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Republican Guard (Syria)
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The Syrian Republican Guard (Arabic: الْحَرَسُ الْجُمْهُورِيُّ‎‎, romanizedal-Ḥaras al-Jumhūriyy), also known as the Presidential Guard, is an elite 25,000 man mechanized division, although it may actually approach corps size with around 60,000 guardsman.[2] Its main purpose is to protect the capital, Damascus, from any foreign or domestic threats. The Guard was the only Syrian military unit allowed within the capital city before the civil war.[8]
Syrian Republican Guard Forces
الْحَرَسُ الْجُمْهُورِيُّ

Republican Guard shoulder sleeve insignia
Active1976 – present
Country
 Syria
AllegiancePresident of Syria
BranchSyrian Arab Army
TypeMechanized infantry
RoleShock troops
Size25,000[1] or 60,000[2]
Garrison/HQMount Qasioun, Damascus
Colors

tactical color marking
EngagementsSyrian Civil War
Commanders
Current
commander
Maj. Gen. Shoaeb Suleiman
Deputy CommanderBrig. Gen. Mohamed Qasem
Supreme CommanderGen. Malik Aliaa[5]
Brigade CommandersMajor Gen. Issam Zahreddine (104th Brigade)  [6]
Brig. Gen. Mohammad Nayouf (105th Brigade)
Brig. Gen. Rukin Mohamed Khaddor (106th Brigade)
Notable
commanders
Bashar al-Assad
Adnan Makhlouf
Manaf Tlass (formerly) (105th Brigade)

History
The Guard was formed in 1976 when anti-Syrian Palestinian groups launched attacks on Syrian officials. Major-General Adnan Makhlouf commanded the Guard from 1976 until 1997. The Republican Guard is used mostly to protect top Syrian government officials from any external threats and to serve as a counter-weight to the other powerful Syrian Army formations near the capital, the 4th Mechanized Division, the 3rd Armoured Division, and the 14th Special Forces (Airborne) Division.[9] Many members of the Assad family have served in the Republican Guard. Bashar al-Assad was a Colonel, and was given control of a brigade. His younger brother Maher was also a Colonel in the Republican Guard.[10]
Structure
Further information: Syrian Army § Units reporting to the Chief of Staff
At the outset of the 2011 conflict, the Republican Guard included three mechanized brigades and two “security regiments.” The overall force structure is comparable to a conventional mechanized infantry division, but like the 4th Armored Division, the Republican Guard is outfitted with better equipment and maintained at full strength.
Order of Battle (2017)
In the last days of October 2017, Jane's Information Group published in its Jane's Intelligence Review an article on the current military situation of the Syrian Arab Army and its future challenges.[11]
The text reflects the transformation that the battle order has presented through the conflict, from the old order of battle of the soviet influence to the current one, more adapted to the new challenges.
Before 2011, it was difficult to access reliable information about the SAA because of the Damascus government’s sensitivity to potential espionage, particularly by Israel. However, the civil war has provided analysts with considerable insight into the Syrian military.[12]
The main ground combat unit of the Syrian military is often called a brigade or regiment and is between 500 and 1,000 strong. This is considerably smaller than a corresponding Western formation of that designation. For reasons of esprit de corps, these retain their pre-civil war titles as tank, infantry, mechanised, artillery, special forces, airborne, or Republican Guard brigades or regiments. However, their internal organisation is now very different from their pre-civil war structure.[18]
(*)They are subunits that were previously subordinated to one of the original brigades, but that for tactical reasons of the civil war became independent units that depend directly on the General Staff. They perform functions as minor task forces.
(**)New Creation
Other alleged units:-
Operational History in the Syrian Civil War
At the beginning of the Syrian civil war, the Republican Guard kept out of the conflict, with only the regular Syrian Armed Forces fighting.
