders in defiance of sanctions". Fox. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020. Soleimani was first designated a terrorist and sanctioned by the U.S. in 2005 for his role as a supporter of terrorism
  45. ^ Number of US troops wounded in Iran attack now at 110: Pentagon ABS News, 22 February 2020
  46. ^ Singman, Brooke (8 January 2020). "Trump says Iran 'appears to be standing down', missile strikes resulted in no casualties". Fox News. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020 – via www.foxnews.com.
  47. ^ "Iran Guards Intelligence Chief Says Plot To Kill Soleimani Neutralized". RadioFarda. 3 October 2019. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  48. ^ "Treasury and State Department Iran Designations Identifier Information Pursuant to E.O. 13224 (Terrorism) and E.O. 13382 (WMD) October 25, 2007" (PDF). US Treasury Department. 25 October 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 30 May 2017. Retrieved 4 January 2019.
  49. ^ O'Hern, Steven (31 October 2012). Iran's Revolutionary Guard: The Threat That Grows While America Sleeps. Potomac Books, Inc. p. 85. ISBN 978-1-59797-701-2.
  50. ^ Safi, Michael (3 January 2020). "Who is Qassem Suleimani? Iran farm boy who became more powerful than a president". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Archived from the original on 4 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  51. ^ a b c "The enigma of Qasem Soleimani and his role in Iraq". Al Monitor. 13 October 2013. Archived from the original on 5 May 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  52. ^ a b Weiss, Michael (2 July 2014). "Iran's Top Spy Is the Modern-Day Karla, John Le Carré's Villainous Mastermind". The Daily Beast. Archived from the original on 21 June 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  53. ^ a b c Alfoneh, Ali (March 2011). "Iran's Secret Network: Major General Qassem Suleimani's Inner Circle" (PDF). Middle Eastern Outlook. 2. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  54. ^ "(Readable [considerable] portions of the book 'Haj-Qasem') بخش‌های خواندنی کتاب "حاج قاسم"". yjc.ir. Archived from the original on 9 February 2017. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  55. ^ a b Alfoneh, Ali (July 2011). "Iran's Most Dangerous General" (PDF). Middle Eastern Outlook. 4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 July 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2013.
  56. ^ "News & Views". The Iranian. July 1999. Archived from the original on 12 October 2012. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  57. ^ "Soleimani's Legacy Spurs Controversy among Revolutionary Guard Officials". Asharq Al-Awsat. 11 February 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Iranian who brokered Iraqi peace is on U.S. terrorist watch list". McClatchy Newspapers. 31 March 2008. Archived from the original on 18 July 2008. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  59. ^ "Soleimani: Mastermind of Iran's Expansion". The Iran Primer. 14 October 2019.
  60. ^ Iraq and its neighbours: A regional cockpitArchived 24 November 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Economist
  61. ^ The Economist (print version), 21 November 2009, page 48 (digitized copy)
  62. ^ Christopher Dickey, Why Iran's Top Spy Isn't Meddling in Iraq – For Now Archived 12 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, 3 March 2010, Newsweek
  63. ^ "The Islamic Republic's 13 generals". Iran Briefing. 3 February 2011. Archived from the original on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 13 August 2013.
  64. ^ a b Abbas, Mushreq (12 March 2013). "Iran's Man in Iraq and Syria". Al Monitor. Archived from the original on 14 March 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2013.
  65. ^ "Iranian Media Confirm Quds Force Involvement In Foreign Conflicts". rferl.org. 30 January 2020.
  66. ^ "Syrian general thanks Iran for helping Assad in key battle". The Times. 20 January 2020.
  67. ^ "General Admits Soleimani's Role In Syria's Civil War Long Before Jihadists Emerged". RadioFarda. 22 January 2020.
  68. ^ "Il ruolo di Hezbollah in Siria". InsideOver. 31 July 2018. Archived from the original on 20 September 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  69. ^ Merat, Arron (10 October 2019). "In an attack on Iran, misunderstanding Qasim Soleimani could be America's downfall". Prospect. Archived from the original on 9 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  70. ^ a b Bozorgmehr Sharafedin (6 March 2015), General Qasem Soleimani: Iran's rising star, BBC News, archived from the original on 27 December 2016, retrieved 1 January 2017 (alternate archive URL, archived 12 August 2018
  71. ^ "Iran's Soleimani pays tribute to fallen Hezbollah fighters". Mehr News. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 30 January 2015.
