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Regions of Europe
This article is about groups of sovereign countries. For regions and non-sovereign countries within the European Union, see Region (Europe).
Europe, the westernmost portion of Eurasia—is often divided into regions based on geographical, cultural or historical criteria. Many European structures currently exist. Some are cultural, economic, or political; examples include the Council of Europe, the European Broadcasting Union with the Eurovision Song Contest, and the European Olympic Committees with the European Games. Russia dominates the continent by both area and population; spanning roughly 40% of its total landmass, with over 15% of its total population.
Regions of Europe based on CIA World Factbook:
  Northern Europe
  Western Europe
  Central Europe
  Southwest Europe
  Southern Europe
  Southeast Europe
  Eastern Europe
European sub-regions according to EuroVoc:
  Northern Europe
  Western Europe
  Southern Europe
  Central and Eastern Europe
Subregions of Europe by United Nations geoscheme.
  Eastern Europe
  Northern Europe
  Southern Europe
  Western Europe
Several countries are often included as belonging to a "wider Europe" including Greenland; Cyprus; the Caucasus countries of Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia; the two mainly Asian countries of Kazakhstan and Turkey; as well as the overseas territories and regions of the European Union.
Geographical boundaries
Groupings by compass directions are the hardest to define in Europe, since there are a few calculations of the midpoint of Europe (among other issues), and the pure geographical criteria of "east" and "west" are often confused with the political meaning these words acquired during the Cold War Era.
The modern physical geographic regions of Europe, include:
  1. Central Europe
  2. East-Central Europe
  3. Eastern Europe
  4. Northeastern Europe
  5. Northern Europe
  6. Northwestern Europe
  7. Southeastern Europe
  8. Southern Europe
  9. Southwestern Europe
  10. Western Europe
Historical divisions
Europe can be divided along many differing historical lines, normally corresponding to those parts that were inside or outside a particular cultural phenomenon, empire or political division. The areas varied at different times, and so it is arguable as to which were part of some common historical entity (e.g., were Germany or Britain part of Roman Europe as they were only partly and relatively briefly part of the Empire—or were the countries of the former communist Yugoslavia part of the Eastern Bloc, since it was not in the Warsaw Pact).
Contemporary
A clickable Euler diagram showing the relationships between various multinational European organisations and agreements.
Economic and political
European Single Market integration:
  European Union member states form the European Single Market
  Non-EU states that participate in the EU Single Market with exceptions: Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (see also EFTA)
  Part of a former EU state that remains partially aligned to the EU Single Market on goods: Northern Ireland in the United Kingdom (see also Brexit and the Irish border)
  Non-EU states with a Stabilisation and Association Agreement with the EU allowing for participation in selected sectors of the Single Market: EU accession candidates Albania, Montenegro, North Macedonia and Serbia; EU accession potential candidates: Bosnia and Herzegovina and Kosovo
  Non-EU states with a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Area agreement with the EU allowing for participation in selected sectors of the Single Market: Georgia, Moldova and Ukraine
  Non-EU states which have a bilateral Customs Union arrangement with the EU: Turkey (an accession candidate), Andorra and San Marino
European Union (EU)
Countries that are a part of the political and economic bloc (27 members as of 2020):
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain and Sweden.
EU Med Group
An alliance of Mediterranean countries within EU:
Cyprus, France, Greece, Italy, Malta, Portugal and Spain
Eurozone
Countries that have adopted the euro as their currency:
Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Cyprus, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, and Vatican City.
European Free Trade Association (EFTA)
A free trade organisation that operates in parallel with – and is linked to – the EU:
Liechtenstein, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
Central European Free Trade Agreement (CEFTA)
A free trade agreement among non-EU members:
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo (represented by UNMIK), Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, and Serbia.
Schengen Area
A borderless zone created by the Schengen Agreements, including:
Austria, Belgium, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, and Switzerland, which by separate agreements fully apply the provisions of the Schengen acquis.
European Union Customs Union
A customs union of all the member states of the European Union (EU) and some neighbouring countries:
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden. Andorra, San Marino, and Turkey are each in customs union with the EU's customs territory.
Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU)
An economic union of Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia. Moldova and Uzbekistan hold observer status.
Commonwealth of Independent States Free Trade Area
A free trade agreement among the members of the Commonwealth of Independent States: Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia, Tajikistan, and Ukraine.
Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation
A forum of regional economic cooperation:
Albania, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bulgaria, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Turkey and Ukraine.
Other political
Members of the Eastern Partnership
Eastern Partnership and the Euronest Parliamentary Assembly
A group of former Soviet Eastern European countries cooperating with the EU:
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Moldova, and Ukraine.
OECD Europe countries
European countries that are a part of the OECD:
Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovenia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey and the United Kingdom.
Central European Initiative
A forum of regional cooperation including:
Albania, Austria, Belarus, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Italy, Moldova, Montenegro, North Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Ukraine
Collective Security Treaty Organization
A military and political alliance between Armenia, Belarus, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Russia, Tajikistan and observer states of Afghanistan and Serbia.
Community for Democracy and Rights of Nations
A group of former Soviet disputed states in Eastern Europe:
Abkhazia, Republic of Artsakh, South Ossetia, and Transnistria.