In June 2012, the Republican Guard clashed with rebels near its housing compounds and bases in the suburbs of Qudsaya and al-Hamah, about 8 kilometers from central Damascus.[23]
The unit has been accused by Human Rights Watch of engaging in human rights abuses during the conflict.[24] In 2012, Republican guard units played an important role in repelling opposition offensives on Damascus and Aleppo.[25]
Later on, Republican Guard units were deployed to government bases in the North and East of the country, in order to bolster and stiffen the resistance against rebel advances.[citation needed]
400 Syrian Republican Guard fighters were reportedly called in as reinforcements during the Battle of Al-Hasakah.[26]
The 103rd brigade reportedly operated in the Latakia province where (in 2013) it assisted other pro-government units in stopping opposition assaults on the Alawit heartland.[citation needed] The brigade also reportedly participated in offensive operations which partially expelled rebels from the Latakia province.[27]
The 124th brigade reportedly participated in the successful defense of IS attacks on the Tabqa airbase in 2014, before the evacuation of the airport.[28] The brigade reportedly defended the Ithriya-Khanasser highway thus preserving a major supply line to Aleppo.[citation needed] The brigade was reported in January 2018 directing the capture of the al-Hass Plain and the Offensive towards Abu-Duhur from the north (Front of South´s Aleppo)[29]
The 104th brigade is well known in the media due to its multi-year ordeal in defending Deir ez-Zor.[30] Deployed to the area in late 2012, according to some sources[citation needed] (other sources state that the brigade was not deployed to Deir ez-Zor before early 2014),[31] the brigade, along with other SAA elements, defended pro-government-held territory in Deir ez-Zor.[citation needed] The brigade has been largely under siege since January 2015 (the Syrian Arab Air Force in cooperation with the Russian Aerospace forces maintain an air bridge).[32][citation needed] In early 2018 reports emerged that the unit was transferred back to Damascus.[33]
In 2016 elements of the 102nd, 106th brigades and the 800th regiment were reported to have taken part in the successful Aleppo campaign which expelled opposition elements from the city.[15]
In late 2016 and early 2017, together with other pro-government units, the 800th regiment was reported to have stopped an ISIL offensive by defending the T4 airbase and preventing a possible ISIL assault on Homs.[34][35]
105th brigade was largely employed in Damascus and the surrounding areas, mainly focusing on the East Ghouta front[36][37] which has been an opposition stronghold for years, reportedly containing 25,000 opposition fighters.[38][39][40]
Following several deployments to the Aleppo front[41][42] the 106th brigade reportedly returned to the Damascus operating area where it continued combat operations.[43][44][45]
On October 18, 2017, Issam Zahreddine, a Major General leading the Syrian government's fight against ISIL in Deir ez-Zor and known as "Lion of the Republican Guard,"[46][47] was killed when a land mine struck his vehicle in the Hwaijet Saqer area of Deir ez-Zor's countryside during a military operation.[6][48][46]
Uniform and insignia
The Republican Guard uniform is distinct from the regular Army uniform. Service dress consists of woodland camouflage worn with red berets, rather than the standard black or green, red epaulettes, red lanyards, and brown leather belts with green camouflaged shoes. On ceremonial occasions, officers wear red peaked caps instead of a beret.[citation needed]
Weapons
The Republican Guard tends to usually be better equipped than the standard Syrian Army. The Republican Guard has been documented and photographed using the American made M-165.56x45mm rifle.[49] The Soviet made AKM7.62x39mm rifle is also used with a folding stock which makes it the AKMS variant. The AK-74 and the AKS-74U Carbine is used along with the more modern AK-74M which both are chambered for 5.45x39mm. The AK-74M rifles are believed to have entered Syria in the mid to late 1990s following a deal with Russia.The AK-74M is also sometimes seen with an NSPU night vision optic sight or a GP-25 Grenade Launcher in some cases.[50]
Members of the Republican Guard have also been seen with the Glock handgun which is in their holster.[51] The Makarov PM 9x18mm pistol has also been seen in use with the Guard and in holsters. Maher al-Assad, who is in the Republican Guard as a Commander and also is the brother of current President Bashar al-Assadl, is seen with a Springfield Armory XD pistol in his holster while visiting troops.[52]
The NSV machine gun chambered for 12.7×108mm has also been used by the Republican Guard during the civil war and is usually seen being used whilst the guard members are in a building firing at rebels. The PKM machine gun chambered in 7.62x54mmR is also used by the Republican Guard.[53]
See also
References
  1. ^ "Syrian rebel leader to Haaretz: Assad's opposition will secure chemical weapons". Haaretz. 28 May 2012. Retrieved 2 August 2012.
  2. ^ a b "Сколько людей и оружия по обе линии сирийского противостояния". Газета.Ru. Archived from the original on 31 July 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
  3. ^ Holliday, Joseph (March 2013). "The Assad Regime, From Counterinsurgency to Civil War Middle East Security Report 8" (PDF). Institute for the Study of War.
  4. ^ ABC News. "Government Troops Advance in Syria's Largest City". ABC News. Retrieved 5 November 2014.
  5. ^ Leith Aboufadel (28 December 2018). "Syrian military names new commander of elite Republican Guard". al-Masdar News. Retrieved 28 December 2018.
  6. ^ a b Ensor, Josie (18 October 2017). "Top Syrian general killed by Isil landmine near Deir Ezzor" – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
  7. ^ "Internal Server Error". Janes.com.
  8. ^ MEIB (August 2000). "Syria's Praetorian Guards: A Primer". Middle East Intelligence Bulletin. 2 (7). Retrieved 20 July 2011.
  9. ^ Paul, James (1990). Human rights in Syria. Human Rights Watch. p. 50. republican guard.
  10. ^ Bar, Shmuel (2006). "Bashar's Syria: The Regime and its Strategic Worldview" (PDF): 379, 384. Retrieved 23 June 2011.
  11. ^ "Syrian Army Prepares For Post-Conflict Challenges" (PDF). Janes.com.
  12. ^ Ripley, Tim (2017). Syrian army prepares for post-conflict challenges. Janes´s. p. 4.
  13. ^ "Troublesome allies: How the Syrian regime is reintegrating loyalist militias". Middle East Eye.