  72. ^ "Iranian General Attended Moscow Meeting To Plan Syrian Assault". Headlines & Global News. 7 October 2015. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  73. ^ a b "How Iranian general plotted out Syrian assault in Moscow". Reuters. 6 October 2015. Archived from the original on 9 October 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  74. ^ Leith Fadel (16 October 2015). "Syrian Army Captures Al-Nasiriyah in East Aleppo: 7km from Kuweires Military Airport". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  75. ^ Leith Fadel (18 October 2015). "Syrian Army and Hezbollah Capture 25km of Territory in Southern Aleppo While the Islamists Counter". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 20 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  76. ^ Leith Fadel (19 October 2015). "Syrian Army and Hezbollah Continue to Roll in Southern Aleppo: Several Sites Captured". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  77. ^ Leith Fadel (20 October 2015). "Cheetah Forces Press Further in East Aleppo: Hilltops Overlooking Tal Sab'een Captured". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  78. ^ Leith Fadel (20 October 2015). "Cheetah Forces Capture Tal Sab'een Amid Russian Airstrikes in East Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 22 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  79. ^ Leith Fadel (23 October 2015). "Hezbollah and the Syrian Army Seize Several Sites in Southern Aleppo". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 24 October 2015. Retrieved 25 October 2015.
  80. ^ Alami, Mona (23 October 2015). "What the Aleppo offensive hides". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 19 July 2017. Retrieved 24 October 2015.
  81. ^ Leith Fadel (11 November 2015). "Where is Major General Qassem Suleimani?". Al-Masdar News. Archived from the original on 13 November 2015. Retrieved 12 November 2015.
  82. ^ Syrian Army, Hezbollah launch preliminary offensive in northern Aleppo Archived 31 August 2019 at the Wayback Machine almasdarnews.com
  83. ^ "Russia and Turkey trade accusations over Syria". Reuters. 5 February 2016. Archived from the original on 9 September 2019. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  84. ^ Toumaj, Amir (18 December 2016). "IRGC Qods Force chief spotted in Aleppo". Long War Journal. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. On Friday, photos emerged of Qassem Soleimani, the commander of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps (IRGC) Qods Force, in conquered eastern Aleppo, Syria (photos 1, 2). Another photo showed him by the Citadel of Aleppo (photo 3). It was not immediately clear when the photos were taken.
  85. ^ "Syria: Iran's General Soleimani in Aleppo". Fars News Agency. Archived from the original on 19 December 2016. New photos show the Commander of the Quds Force of Iran's Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) Major General Qassem Soleimani at the Citadel of Aleppo after its liberation as Syria is preparing to celebrate its victory in the crucially important city
  86. ^ a b "Suleimani was present during battle for Amerli". Business Insider. 3 September 2014. Archived from the original on 9 October 2014. Retrieved 22 October 2014.
  87. ^ Bengali, Shashank (2 September 2014). "In Iraq, residents of Amerli celebrate end of militant siege". The Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on 5 September 2014. Retrieved 5 September 2014.
  88. ^ "Soleimani: Iran to help Iraq as needed". Tehran Times. 28 May 2016. Archived from the original on 25 June 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  89. ^ Ahmed, Azam (3 September 2014). "Waging Desperate Campaign, Iraqi Town Held Off Militants". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 28 October 2014. Retrieved 11 February 2015.
  90. ^ "Iranians play role in breaking ISIS siege of Iraqi town". Reuters. 1 September 2014. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 1 July 2017.
  91. ^ Abdul-Zahra, Qassim; Salama, Vivian (5 November 2014). "Iran general said to mastermind Iraq ground war". The Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 5 November 2014. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  92. ^ "Iranian General Again in Iraq for Tikrit Offensive". defensenews.com. 2 March 2015. Retrieved 3 March 2015.
  93. ^ a b Rasheed, Ahmad (3 March 2015). "Iraqi army and militias surround Isis in major offensive in the battle for Tikrit". The Independent. Archived from the original on 2 April 2015. Retrieved 31 March 2015.
  94. ^ "Iran's Gen. Soleimani in Fallujah Operations Room". Fars News. Archived from the original on 26 May 2016. Retrieved 27 May 2016.
