This article is about a specific implementation of a CAPTCHA. For the original test, see CAPTCHA
is a CAPTCHA
system that enables web hosts to distinguish between human and automated access to websites. The original version asked users to decipher hard to read text or match images. Version 2 also asked users to decipher text or match images if the analysis of cookies and canvas rendering suggested the page was being downloaded automatically.
Since version 3, reCAPTCHA will never interrupt users and is intended to run automatically when users load pages or click buttons.
reCAPTCHA is owned by Google
The original iteration of the service was a mass collaboration
platform designed for the digitization of books, particularly those that were too illegible to be scanned by computers
. The verification prompts utilized pairs of words from scanned pages, with one known word used as a control for verification, and the second used to crowdsource
the reading of an uncertain word.
reCAPTCHA was originally developed by Luis von Ahn
, David Abraham, Manuel Blum
, Michael Crawford, Ben Maurer, Colin McMillen, and Edison Tan at Carnegie Mellon University's
It was acquired by Google
in September 2009.
The system helped to digitize the archives of The New York Times
, and was subsequently used by Google Books
for similar purposes.
In 2014, Google pivoted the service away from its original concept, with a focus on reducing the amount of user interaction needed to verify a user, and only presenting human recognition challenges (such as identifying images in a set that satisfy a specific prompt) if behavioral analysis suspects that the user may be a bot. reCAPTCHA v1 was declared end-of-life on March 31, 2018.
An example of how a reCAPTCHA challenge looked in 2007,
containing the words "following" and "finding". The waviness and horizontal stroke were added to increase the difficulty of breaking the CAPTCHA with a computer program.
Scanned text is subjected to analysis by two different OCRs. Any word that is deciphered differently by the two OCR programs or that is not in an English dictionary is marked as "suspicious" and converted into a CAPTCHA. The suspicious word is displayed, out of context, sometimes along with a control word already known. If the human types the control word correctly, then the response to the questionable word is accepted as probably valid. If enough users were to correctly type the control word, but incorrectly type the second word which OCR had failed to recognize, then the digital version of documents could end up containing the incorrect word. The identification performed by each OCR program is given a value of 0.5 points, and each interpretation by a human is given a full point. Once a given identification hits 2.5 points, the word is considered valid. Those words that are consistently given a single identity by human judges are later recycled as control words.
If the first three guesses match each other but do not match either of the OCRs, they are considered a correct answer, and the word becomes a control word.
When six users reject a word before any correct spelling is chosen, the word is discarded as unreadable.
The original reCAPTCHA method was designed to show the questionable words separately, as out-of-context correction, rather than in use, such as within a phrase of five words from the original document.
Also, the control word might mislead context for the second word, such as a request of "/metal/ /fife/" being entered as "metal file
" due to the logical connection of filing with a metal tool being considered more common than the musical instrument "fife
In 2012, reCAPTCHA began using photographs taken from Google Street View
project, in addition to scanned words.
Google charges for the use of reCAPTCHA those websites that make over a million reCAPTCHA queries a month.
Image identification CAPTCHA
No CAPTCHA reCAPTCHA
The NoCAPTCHA reCAPTCHA
In 2013, reCAPTCHA began implementing behavioral analysis
of the browser's interactions to predict whether the user was a human or a bot. The following year, Google began to deploy a new reCAPTCHA API, featuring the "no CAPTCHA reCAPTCHA" — where users deemed to be of low risk only need to click a single checkbox
to verify their identity. A CAPTCHA may still be presented if the system is uncertain of the user's risk; Google also introduced a new type of CAPTCHA challenge designed to be more accessible to mobile users, where the user must select images matching a specific prompt from a grid.
In 2017, Google introduced a new "invisible" reCAPTCHA, where verification occurs in the background, and no challenges are displayed at all if the user is deemed to be of low risk.