  14. ^ a b c​https://www.mei.edu/sites/default/files/2018-12/RG%20Report%2012-12.pdf
  15. ^ a b http://www.timripley.co.uk/articles/Operation-Aleppo/2016-Battle-of-Aleppo-24-09_17-11-2016.pdf
  16. ^ Antonopoulos, Paul (22 January 2017). "New Syrian Arab Army Division established in preparation of new offensive".
  17. ^ "Republican Guard brigade to join Tiger Forces offensive on Sukhnah: reports". 7 July 2017.
  18. ^ Ripley, Tim. "Syrian army prepares for post-conflict challenges" (PDF). janes.com.
  19. ^ "Ivan Sidorenko on Twitter".
  20. ^ "Syria's Troublesome Militias". Carnegie Middle East Center.
  21. ^ Semenov, Kirill. "The Syrian Armed Forces Seven Years into the Conflict: From a Regular Army to Volunteer Corps". russiancouncil.ru.
  22. ^ "Quwat Dir' Al-Amn Al-Askari: A Latakia Military Intelligence Militia". 3 September 2016.
  23. ^ "Activists: Syrian rebels clash with elite troops". USA Today. Associated Press. 26 June 2012. Retrieved 6 May 2013.
  24. ^ "Appendix 1: Structure and Command of Armed Forces and Intelligence Agencies". Human Rights Watch.
  25. ^ [1]
  26. ^ Leith Fadel. "Republican Guard Arrives in Al-Hasakah City to Forestall ISIS Advance". Al-Masdar News. Retrieved 3 August 2015.
  27. ^ "Syrian Army's progress in Latakia since 2013". 26 October 2016.
  28. ^ https://hi-in.facebook.com/syrianmilitary/posts/711281015619950
  29. ^ "Distinguished Syrian Army brigade leads south Aleppo offensive against Islamist militias". AMN - Al-Masdar News | المصدر نيوز‎. 19 January 2018. Retrieved 19 January 2018.
  30. ^ EDT, Tom O'Connor On 10/18/17 at 2:00 PM (18 October 2017). "One of Assad's closest generals is killed outside the Syrian city he helped free from ISIS". Newsweek.
  31. ^ "Battlefront Syria: Deir ez-Zor". spioenkop.blogspot.hr.
  32. ^ "Two years of siege in Deir Ezzor - en.deirezzor24.net". en.deirezzor24.net.
  33. ^ Aboufadel, Leith (7 January 2018). "Breaking: Elite Syrian Army force leaves Deir Ezzor for east Damascus offensive".
  34. ^ "Complete battlefield update, map of Syrian War". 13 January 2017.
  35. ^ "Fortress T4: An Airbase at War - bellingcat". 29 June 2015.
  36. ^ Aboufadel, Leith (26 December 2014). "Rif Dimashq: The Republican Guard Destroys Another Tunnel in Jobar".
  37. ^ Aboufadel, Leith (16 November 2017). "Syrian command announces new leader of Republican Guard in east Damascus".
  38. ^ "VIDEO: Syrian Army smashes militant-held Damascus district with missiles". 2 April 2017.
  39. ^ "Complete Battle Map of Syria: October 2015 Update". 8 October 2015.
  40. ^ "Russian Experts: The Kremlin Must Tame Damascus And Tehran". MEMRI.
  41. ^ "November 2015 Briefs - Jamestown". jamestown.org.
  42. ^ News, Masdar (4 May 2016). "Russian ground troops destroyed rebels in Aleppo as Syrian Army retakes vital fortification / Video".
  43. ^ "Farsnews". en.farsnews.com.
  44. ^ "VIDEO: Islamist rebels foil Syrian Army assault on besieged suburb in east Damascus". 3 April 2017.
  45. ^ "Combat footage: Syrian Army reinstates siege of Al-Qaboun district in east Damascus". 20 March 2017.
  46. ^ a b "Military commander of Syria's Deir al-Zour operation killed in mine explosion - Xinhua | English.news.cn". www.xinhuanet.com.
  47. ^ http://www.jerusalemonline.com/news/middle-east/the-arab-world/senior-level-syrian-army-official-killed-in-battle-31809
  48. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 19 October 2017.
  49. ^ ALN54DZ [@Aln54Dz] (30 June 2018). "@IvanSidorenko1 The legacy of Issam Zahreddine. RIP t.co/GBTRkpeTDE" (Tweet). Retrieved 31 December 2020 – via Twitter.
  50. ^​https://www.bellingcat.com/news/mena/2015/02/19/from-russia-with-love-syrias-ak-74ms/
  51. ^ Serge [@Zinvor] (25 October 2014). "Col. Suheil Hassan "The Tiger" makes an appearance in Morek after its capture by SAA. He is leading Hama offensive. t.co/az8vV7GWFI" (Tweet). Retrieved 31 December 2020 – via Twitter.
  52. ^​https://syrianobserver.com/EN/news/51233/maher-al-assad-visits-frontlines-in-idleb.html
  53. ^ https://14milimetros.com/la-ultima-carta-de-issam-zahreddine/
Further reading
Last edited on 23 March 2021, at 23:15
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