  95. ^ "CIA chief Pompeo says he warned Iran's Soleimani over Iraq aggression". Reuters. 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  96. ^ "CIA director sent warning to Iran over threatened US interests in Iraq". The Guardian. Associated Press. 3 December 2017. Archived from the original on 3 December 2017. Retrieved 3 December 2017.
  97. ^ a b c Nozhan Etezadosaltaneh (16 May 2016), "Will Qasem Soleimani Become the Next President of Iran?", International Policy Digest, archived from the original on 15 April 2017, retrieved 1 January 2017
  98. ^ Iran's Conservatives Grapple for Power, Stratfor, 1 March 2012, archived from the original on 10 October 2017, retrieved 1 January 2017
  99. ^ Akbar Ganji (13 May 2015), "Iran's Hardliners Might Be Making a Comeback—And the West Should Pay Attention", Huffington Post, archived from the original on 29 February 2016, retrieved 1 January 2016
  100. ^ Who will be Iran's next president?, The Iran Project, 29 September 2016, archived from the original on 4 January 2017, retrieved 1 January 2017
  101. ^ Cunningham, Erin; Fahim, Kareem (26 July 2018). "Top Iranian general warns Trump that war would unravel U.S. power in region". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 8 July 2019. Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  102. ^ "United Nations Security Council Resolution 1747" (PDF). United Nations. 24 March 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on 27 July 2015. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  103. ^ "COUNCIL IMPLEMENTING REGULATION (EU) No 611/2011 of 23 June 2011". Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
  104. ^ "Syria: Deadly protests erupt against Bashar al-Assad". BBC News. 24 June 2011. Archived from the original on 2 November 2018. Retrieved 20 June 2018.
  105. ^ "Ordinance instituting measures against Syria" (PDF). Federal Department of Economy. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 October 2013. Retrieved 24 February 2013.
  106. ^ "Designation of Iranian Entities and Individuals for Proliferation Activities and Support for Terrorism". United States Department of State. 25 October 2007. Archived from the original on 4 February 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2008.
  107. ^ "EU expands sanctions against Syria". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 24 October 2011. Retrieved 17 February 2013.
  108. ^ United States Department of Treasury. (Press release 13 November 2018). "Action follows signing of new Hizballah sanctions legislation and re-imposition of Iran-related sanctions". U.S. Dept of Treasury website Archived 17 November 2018 at the Wayback Machine Retrieved 16 November 2018.
  109. ^ "مادر حاج قاسم سلیمانی درگذشت". 18 June 1392. Archived from the original on 13 July 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  110. ^ "خبرگزاری فارس—رازهای زندگی سردار ایرانی/ حاج قاسم چگونه زندگی می‌کند". خبرگزاری فارس. 24 August 2015. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  111. ^ "پاسخ پرمعنای پدر سردار قاسم سلیمانی به استاندار". Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 3 October 2016.
  112. ^ "U.S. sanctions brother of Iran's Quds force commander: White House". Reuters. 13 April 2017. Archived from the original on 13 April 2017. Retrieved 13 April 2017.
  113. ^ "General Qassem Suleimani obituary". The Guardian. 5 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  114. ^ "Qassem Soleimani's Wife & Family: 5 Fast Facts You Need to Know". heavy. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  115. ^ "Daughter of Iranian general killed in US drone strike warns at his funeral that families of US troops will spend their days waiting for the death of their children". Business Insider. 6 January 2020.
  116. ^ Gorman, Jay Solomon And Siobhan (6 April 2012). "Iran's Spymaster Counters U.S. Moves in the Mideast". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 7 June 2016. Retrieved 14 July 2016.
  117. ^ "Iran's chief weapon Qassem Soleimani sheds his mysteries". Financial Times. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  118. ^ Azodi, Sina (21 February 2017). "Qasem Soleimani, Iran's Celebrity Warlord". Atlantic Council. Archived from the original on 3 September 2018. Retrieved 3 September 2018.
