The present state of Rhineland-Palatinate formed part of the French Zone of Occupation
(1945-1949) after the Second World War. It comprised the former Bavarian Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke
("government districts") of Koblenz and Trier (which formed the southern part of the Prussian Rhine Province
), the parts of the Province of Rhenish Hesse (Rheinhessen
) west of the River Rhine
and belonged to the People's State of Hesse
), parts of the Prussian province of Hesse-Nassau (Montabaur
), and the former Oldenburg region around Birkenfeld
(Principality of Birkenfeld
On 10 July 1945, the occupation authority
on the soil of the present-day Rhineland-Palatinate transferred from the Americans to the French. To begin with, the French divided the region provisionally into two "upper presidiums" (Oberpräsidien), Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau (for the hitherto Prussian government districts and regions of Koblenz
, and Montabaur
) and Hesse-Palatinate (for the hitherto Bavarian Palatinate
and old Hessian-Darmstadt province of Rhenish Hesse
). The formation of the state was ordained on 30 August 1946, the last state
in the Western Zone of Occupation to be established, by Regulation No. 57 of the French military government
under General Marie-Pierre Kœnig
It was initially called Rhenish-Palatinate (Rheinpfälzisches Land
or Land Rheinpfalz
); the name Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz
) was first confirmed in the constitution of 18 May 1947.
The provisional French government
at that time wanted originally to leave the option open of annexing further areas west of the Rhine
after the Saarland was turned into a protectorate
. When the Americans and British, however, had led the way with the establishment of German states, the French came under increasing pressure and eventually followed their example by setting up the states of Baden
, and Rhineland-Palatinate. However, the French military government forbade the Saarland
joining Rhineland-Palatinate. Mainz
was named as the state capital in the regulation; the "Mixed Commission" (Gemischte Kommission
), named as the highest organ of state charged with the administration of the new state and with the preparation of an advisory state assembly, started its work in Mainz. However, war damage and destruction meant that Mainz did not have enough administrative buildings, so the headquarters of the state government and parliament was provisionally established in Koblenz
. On 22 November 1946, the constituent meeting of the Advisory State Assembly (Beratende Landesversammlung
) took place there, and a draft constitution was drawn up. Previously, local elections had been held. Wilhelm Boden
was (after a short term of office as the Oberregierungspräsident of Rhineland-Hesse-Nassau) nominated on 2 December as the minister president
of the new state by the French military government.
Adolf Süsterhenn submitted to the Advisory State Assembly a draft constitution
, which was passed after several rounds of negotiation on 25 April 1947 in a final vote, with the absolute majority of the CDU
voting for and the SPD
voting against. A point of contention involved the draft constitution providing for separate schools based on Christian denomination. On 18 May 1947 53% of the electorate adopted the Constitution for Rhineland-Palatinate in a referendum
. While the Catholic north and west of the new state adopted the constitution by a majority, the majority in Rhenish Hesse and the Palatinate voted against. On the same date the first elections took place for the state parliament, the Landtag of Rhineland-Palatinate
. The inaugural assembly of parliament took place on 4 June 1947 in the large city hall at Koblenz
. Wilhelm Boden was elected the first minister-president of Rhineland-Palatinate. Just one month later, Peter Altmeier
The constitutional bodies -the Government (Landesregierung
), the Parliament (Landtag
) and the Constitutional Court (Verfassungsgerichtshof
) - established their provisional seat in Koblenz. In the following period, Koblenz and Mainz each emphasized their suitability as the state capital in a public debate. From the beginning, Minister-President Altmeier pressed for Mainz as the capital because he knew that the south of the country, especially the Palatinate, would not accept Koblenz, which was far to the north and formerly Prussian. On 16 May 1950, the Landtag
decided to relocate itself and the Landesregierung
from Koblenz to Mainz.[failed verification]
After the government and parliament moved to Mainz, many state authorities and courts remained in Koblenz, including the Constitutional Court and the State Archives. In addition, the German Federal Archives
and Federal Office of Hydrology were established in Koblenz in 1952.
A sense of community developed only very gradually in the "land of the retort", which had been established largely without regard to the historical affiliations of its inhabitants. It was given little chance of survival, especially as it had very few large industrial centres. However, the establishment of numerous military bases, both Allied and Bundeswehr
, helped to some extent to boost the economy. In 1956, under Article 29 of the Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany
, petitions were made in the regions of Koblenz, Trier, Montabaur, Rhenish Hesse, and Palatinate for their separation from the state and incorporation into the respective states of North Rhine-Westphalia, Hesse, Bavaria, and Baden-Württemberg. All petitions for a referendum
except those in the administrative district of Palatinate won the necessary majority; however, almost 20 years passed before the referenda finally took place. On 19 January 1975, none of the regions concerned returned a majority for being transferred to another state. This put an end to decades of discussion. Only the AKK conflict
, a dispute over the districts of Mainz-Amöneburg
, and Mainz-Kostheim
, has continued to exercise politicians up to the present day.