According to former Google "click fraud czar" Shuman Ghosemajumder
, this capability "creates a new sort of challenge that very advanced bots can still get around, but introduces a lot less friction to the legitimate human."
reCAPTCHA v1 was declared end-of-life and shut down on March 31, 2018.
with the server making a callback to reCAPTCHA after the request has been submitted. The reCAPTCHA project provides libraries for various programming languages and applications to make this process easier. reCAPTCHA is a free-of-charge service provided to websites for assistance with the decipherment,
but the reCAPTCHA software is not open-source
Also, reCAPTCHA offers plugins for several web-application platforms including ASP.NET
, and PHP
, to ease the implementation of the service.
An example of how reCAPTCHA challenges were presented in 2010,
containing the words "and chisels"
The main purpose of a CAPTCHA
system is to block spambots while allowing human users. On December 14, 2009, Jonathan Wilkins released a paper describing weaknesses in reCAPTCHA that allowed bots to achieve a solve rate of 18%.
On August 1, 2010, Chad Houck gave a presentation to the DEF CON
18 Hacking Conference detailing a method to reverse the distortion added to images which allowed a computer program to determine a valid response 10% of the time.
The reCAPTCHA system was modified on July 21, 2010, before Houck was to speak on his method. Houck modified his method to what he described as an "easier" CAPTCHA to determine a valid response 31.8% of the time. Houck also mentioned security defenses in the system, including a high-security lockout if an invalid response is given 32 times in a row.
On May 26, 2012, Adam, C-P and Jeffball of DC949 gave a presentation at the LayerOne hacker conference detailing how they were able to achieve an automated solution with an accuracy rate of 99.1%.
Their tactic was to use techniques from machine learning, a subfield of artificial intelligence, to analyse the audio version of reCAPTCHA which is available for the visually impaired. Google released a new version of reCAPTCHA just hours before their talk, making major changes to both the audio and visual versions of their service. In this release, the audio version was increased in length from 8 seconds to 30 seconds, and is much more difficult to understand, both for humans as well as bots. In response to this update and the following one, the members of DC949 released two more versions of Stiltwalker which beat reCAPTCHA with an accuracy of 60.95% and 59.4% respectively. After each successive break, Google updated reCAPTCHA within a few days. According to DC949, they often reverted to features that had been previously hacked.
On June 27, 2012, Claudia Cruz, Fernando Uceda, and Leobardo Reyes published a paper showing a system running on reCAPTCHA images with an accuracy of 82%.
The authors have not said if their system can solve recent reCAPTCHA images, although they claim their work to be intelligent OCR
and robust to some, if not all changes in the image database.
In an August 2012 presentation given at BsidesLV 2012, DC949 called the latest version "unfathomably impossible for humans" – they were not able to solve them manually either.
The web accessibility organization WebAIM reported in May 2012, "Over 90% of respondents [screen reader users] find CAPTCHA to be very or somewhat difficult."
The original iteration of reCAPTCHA was criticized as being a source of unpaid work
to assist in transcribing efforts.
Google profits from reCAPTCHA users as free workers to improve its AI research.
The current iteration of the system has been criticized for its reliance on tracking cookies
and promotion of vendor lock-in
that user data collected in this manner is not used for personalized advertising. It was also discovered that the system favors those who have an active Google account
login, and displays a higher risk towards those using anonymizing proxies and VPN services.
Concerns were raised regarding privacy when Google announced reCAPTCHA v3.0, as it allows Google to track users on non-Google websites.
In April 2020, Cloudflare
switched from reCAPTCHA to hCaptcha, citing privacy concerns over Google's potential use of the data they recollect through reCAPTCHA for targeted advertising
and to cut down on operating costs since a considerable portion of Cloudflare's customers are free, non-paying customers. In response, Google told PC Magazine
that the data from reCAPTCHA is never used for personalized advertising purposes.
Google's help center states that reCAPTCHA is not supported
for the deafblind
effectively locking such users out of all pages that use the service. However, reCAPTCHA does currently have the longest list of accessibility considerations of any CAPTCHA service.