  119. ^ "هادي العامري: لولا ايران وسليماني لما كانت الحكومة العراقية موجودة في بغداد". Mehr News Agency. 5 January 2015. Archived from the original on 6 December 2019. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  120. ^ Karimi, Nasser; Gambrell, Jon (3 January 2020), "Iran's popular Gen. Soleimani became an icon by targeting US", The Associated Press, archived from the original on 5 January 2020, retrieved 6 January 2020
  121. ^ a b (in Dutch) 'Soleimani had een heldenstatus in Iran, hij maakte het land machtiger' (Soleimani had a heroic status in Iran, he made the country mightier). 3 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  122. ^ 'The puppet master is dead': Iranian Gen. Qasem Soleimani's power, and why his death is such a big deal cnbc.com
  123. ^ Carolien Roelants, Iran expert of NRC Handelsblad, in a debate on Buitenhof on Dutch television, 5 January 2020.
  124. ^ (in Dutch) 'Het conflict tussen Iran en de VS in vogelvlucht' (The conflict between Iran and the US in a nutshell). NRC Handelsblad, 6 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  125. ^ (in Dutch) 'Na aanval op Soleimani lijkt einde invloed VS in Iraq nabij' (After attack on Soleimani, US influence in Iraq seems nearly ended). NRC Handelsblad, 3 January 2020. Retrieved 10 January 2020.
  126. ^ ‘Iran: Quds Force leader is developing a cult status' Haaretz
  127. ^ ‘IAs Qassem Soleimani’s Megalomania Grew, He Became Less Grounded in Reality' The Guardian
  128. ^ ‘The Bloody Legacy of Qasem Soleimani' Wall Street Journal
  129. ^ "Anti-US threats flood Twitter and Instagram after Qassim Soleimani's death". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  130. ^ "What America needs to understand about Qasim Soleimani". Prospect magazine. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  131. ^ "Iran Is Expanding Its Online Disinformation Operations". Defenseone. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  132. ^ "Iran has online disinformation operations, too". CNN. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  133. ^ "Iran aims to incite chaos with ramped up disinformation campaign, US officials say". Washington Examiner. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  134. ^ "Facebook information warfare: Inside Iran's shadowy operations to target you on social media". USA Today. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  135. ^ "New York Post Reporter's Identity Hijacked to Spread Pro-Iran Propaganda". Daily Beast. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  136. ^ a b "Iran's propaganda implies Soleimani is being widely mourned — and the U.S. press is buying it". NBC News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  137. ^ "The Middle East Was Already a Powder Keg of Misinformation. Trump Just Lit the Match". Vice News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  138. ^ "Washington Post blasted for referring to Qassim Soleimani as Iran's 'most revered military leader'". Fox News. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  139. ^ "How Iran's Propaganda Machine Succeeds in the West". Fair Observer. Archived from the original on 2 June 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2020.
  140. ^ Ghattas, Kim (3 January 2020). "Qassem Soleimani Haunted the Arab World". The Atlantic. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  141. ^ Gal Perl Finkel, Potential for strategic turns, The Jerusalem Post, 16 February 2020.
  142. ^ Tom O'Connor; James Laporta. "Iraq Militia Officials, Iran's Quds Force Head Killed in U.S. Drone Strike". Newsweek. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  143. ^ "How the Soleimani assassination was reported in Germany | DW | 03.01.2020". DW.COM. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  144. ^ "Opinion | Trump was right to kill Iranian general Qassem Soleimani". NBC News. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  145. ^ Chulov, Martin; Borger, Julian; Abdul-Ahad, Ghaith (5 January 2020). "Doubts grow over US case for Suleimani assassination as Iran urges revenge". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  146. ^ a b Cooper, Helene; Schmitt, Eric; Haberman, Maggie; Callimachi, Rukmini (4 January 2020). "As Tensions With Iran Escalated, Trump Opted for Most Extreme Measure". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  147. ^ "US kills Iran's most powerful general in Baghdad airstrike". AP News. 2 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  148. ^ Barbara Campbell (2 January 2020). "Iraqi TV Says Top Iranian Military Leader Killed In Rocket Strikes on Iraqi Airport". NPR. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 2 January 2020.
