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Republic of Ararat
Not to be confused with Republic of Mahabad or Araratian Republic.
The Republic of Ararat, or Kurdish Republic of Ararat,[7][8][9] (Kurdish: Komara Agiriyê ,کۆماری ئارارات[10][11] and Kurdish: Komara Araratê[12]) was a self-proclaimed Kurdish state. It was located in eastern Turkey, centred on Karaköse Province. "Agirî" is the Kurdish name for Ararat.[13]
Republic of Ararat
Komara Agiriyê
Komara Araratê
1927–1931
Flag
CapitalKurd Ava[2] / Kurdava[3]
(Doğubayazıt)
Common languagesKurdish
GovernmentRepublic
President[4] 
• 1927 - 1930
Ibrahim Haski[5]
Supreme Commander[5] 
• 1927 - 1931
Ihsan Nuri[5]
Historical eraInterwar period
• Independence declared[6]
28 October 1927
• Retaken by Turkey
September 1931
Preceded bySucceeded by
Turkey
Turkey
History
The Republic of Ararat, led by the central committee of Xoybûn party, declared independence on 28 October 1927[6] or 1928,[9][14][15] during a wave of rebellion among Kurds in southeastern Turkey. As the leader of the military was appointed Ihsan Nuri, and Ibrahim Heski was put in charge of the civilian government.
At the first meeting of Xoybûn, Ihsan Nuri Pasha was declared the military commander of the Ararat Rebellion.[16] Ibrahim Heski was made the leader of the civilian administration.[17] In October 1927, Kurd Ava,[2] or Kurdava,[3] a village near Mount Ararat, was designated as the provisional capital of Kurdistan. Xoybûn made appeals to the Great Powers and the League of Nations and also sent messages to other Kurds in Iraq and Syria to ask for co-operation.[18] But under the pressure from Turkey, the British Empire as well as France imposed restrictions on the activities of the members of Xoybûn.[16]
The Turkish Armed forces subsequently defeated the Republic of Ararat in September 1931.[19][20]
Flag of the Republic of Ararat
The flag first appeared during the movement for Kurdish independence from the Ottoman Empire and resembles an earlier version created by the Xoybûn (Khoyboon) organization, active in the Ararat rebellion of 1930, and flown by the break-away Republic of Ararat during the period 1927–1931.[citation needed]
From left to right: Sipkanlı Halis Bey, Ihsan Nuri Pasha, Hasenanlı Ferzende Bey[21]
See also
References
  1. ^ "The National Flag of Kurdistan"., Kurdish Institute of Paris.
  2. ^ a b Wadie Jwaideh, The Kurdish national movement: its origins and development, Syracuse University Press, 2006, ISBN 978-0-8156-3093-7, p. 211.
  3. ^ a b (in French) Celal Sayan, La construction de l'état national turc et le mouvement national kurde, 1918-1938, Presses universitaires du septentrion, 2002, p. 649.
  4. ^ Paul J. White, Primitive rebels or revolutionary modernizers?: the Kurdish national movement in Turkey, Zed Books, 2000, ISBN 978-1-85649-822-7, p. 77.
  5. ^ a b c (in Turkish) Emin Karaca, Ağrı Eteklerinde İsyan: Bir Kürt Ayaklanmasının Anatomisi, 3. Baskı, Karakutu Yayınları, 2003, ISBN 975-8658-38-7, s. 23.
  6. ^ a b Dana Adams Schmidt, Journey among brave men, Little, Brown, 1964, p. 57.
  7. ^ Christopher Houston, Kurdistan: crafting of national selves, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-22050-5, p. 52.
  8. ^ Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East, 1. cilt, Infobase Publishing, 2009, ISBN 978-0-8160-7158-6, p. 385.
  9. ^ a b Abbas Vali, Essays on the origins of Kurdish nationalism, Mazda Publishers, 2003, ISBN 978-1-56859-142-1, p. 199.
  10. ^ "Xwendin û danasîna pirtûkan". dengekurdistan.nu (in Kurdish). Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  11. ^ "کۆماری ئارارات، ئاوڕدانەوەیەک لە مێژوو". chawykurd.com (in Kurdish). Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  12. ^ "Ihsan Nuri Paşa" (in Kurdish). Retrieved 21 December 2019.
  13. ^ "Republics of Ararat". www.ekurds.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  14. ^ Martin Strohmeier, Crucial images in the presentation of a Kurdish national identity: heroes and patriots, traitors and foes, Brill, 2003, ISBN 978-90-04-12584-1, s. 97.
  15. ^ Christopher Houston, Kurdistan: crafting of national selves, Indiana University Press, 2008, ISBN 0-253-22050-5, s. 52.
  16. ^ a b Allsopp, Harriet (2014). The Kurds of Syria: Political Parties and Identity in the Middle East. London: I.B. Tauris. p. 55. ISBN 9781780765631.
  17. ^ Yilmaz, Özcan (2015). La formation de la nation kurde en Turquie (in French). Graduate Institute Publications. p. 77. ISBN 978-2-940503-17-9.
  18. ^ Edmonds, C.J. (1971). "Kurdish Nationalism". Journal of Contemporary History. 6 (1): 91. doi​:​10.1177/002200947100600105​. S2CID 220879999.
  19. ^ Kemal Kirişci,Gareth M. Winrow, The Kurdish Question and Turkey: An Example of a Trans-state Ethnic Conflict, Routledge, 1997, ISBN 978-0-7146-4746-3, p. 101.
  20. ^ "Kurdistan: Short-lived independent states". www.crwflags.com. Retrieved 8 December 2020.
  21. ^ Rohat Alakom, Hoybûn örgütü ve Ağrı ayaklanması, Avesta, 1998, ISBN 975-7112-45-3, p. 180. (in Turkish)
Last edited on 10 May 2021, at 23:10
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