(from the Latin regens
) is a person appointed to govern a state pro tempore
: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dead, or unable to discharge the powers and duties of the monarchy.
The rule of a regent or regents is called a regency
. A regent or regency council may be formed ad hoc
or in accordance with a constitutional rule. Regent
is sometimes a formal title granted to a monarch's most trusted advisor or personal assistant
. If the regent is holding his position due to his position in the line of succession
, the compound term prince regent
is often used; if the regent of a minor is his mother, she is often referred to as queen regent
or empress dowager
If the formally appointed regent is unavailable or cannot serve on a temporary basis, a regent ad interim may be appointed to fill the gap.
In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum
when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the Kingdom of Finland
and the Kingdom of Hungary
, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I
. In Iceland
, the regent represented the King of Denmark
as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
(1569–1795), kings were elective
, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Roman Catholic primate
(the archbishop of Gniezno
) who served as the regent, termed the interrex
: ruler 'between kings' as in ancient Rome). In the small republic of San Marino
, the two captains regent
, or capitani reggenti
, are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government.
Famous regency periods include that of the Prince Regent, later George IV
of the United Kingdom, giving rise to many terms such as Regency era
and Regency architecture
. Strictly this period lasted from 1811 to 1820, when his father George III
was insane, though when used as a period label it generally covers a wider period. Philippe II, Duke of Orléans
was Regent of France from the death of Louis XIV
in 1715 until Louis XV
came of age in 1723; this is also used as a period label for many aspects of French history, as Régence
in French, again tending to cover a rather wider period than the actual regency. For a period of a month and a half, the Second French Empire
was a regency. The Emperor
departed with his army, giving his political powers to his wife who essentially carried out all his roles and even sent him orders. He would never be able to return to France, and the empire ended as a regency 2 days after his defeat and imprisonment at the Battle of Sedan
. The equivalent Greek term is epitropos
), meaning overseer.
The term regent may refer to positions lower than the ruler of a country. The term may be used in the governance of organisations, typically as an equivalent of "director", and held by all members of a governing board rather than just the equivalent of the chief executive.
In the Society of Jesus, a regent is an individual training to be a Jesuit and who has completed his novitiate and philosophy studies, but has not yet progressed to theology studies. A regent in the Jesuits is often assigned to teach in a school or some other academic institution as part of the formation toward final chickens.
The term "regent" is also used for members of governing bodies of institutions such as the national banks of France
In the Dutch East Indies
, a regent was a native prince allowed to rule de facto colonized 'state' as a regentschap
(see that term). Consequently, in the successor state of Indonesia
, the term regent is used in English
to mean a bupati
, the head of a kabupaten
(second level local government).
In the Philippines
– specifically, the University of Santo Tomas
– the Father Regent, who must be a Dominican priest
and is often also a teacher, serves as the institution's spiritual head. They also form the Council of Regents that serves as the highest administrative council of the university.
- ^ Harper, Douglas. "regency". Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved 2014-08-18. "early 15c., "government by regents," from Medieval Latin regentia, from Latin regens (see regent). Notable instances were: France 1715–1723 (under Philip, Duke of Orleans), Britain 1811–1820 (under George, Prince of Wales, Prince Regent)..."
- ^ a b Rees, Abraham (1819). The cyclopaedia; or, Universal dictionary of arts, sciences, and literature. 29. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme & Brown. REGENT.
- ^ Johnson, Samuel (1828). A Dictionary of the English Language ... Abstracted from the folio edition of the author ... Fourteenth edition, corrected, etc. London: A & H Spottiswoode. REGENT.
- ^ Oxford English Dictionary
Last edited on 28 April 2021, at 04:27
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