  149. ^ "'Dangerous escalation' and 'severe revenge': The world responds to the US killing of Iran's top general". Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  150. ^ "Trump Orders Strike Killing Top Iranian General Qassim Suleimani in Baghdad". The New York Times. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  151. ^ Coles, Isabel. "Iraqi Parliament Votes in Favor of Expelling U.S. Troops". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 5 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  152. ^ "US commits strategic mistake by assassinating Lieutenant Soleimani: Parliament speaker". 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  153. ^ "Former Iran Guards chief vows 'vigorous revenge against America' for Soleimani killing". 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  154. ^ "Soleimani's Deputy Esmail Ghaani Named Iran's Quds Force Chief". Bloomberg. 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  155. ^ A new version of the drones that targeted Sardar Soleimani isna.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  156. ^ Iraqi MP: The drones that assassinated Haj Qasim Soleimani and Abu Mahdi came from Ain al-Assad tasnimnews.com, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  157. ^ Tracing the information that led to the assassination of Qasim Soleimani​radiofarda.com​, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  158. ^ a b c d "Trump authorized Soleimani's killing 7 months ago, with conditions". NBC News. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  159. ^ a b c d Klar, Rebecca (13 January 2020). "Trump approved Soleimani's killing last June: report". The Hill. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  160. ^ Marcus, Jonathan (3 January 2020). "Qasem Soleimani: Why kill him now and what happens next?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  161. ^ "Top Iranian general killed in US airstrike in Baghdad, Pentagon confirms". CNBC. 2 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  162. ^ "Statement by the Department of Defense". United States Department of Defense. 2 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  163. ^ "Iran general Qassem Suleimani killed in Baghdad drone strike ordered by Trump". The Guardian. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  164. ^ The evolving US justification for killing Iran's top general Archived 9 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine, CNN, Zachary B. Wolf and Veronica Stracqual, 8 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  165. ^ "Qasem Soleimani: Trump says US killed 'a monster'". BBC News. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  166. ^ "Trump says four U.S. embassies were targeted in attack planned by Qassem Soleimani". 11 January 2020. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2019.
  167. ^ Iran attack: Was it legal to assassinate Qassem Soleimani under international law?, Sunday Express, Kaisha Langton, 5 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  168. ^ "Soleimani death: Iraq court issues arrest warrant against Donald Trump". Hindustan Times. 7 January 2021. Retrieved 16 January 2021.
  169. ^ Qassem Soleimani foreignaffairs.house.gov
  170. ^ "Timeline of Trump's shifting justifications for Soleimani killing". Al Jazeera. 18 February 2020. Retrieved 18 February 2020.
  171. ^ New York Times, 9 July 2020 "The Killing of Qassim Suleimani Was Unlawful, Says U.N. Expert: The United States Provided No Evidence that Its Fatal January Drone Strike against General Suleimani Was in Response to an Imminent Threat, Said a United Nations Special Rapporteur"
  172. ^ New York Times, 9 July 2020 "The Killing of Qassim Suleimani Was Unlawful, Says U.N. Expert: The United States Provided No Evidence that Its Fatal January Drone Strike against General Suleimani Was in Response to an Imminent Threat, Said a United Nations Special Rapporteur"
  173. ^ New York Times, 9 July 2020 "The Killing of Qassim Suleimani Was Unlawful, Says U.N. Expert: The United States Provided No Evidence that Its Fatal January Drone Strike against General Suleimani Was in Response to an Imminent Threat, Said a United Nations Special Rapporteur"
  174. ^ Koran, Mario; Mohdin, Aamna; Quinn, Ben; E Greve, Joan. "US denies latest airstrikes targeting Iraqi militia in Baghdad". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  175. ^ "Was it legal for Donald Trump to order the killing of a top Iranian general?". NBC News. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  176. ^ Roberts, William. "Was Trump's order to assassinate Iran's Qassem Soleimani legal?". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  177. ^ Rapoza, Kenneth. "Russia Says Iran General's Killing 'Illegal'". Forbes. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 3 January 2020.
  178. ^ Iain King, "Iranian general's death is latest assassination for political aims. But they're often not met. Archived 12 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine", 7 January 2020, NBC News
  179. ^ World reacts to killing of Iran's Qassem Soleimani, 3 January 2020, Euronews
  180. ^ Sune Engel Rasmussen, "Killing of Soleimani Shines Light on Secretive Quds ForceArchived 9 January 2020 at the Wayback Machine", 3 January 2020, The Wall Street Journal
  181. ^ Newsbeat (3 January 2020). "Franz Ferdinand and #WWIII: Why are these words trending?". BBC News. Archived from the original on 3 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  182. ^ "Qassem Soleimani killing sparks concerns, deepens divide in Iraq". Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  183. ^ "Democratic presidential candidates condemn killing of Iran general". The Guardian. 3 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  184. ^ "Qasem Soleimani: Why his killing is good news for IS jihadists". BBC News. 10 January 2020. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  185. ^ "Qasem Soleimani: PM 'will not lament' Iranian general's death". BBC News. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  186. ^ O'Sullivan, Donie; Moshtaghian, Artemis. "Instagram says it's removing posts supporting Soleimani to comply with US sanctions". CNN. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  187. ^ "Qasem Soleimani: Iran seeks Trump's arrest over killing of general". BBC News.