In one of the variants of CAPTCHA challenges, images are not incrementally highlighted, but fade out when clicked, and replaced with a new image fading in, resembling whack-a-mole
Criticism has been aimed at the long duration taken for the images to fade out and in.
reCAPTCHA had also created project Mailhide, which protects email addresses
on web pages from being harvested
By default, the email address was converted into a format that did not allow a crawler to see the full email address; for example, "email@example.com" would have been converted to "mai...@example.com". The visitor would then click on the "..." and solve the CAPTCHA in order to obtain the full email address. One could also edit the pop-up code so that none of the address was visible. Mailhide was discontinued in 2018 because it relied on reCAPTCHA v1.
- ^ a b Shet, Vinay (December 3, 2014). "Are you a robot? Introducing 'No CAPTCHA reCAPTCHA'". Archived from the original on September 3, 2020. Retrieved February 24, 2021.
- ^ "reCAPTCHA v3". Archived from the original on September 25, 2020. Retrieved September 8, 2020.
- ^ Ahn, Luis von, Massive-scale online collaboration, archived from the original on July 15, 2020, retrieved April 14, 2020
- ^ "reCAPTCHA: About Us". Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved August 14, 2018.
- ^ "Teaching computers to read: Google acquires reCAPTCHA". Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- ^ "Deciphering Old Texts, One Woozy, Curvy Word at a Time". The New York Times. March 28, 2011. Archived from the original on November 17, 2017. Retrieved November 20, 2017.
- ^ "reCAPTCHA FAQ". Archived from the original on July 5, 2010. Retrieved June 12, 2011.
- ^ Rubens, Paul (October 2, 2007). "Spam weapon helps preserve books". BBC. Archived from the original on July 6, 2013. Retrieved October 3, 2007.
- ^ "Fight Spam, Digitize Books". Craigslist Blog. June 2008. Archived from the original on July 6, 2010. Retrieved June 17, 2008.
- ^ "TV Converter Box Program". dtv2009.gov. Archived from the original on November 4, 2009.
- ^ ""Full Interview: Luis von Ahn on Duolingo", Spark, November 2011". Canadian Broadcasting Corporation. November 30, 2011. Archived from the original on June 3, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ Hutchinson, Alex (March 2009). "Human Resources: The job you didn't even know you had". The Walrus. pp. 15–16.
- ^ Hutchinson, Alex (March 12, 2009). "Human Resources: The job you didn't even know you had". The Walrus. Archived from the original on December 3, 2015. Retrieved December 7, 2015.
- ^ "reCAPTCHA: Using Captchas To Digitize Books". TechCrunch. September 16, 2007.
- ^ Timmer, John (August 14, 2008). "CAPTCHAs work? for digitizing old, damaged texts, manuscripts". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on January 24, 2009. Retrieved December 9, 2008.
- ^ a b Luis; Maurer, Ben; McMillen, Colin; Abraham, David; Blum, Manuel (2008). "reCAPTCHA: Human-Based Character Recognition via Web Security Measures"". Science. 321 (5895): 1465–1468. Bibcode:2008Sci...321.1465V. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.141.6563. doi:10.1126/science.1160379. PMID 18703711. S2CID 18371056.
- ^ ""questionable validity of results if words are presented out of context", Google Groups, August 29, 2008". Archived from the original on April 30, 2011. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ Perez, Sarah (March 29, 2012). "Google Now Using ReCAPTCHA To Decode Street View Addresses". TechCrunch. Archived from the original on August 18, 2012. Retrieved July 10, 2013.
- ^ a b "Cloudflare Dumps Google's ReCAPTCHA Over Privacy Concerns, Costs". PCMAG. Archived from the original on July 19, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ Greenberg, Andy (December 3, 2014). "Google Can Now Tell You're Not a Robot with Just One Click". Wired. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- ^ a b c Schwab, Katharine (June 27, 2019). "Google's new reCAPTCHA has a dark side". Fast Company. Archived from the original on June 28, 2019. Retrieved April 8, 2020.
