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Republican Guard (Egypt)
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The Egyptian Republican Guard (Arabic: قوات الحرس الجمهوري‎‎, romanizedEl-Haras el-Gomhoury) is a Division level command within the Egyptian Army, designed to be an armored division with the main responsibilities of defending the President of the Republic as well as the major presidential and strategic institutions, including the Presidential Palaces, Command centers, and presidential airports. It is one of the largest Divisional commands in Egypt with a heavy emphasis on Armoured and Mechanized warfare. It is the most senior Corps in the Egyptian Army. The Republican Guard is the only division in the Egyptian Armed Forces that receives commands only from its commander and the president not from the Supreme Council of the Armed Forces led by the minister of defense.
Egyptian Republican Guard
قوات الحرس الجمهوري
El-Haras el-Gomhoury

El Haras El Gomhoury
Active1955 – present
Country
 Egypt
AllegianceEgyptian Armed Forces
BranchEgyptian Army
TypePraetorian Guard
RoleArmoured
Size24,000 active duty troops
Part ofPresident of Egypt
Garrison/HQHeliopolis
EngagementsSuez Crisis
Six-Day War
Yom Kippur War
Republican Guard headquarters clashes
Commanders
Current
commander
Major General Mustafa Shawkat
Notable
commanders
Mohammed Hussein Tantawi
Magdi Hatata
Egyptian Republican Guard honor guard welcomes U.S. Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, during a welcoming ceremony to Cairo, Egypt, April 21, 2009.
Location
The Republican Guard Division is the only significant military unit allowed in central Cairo.[1]
The Republican Guard House, or the Republican Guard Club, is located on Salah Salem Street, next to the El Obour Buildings. It is a recreational club for Republican Guard officers and has a wedding hall used for weddings. It witnessed a sit-in outside its walls by supporters of the ousted President Mohamed Morsi in July 2013 due to their belief that he was being kept inside.[2]
History and present role
Republican Guard helicopter during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011
It was created subsequent to the 1952 movement by Gen. Mohammad Laithi Nassif (1922 - 24 August 1973), on the instructions of Egypt's second President, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Its tasks were to protect the Presidency, and the national government in Cairo. Known originally as the National Guard, it was mainly a paramilitary force, but was expanded into a large military force, first at a brigade level in the 1950s and 1960s, and incorporated into the Egyptian Armored Corps in 1985. It was still the size of an armoured brigade in 1990,[3] but was then augmented to division level,
Secondary duties are to protect presidential sites and important State buildings in Cairo (such as the Federal Palace, the Dome Palace, the Abdeen Palace and the Tahra Palace),[4] to provide Honor Guard and security services for the highest national personalities and important foreign guests; and to respond to any rebellion, coup, or other threat to the government of the Republic.
Members are mainly but not exclusively volunteers on deputation from other Army units, mainly armored and mechanized units, who receive bonuses and subsidized housing, and received greater training than the regular army. The Egyptian Republican Guard, however, doesn't recruit directly from the population, unlike their Syrian, Yemeni, and (formerly) Iraqi counterparts. The bulk of its troops are recruited from other Army units, mainly on the basis of performance and advanced training in urban and other types of modern warfare.
Generally components of one or more Brigades of the Guard have been deployed to forward divisions on Egypt's eastern and western borders.
The Republican Guard is mainly equipped with M60 Patton and M1A1 Abrams tanks, Fahd 280 , BMP-1 and AIFV armoured fighting vehicles. There are several anti-tank infantry platoons as well, equipped with the AT-13 Saxhorn and BGM-71 TOW anti-tank guided missiles. They were[clarification needed] initially trained by the Soviet Army in the 1950s and 1960s.
The Military Police battalions of the Republican Guard have often been deployed as conventional Riot Police armed with teargas, water cannons and batons, especially during civil unrest targeting key Defence installations and buildings.
At dawn on July 8, 2013, a series of clashes erupted between Republican Guard soldiers and protesters who demanded the return of the former President Mohamed Morsi to power following the 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. This led to at least 61 deaths and 435 injuries.[5]
Leadership
The Republican Guard is under the direct command of the Ministry of Defense. Its current commander is General Mohammed Zaki.
Commanders of the Republican Guard
Structure
Uniform and Insignia
Ceremonial parade uniform.
The Republican Guard has a distinctive uniform different from that of the regular Egyptian Army. The service uniform of the Guards is of a tan color with a distinctive blue beret and epaulets. A blue-grey parade uniform is worn by honor guard and other ceremonial detachments. The Military Police battalions wear a red beret, with a red colored helmet when deployed in riot control duties.
Everyday suitRepublican Guard Police ForcesField outfitCamouflage outfit
Berets
Beret
OfficerBrigadier GeneralGeneral
See also
References
  1. ^ "The Egyptian Military: Fighting Enemies Domestic, Not Foreign". Stratfor. 15 November 2014.
  2. ^ "Killing in Cairo: the full story of the Republican Guards' club shootings". Human Rights Watch. 18 July 2013.
  3. ^ Metz, Helen Chapin (1991). Egypt : a country study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. p. 307.
  4. ^ Egyptian Institute for Studies, “لجيش المصري: التكوين و خرائط الانتشار [Egyptian Army Maps],” المعهد المصري للدراسات, May 17, 2018.
  5. ^ "Egypt: Rab'a Killings Likely Crimes against Humanity". Human Rights Watch. 12 August 2014.
  6. ^ صدى البلد - بطولة الجمهورية للفروسية بنادي الحرس الجمهوري Archived 7 February 2020 at the Wayback Machine
  7. ^ بوابة فيتو - معلومات لا تعرفها عن شريف سيف الدين رئيس هيئة الرقابة الإدارية الجديد Archived 13 September 2018 at the Wayback Machine
  8. ^ الوطن - «الوطن» تنفرد بنشر تفاصيل المواجهة بين «مرسى» وقائد الحرس الجمهورى قبل ثورة 30 يونيو.Archived 12 May 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  9. ^ الشروق - الرئيس يصدق على ترقية قائد الحرس الجمهوري لرتبة «فريق» Archived 20 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine
  10. ^ اليوم السابع - قائد الحرس الجمهوري في عهدي مبارك ومرسى.[dead link]
  11. ^ الأهرام - الرئيس مبارك يزور قوات الحرس الجمهوري.Archived 1 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine
  12. ^ See Order of Battle at "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-26. Retrieved 2009-10-07. , accessed August 2009
Last edited on 8 May 2021, at 05:46
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