Council of Europe
An international organisation whose stated aim is to uphold human rights, democracy, and the rule of law in Europe, and to promote European culture.
It has 47 member states, with approximately 820 million people.
Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
The world's largest security-oriented intergovernmental organization, with 57 participating states mostly in the Northern Hemisphere.
Visegrád Group
A cultural and political alliance of four Central European states for the purposes of furthering their European integration, as well as for advancing military, economic and energy cooperation with one another:
Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, and Hungary.
Centrope
An Interreg IIIA project to establish a multinational region in Central Europe encompassing four European countries: Slovakia, Austria, Hungary and the Czech Republic.
Middleeuropean Initiative
Promotes Central European cooperation.
Geographical
Peninsulas
Balkan Peninsula
The Balkan peninsula is located in southeast Europe and the following countries occupy land within the Balkans either exclusively or partially:
Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia (approximately one half), Greece, Kosovo,[a] Montenegro, North Macedonia, Romania (the Dobrudja region), Serbia, Slovenia (coastal section) and Turkey (East Thrace)
Iberian Peninsula
Located in southwestern Europe this peninsula contains Spain, Portugal, Gibraltar and Andorra
Apennine or Italian Peninsula
Located in the south of Europe, the Italian peninsula contains the states of Italy, San Marino and the Vatican City
Scandinavian Peninsula
Located in the north of Europe, Norway, Sweden and part of Finland
Fennoscandian Peninsula
Located in the north of Europe, Norway, Sweden, Finland and part of Russia
Jutland Peninsula
Jutland, main part of Denmark excluding its islands; Schleswig-Holstein region of Germany
Regional
Baltic Rim region
Denmark, Estonia, Latvia, Finland, Germany, Lithuania, Poland, Russia, Sweden.
The term Baltic states generally applies to Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania
Low Countries
Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, parts of France, parts of Germany
Benelux: Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg
British Isles
The United Kingdom, the Isle of Man and the Republic of Ireland
Carpathian states
Romania, Hungary, Ukraine, Slovakia, Czech Republic, Poland, Serbia
Caucasus
Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Russia; also the disputed territories of Abkhazia, Artsakh and South Ossetia
Channel Islands
Guernsey, Jersey
Nordic countries
Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, Greenland, and Iceland
Alpine countries
States that occupy the Alps:
Austria, Switzerland, Liechtenstein, Slovenia, Germany, France and Italy
Danubian countries
States that lie along the River Danube:
Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, Germany, Hungary, Moldova, Romania, Serbia, Slovakia and Ukraine
Balkans
Overlaps with Southeastern Europe:
Bulgaria, Greece, Albania, Kosovo,[a] North Macedonia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro
Countries occupying land on and off the Balkans are Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia and Turkey (East Thrace).
Dinaric Alps
Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania
Serbia, Kosovo[a] and Italy occupy a small portion of the Dinaric Alps.
Macaronesia
Chain of Islands in the North Atlantic
Azores, Canary Islands, Madeira; also including Cape Verde, an independent African nation.
Mediterranean countries
Mediterranean nations are European countries on the Mediterranean Basin:
Portugal, Spain, France, Monaco, Italy, Slovenia, San Marino, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania, Greece, Turkey, Cyprus, Malta and the British territory of Gibraltar
Adriatic region: Italy, Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Albania
Pannonian countries
The Panonnian nations are:
Hungary, Romania, Serbia, Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Austria, Ukraine
Black Sea region
The Black Sea nations (although some sections lie within Asia) are:
Abkhazia (disputed territory), Georgia, Turkey, Bulgaria, Romania, Ukraine and Russia
Caspian Sea region
The world's largest lake which forms a section of the Asian-European border has five countries occupying its shore. Turkmenistan and Iran lie entirely within Asia while the following countries are transcontinental and have sovereignty over the Caspian Sea's European sector:
Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan
Religious groupings
See also: Religion in Europe and Christianity in Europe
Catholic Church in Europe
Catholic majority countries, including Andorra, Austria, Belgium, Croatia, the Czech Republic, France, South and Western Germany, Gibraltar, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, parts of Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Monaco, Southern Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, San Marino, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain.
Eastern Orthodoxy in Europe
Orthodox majority countries, including Armenia, Belarus, North and Eastern Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Georgia, Greece, Moldova, Montenegro, Republic of Artsakh (disputed territory), North Macedonia, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Ukraine.
Protestantism in Europe
Protestant majority countries, including Denmark, Estonia, Greenland, Finland, North and Eastern Germany, Iceland, parts of Latvia, Northern Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom
Muslim Europe
Muslim majority countries, including Albania, Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo,[a] Turkey, Northern Cyprus (disputed territory)
National groupings
Germanic-speaking Europe
Germany, Netherlands, United Kingdom (including sovereign Republic of Ireland), Luxembourg, Switzerland (some cantons), Liechtenstein, Austria, Belgium (Flanders), Denmark (including Faroe Islands), Sweden, Norway, Iceland
Other groupings
See also
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Regions of Europe.
Notes
^ a b c d Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008. Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 96 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 113 UN member states are said to have recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 15 later withdrew their recognition.
Last edited on 27 June 2021, at 19:51
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