- ^ Amadeo, Ron (March 9, 2017). "Google's reCAPTCHA turns "invisible," will separate bots from people without challenges". Ars Technica. Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- ^ a b "Google just made the internet a tiny bit less annoying". Popular Science. March 10, 2017. Archived from the original on February 5, 2021. Retrieved April 5, 2017.
- ^ "Google reCAPTCHA v1 API Shutting Down in March 2018". ProgrammableWeb. Archived from the original on June 20, 2020. Retrieved April 14, 2020.
- ^ "FAQ". reCAPTCHA.net. Archived from the original on July 16, 2012.
- ^ "reCAPTCHA: Stop Spam, Read Books". Archived from the original on June 19, 2020. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ "Developer's Guide – reCAPTCHA — Google Developers". Archived from the original on November 24, 2017. Retrieved January 14, 2014.
- ^ Greenberg, Andy (June 18, 2010). "Those Scrambled Word Tests For Stopping Spambots Are Tough For Humans Too". Forbes. Archived from the original on September 9, 2017. Retrieved September 10, 2017.
- ^ "Strong CAPTCHA Guidelines" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ^ "Google's reCAPTCHA busted by new attack". Archived from the original on August 10, 2017. Retrieved August 10, 2017.
- ^ "Google's reCAPTCHA dented". Archived from the original on March 10, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2011.
- ^ "Def Con 18 Speakers". defcon.org. Archived from the original on October 20, 2010. Retrieved November 17, 2010.
- ^ "Decoding reCAPTCHA Paper". Chad Houck. Archived from the original on August 19, 2010.
- ^ "Decoding reCAPTCHA Power Point". Chad Houck. Archived from the original on October 24, 2010.
- ^ a b "Project Stiltwalker". Archived from the original on July 2, 2012. Retrieved May 28, 2012.
- ^ Claudia Cruz-Perez; Oleg Starostenko; Fernando Uceda-Ponga; Vicente Alarcon-Aquino; Leobardo Reyes-Cabrera (June 30, 2012). "Breaking reCAPTCHAs with Unpredictable Collapse: Heuristic Character Segmentation and Recognition". In Carrasco-Ochoa, Jesús Ariel; Martínez-Trinidad, José Francisco; Olvera López, José Arturo; Boyer, Kim L (eds.). Pattern Recognition. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. 7329. México. pp. 155–165. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-31149-9_16. ISBN 978-3-642-31148-2.
- ^ "Screen Reader User Survey #4 Results". Archived from the original on December 10, 2017. Retrieved April 19, 2013.
- ^ Harris, David L. (January 23, 2015). "Massachusetts woman's lawsuit accuses Google of using free labor to transcribe books, newspapers". Boston Business Journal. Archived from the original on April 28, 2015. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
- ^ "No CAPTCHA: yet another ruse devised by Google to extract free digital labor from you". Archived from the original on November 12, 2020. Retrieved December 3, 2020.
- ^ "Moving from reCAPTCHA to hCaptcha". The Cloudflare Blog. April 8, 2020. Archived from the original on August 12, 2020. Retrieved July 18, 2020.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 6, 2020. Retrieved May 11, 2020.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on November 26, 2020. Retrieved December 10, 2020.
- ^ "ReCaptcha extremly slow fading · Issue #268 · google/recaptcha". GitHub. Archived from the original on October 14, 2020. Retrieved October 14, 2020.
- ^ "Mailhide: Free Spam Protection". Archived from the original on January 2, 2012. Retrieved May 15, 2011.
- ^ "Mailhide: Service discontinued". Archived from the original on November 7, 2012. Retrieved March 3, 2019.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to ReCAPTCHA
Last edited on 4 May 2021, at 09:20
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.