Río de Oro
for "Gold River"; Arabic
: وادي الذهب
, often transliterated as Oued Edhahab
) was, with Saguia el-Hamra
, one of the two territories that formed the Spanish
province of Spanish Sahara
after 1969; it had been taken as a Spanish colonial
possession in the late 19th century. Its name seems to come from an east–west river which was supposed to have run through it. The river was thought to have largely dried out – a wadi
, as the name indicates – or have disappeared underground.
Río de Oro (at bottom) during Spanish colonisation
Desolate landscape terrain in the Río de Oro region, near the town of Guerguerat
Stamp of Rio de Oro issued in 1907.
The Spanish name is derived from its previous name Rio do Ouro
, given to it by its Portuguese discoverer Afonso Gonçalves Baldaia
in 1436. The Portuguese prince Henry the Navigator
dispatched a mission in 1435, under Gil Eanes
and Baldaia, to find the legendary River of Gold in western Africa. Going down the coast, they rounded the al-Dakhla
peninsula in present-day Western Sahara
and emerged into an inlet, which they excitedly believed to be the mouth of the River of Gold (see Senegal River
). The name continued to be used for the inlet and the surrounding area although no gold was found there, neither in the water of the narrow gulf, probably mistaken for the river itself, nor in its neighborhood.
Occupying the southern part of Western Sahara, the territory lies between 26° to the north and 21° 20' to the south. The area is roughly 184,000 km (114,000 mi), making it approximately two thirds of the entire Western Sahara.
The former provincial capital founded by the Spanish was Villa Cisneros, which was renamed under Moroccan administration in 1976 "ad-Dakhla
In 1975, as Spain retreated from the territory, Western Sahara was split under the Madrid Accords
, even if this division was bitterly contested by the Polisario Front
. The dividing line ran halfway through Río de Oro, with Morocco taking the northern part plus Saguia el-Hamra, and Mauritania annexing the lower third of the colony as a northern province called Tiris al-Gharbiyya
(Western Tiris). Its provincial capital was already called Dakhla. After a disastrous four-year war with the Polisario, Mauritania relinquished Tiris al-Gharbiyya, withdrew from Western Sahara, and left Morocco and the Polisario as the sole belligerents in the conflict
, which is not yet resolved; a cease-fire has been in effect since 1991.
- ^ Paxton, J. (2016-12-28). The Statesman's Year-Book 1971-72: The Businessman's Encyclopaedia of all nations. Springer. p. 1332. ISBN 9780230271005.
- ^ Law, Gwillim (1999-10-01). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 through 1998. McFarland. p. 412. ISBN 9780786460977.
- ^ IBP USA (2006). Morocco Country Study Guide. Int'l Business Publications. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-7397-1514-7.
- ^ Military Agreement No. 1 Archived 2008-05-11 at the Wayback Machine
Last edited on 12 December 2020, at 18:14
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