  188. ^ O'Brien, Amy (4 January 2020). "Thousands march in Baghdad funeral procession for Qassem Suleimani" (video). The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  189. ^ Safi, Michael (4 January 2020). "Qassem Suleimani: chants of 'death to America' at Baghdad funeral". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  190. ^ Ibrahim, Arwa. "'You never let us down': Thousands mourn Soleimani in Baghdad". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 4 January 2020.
  191. ^ "Thousands mourn Soleimani in Iran amid new threats from Trump". NBC News. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  192. ^ "Tens of thousands mourn as Soleimani's remains return to Iran". Al Jazeera. Archived from the original on 6 January 2020. Retrieved 5 January 2020.
  193. ^ "حضور مقتدی صدر در منزل سپهبد شهید قاسم سلیمانی+عکس- اخبار بین الملل—اخبار تسنیم—Tasnim". خبرگزاری تسنیم—Tasnim.
  194. ^ "Soleimani: Huge crowds pack Tehran for commander's funeral". BBC News. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  195. ^ "Mourners flood Tehran as calls for revenge over Soleimani grow". Al Jazeera. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  196. ^ Gilbert, David (6 January 2020). "Here's Everything You Need to Know About the Situation in Iran Right Now". Vice. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  197. ^ "Crowds swarm Tehran to mourn slain Iran military leader Soleimani". CNN. 6 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 6 January 2020.
  198. ^ "'Million mourner' Soleimani funeral procession said to be largest since Khomeini". Times of Israel. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  199. ^ Safi, Michael (7 January 2020). "Iran: dozens dead in stampede at Suleimani burial procession – state TV". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  200. ^ "Over 50 killed, 212 hurt in Soleimani funeral stampede; general's burial delayed". The Times of Israel. 7 January 2020. Archived from the original on 7 January 2020. Retrieved 7 January 2020.
  201. ^ a b "In the wake of Iran's shadow commander". Qantara.de. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  202. ^ "What young Iranians think about the latest US-Iran conflict". Vox. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  203. ^ "Don't believe Iranian propaganda about the mourning for Soleimani". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  204. ^ "Iranian American activist outraged by 'propaganda machine' glorifying Soleimani". Al Arabiya. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  205. ^ "Iran's 'Unforgivable Mistake' Downing Jet Elicits Furor At Home And Abroad". NPR. Archived from the original on 11 January 2020. Retrieved 11 January 2020.
  206. ^ "Iran plane crash: Protesters condemn 'lies' on downed jet". BBC News. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  207. ^ "Iranian Semi-Official News Agency Reports Anti-Government Protests". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 13 January 2020. Retrieved 13 January 2020.
  208. ^ "Iran vows to retaliate against any 'enemy action', one year after Suleimani killing". The Guardian.
  209. ^ Nazeh, Maher. "Chanting anti-US slogans, Iraqi militia supporters mark year since Soleimani's killing". reuters.
  210. ^ The commemoration ceremony of the first anniversary of Martyr Soleimani and his comrades began ilna.news, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  211. ^ Images / Commemoration of the anniversary of the martyrdom of General Soleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis hawzahnews.com, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  212. ^ Commemorating the first anniversary of the martyrdom of General Soleimani in different parts of Sistan and Baluchestan iribnews.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  213. ^ The anniversary of the martyrdom of General Soleimani was held on the Syrian-Iraqi border + Images hawzahnews.com, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  214. ^ A webinar in honor of General Shahid Soleimani was held in Portugal irna.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  215. ^ Commemoration of the anniversary of the martyrdom of General "Qassem Soleimani" in "Bokmal" Syria irinn.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  216. ^ Commemoration of the anniversary of Martyr Haj Qassem Soleimani in Oman irna.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  217. ^ Commemoration ceremony of Soleimani and Al-Muhandis martyrs in Diyala tasnimnews.com, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  218. ^ Commemoration ceremony of General Shahid Soleimani in Damascus irna.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  219. ^ The beginning of the first anniversary of the martyrdom of General Soleimani and Abu Mahdi al-Muhandis farsnews.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  220. ^ The beginning of the first anniversary of General Soleimani tabnak.ir, Retrieved 1 January 2021
  221. ^ "Iran targets US troops with missile strikes". BBC News. 8 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  222. ^ "Qassem Soleimani: Timeline of events following Iranian general's assassination". Deutsche Welle. Archived from the original on 12 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  223. ^ Ali, Idrees (10 February 2020). "More than 100 U.S. troops diagnosed with brain injuries from Iran attack – officials". Reuters. Retrieved 10 February 2020.
  224. ^ "Iraqi leader faces tricky balancing act as main allies confront one another". Reuters. 8 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  225. ^ "Pentagon now says 64 US troops suffered traumatic brain injuries in Iran strike". New York Post. 30 January 2020. Retrieved 30 January 2020.
  226. ^ "Iran crisis: Commander says more air strikes were planned against US". BBC News. 9 January 2020. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  227. ^ Baker, Peter (8 January 2020). "Trump Backs Away From Further Military Conflict With Iran". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 9 January 2020.
  228. ^ Safi, Michael (8 January 2020). "Iran's assault on US bases in Iraq might satisfy both sides". The Guardian. Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  229. ^ "US-Iran tensions after Soleimani killing: All the latest updates". Archived from the original on 9 January 2020. Retrieved 12 January 2020.
  230. ^ "Iran executes man convicted of spying on U.S.-slain general". The Associated Press. 19 July 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
  231. ^ "The war on ISIS is getting weird in Iraq". Business Insider. 25 March 2015.
  232. ^ "یاران ناب 17 : حاج قاسم : جستاری در | خرید کتاب یاران ناب 17 : حاج قاسم : جستاری در | فروشگاه کتاب کتابخون". ketabkhon.ir. Archived from the original on 12 August 2016. Retrieved 22 August 2016.
  233. ^ "بزرگراه رسالت به نام سردار سلیمانی تغییر نام یافت (Resalat-highway's name changed to "General-Soleimani")". ایرنا. 5 January 2020. Archived from the original on 8 January 2020. Retrieved 8 January 2020.
  234. ^ "Archived copy" العماد أيوب يقدم وسام بطل الجمهورية الممنوح من الرئيس الأسد للشهيد سليماني لوزير الدفاع الإيراني. SANA (in Arabic). 13 January 2020. Archived from the original on 14 January 2020. Retrieved 14 January 2020.
  235. ^ Schwartz, Kevin and Olmo Gölz "The Mural Merry-Go-Round: The Vali Asr Billboard and Propaganda in Iran" at jadaliyya.com May 2020.
  236. ^ Shahid Soleimani plan is implemented in 3 main axes mehrnews.com, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  237. ^ Martyr Soleimani's plan is a people-centered plan isna.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  238. ^ Details of "Shahid Ghasem Soleimani" projecttasnimnews.com, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  239. ^ "Shahid Ghasem Soleimani" project irna.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  240. ^ Screening of more than 17 million Iranians in the plan of Shahid Soleimani tasnimnews.com, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  241. ^ House-to-house screening in Shahid Soleimani's plan irinn.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  242. ^ Sardar Salami: Shahid Soleimani's plan against Corona is unique irna.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
  243. ^ Minister of Health asks people to participate in "Shahid Soleimani" project mashreghnews.ir, Retrieved 31 December 2020
External links
Qasem Soleimani
at Wikipedia's sister projects
Military offices
New titleCommander of the 41st Tharallah Division
1982–1998
Succeeded by
Abdolmohammad Raufinejad
Preceded by
Ahmad Vahidi
Commander of Quds Force
1998–2020
Succeeded by
Esmail Ghaani
Last edited on 23 April 2021, at 16:55
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0 unless otherwise noted.
Privacy policy
Terms of Use
Desktop
HomeRandomNearbyLog inSettingsDonateAbout WikipediaDisclaimers
LanguageWatchEdit