Rhineland-Palatinate shares international borders with France (Grand Est
), Luxembourg (Clervaux
, and Vianden
), and Belgium (Wallonia
). Within Germany, it neighbours are Baden-Württemberg
, and the Saarland
. It is the ninth-largest state by area. Rhineland-Palatinate is part of the SaarLorLux
Rhineland-Palatinate is divided into 24 districts (Landkreise
), 12 independent cities (Kreisfreie Städte
- Ahrweiler (AW)
- Altenkirchen (Westerwald) (AK)
- Alzey-Worms (AZ)
- Bad Dürkheim (DÜW)
- Bad Kreuznach (KH)
- Bernkastel-Wittlich (WIL, BKS)
- Birkenfeld (BIR)
- Cochem-Zell (COC, ZEL)
- Donnersbergkreis (KIB, ROK)
- Eifelkreis Bitburg-Prüm (BIT, PRÜ)
- Germersheim (GER)
- Kaiserslautern (KL)
- Kusel (KUS)
- Mainz-Bingen (MZ, BIN)
- Mayen-Koblenz (MYK, MY)
- Neuwied (NR)
- Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis (SIM, GOA)
- Rhein-Lahn-Kreis (EMS, DIZ, GOH)
- Rhein-Pfalz-Kreis (RP)
- Südliche Weinstraße (SÜW)
- Südwestpfalz (PS, ZW)
- Trier-Saarburg (TR, SAB)
- Vulkaneifel (DAU)
- Westerwaldkreis (WW)
- Frankenthal (Pfalz) (FT)
- Kaiserslautern (KL)
- Koblenz (KO)
- Landau in der Pfalz (LD)
- Ludwigshafen am Rhein (LU)
- Mainz (MZ)
- Neustadt an der Weinstraße (NW)
- Pirmasens (PS)
- Speyer (SP)
- Trier (TR)
- Worms (WO)
- Zweibrücken (ZW)
The following table shows the ten largest cities of Rhineland-Palatinate:
- Births from January–August 2016 = 24,871
- Births from January–August 2017 = 24,784
- Deaths from January–August 2016 = 30,572
- Deaths from January–August 2017 = 32,167
- Natural growth from January–August 2016 = -5,701
- Natural growth from January–August 2017 = -7,383
The league of ShUM-cities
in the later Rhineland-Palatinate comprised the Jewish communities of Mainz, Speyer
, and Worms
, which became the center of Jewish life
during medieval times.
The Takkanot Shum
: תקנות שו"ם
), or Enactments of ShU"M were a set of decrees formulated and agreed upon over a period of decades by their Jewish community leaders.
Today, there are approximately 20,000 Jews (0.5% of the population) living in the state.
- ^ "Europe" consists of EU states, Albania, Bosnia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Russia, Serbia, Turkey, Ukraine
- ^ Total Asia population minus Afghanistan, Syria, Thailand, Vietnam
The gross domestic product
(GDP) of the state was 147.0 billion euros in 2018, accounting for 4.4% of German economic output. GDP per capita adjusted for purchasing power was 33,100 euros or 110% of the EU27 average in the same year. The GDP per employee was 102% of the EU average.
Agriculture and viticulture
Rhineland-Palatinate is Germany's leading producer of wine in terms of grape cultivation and wine export. Its capital, Mainz, may be called the capital of the German wine industry, being the home of the German Wine Institute, the German Wine Fund in the Haus des Deutschen Weines
(House of German Wine), and the Verband Deutscher Prädikats- und Qualitätsweingüter
Wine Bourse, which brings together the top winemakers of Germany and the wine merchants of the world.
Of 13 wine regions producing quality wine in Germany, six (Rheinhessen, Pfalz, Mosel, Nahe, Mittelrhein
, and Ahr
) are located in Rhineland-Palatinate, with 65 to 70% of the production of wine grapes in Germany having their origin within the state.
About 13,000 wine producers generate 80 to 90% of the German wine export. The total estimated production from the six Rhineland-Palatinate regions was nearly 7 million hectoliters in 2018.
Traditional grape varieties and a wide range of varieties developed during the last 125 years are characteristic for the region.
Classical white varieties are cultivated at 63,683 hectares (157,360 acres). These comprise the famous Rieslings
14,446 hectares (35,700 acres), Müller-Thurgau
(8,663 hectares (21,410 acres)), Silvaner
(3,701 hectares (9,150 acres)), and Kerner
(3,399 hectares (8,400 acres)).
The share of red varieties grew constantly during the last decades and amounts to 20,000 hectares (49,000 acres). Dornfelder
, a recent cultivar
, is the leading red grape cultivated on 7,626 hectares (18,840 acres), which is more than a third. Blauer Portugieser
(4,446 hectares (10,990 acres)) and Spätburgunder
(3,867 hectares (9,560 acres)) show also appreciable cultivated shares.
The worldwide leader in sparkling wine
production, producing 224,4 million bottles in 2017/18, is the renowned Schloss Wachenheim
Group. This company is headquartered in Trier, with operations in several locations in Rhineland-Palatinate and 3 sites in France (Compagnie Française des Grands Vins (CFGV)).
Other renowned sparkling wine producers such as Kupferberg, Deinhard, and Henkell also had their roots in the region, but now belong to companies outside the state as a result of business consolidation.
The unemployment rate stood at 4.1% in October 2018 and was lower than the German average.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 25 June 2020. Retrieved 23 June 2020.
- ^ "Sub-national HDI - Area Database - Global Data Lab". hdi.globaldatalab.org. Retrieved 13 September 2018.
- ^ a b c d e f "State Facts of Rhineland-Palatinate". State of Rhineland-Palatinate. Retrieved 26 September 2011.
- ^ Rheinland-Pfalz, Staatskanzlei. "english". rlp.de. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ Newssheet of the French Higher Command in Germany, No. 35 (1946), p. 292
- ^ Full text
- ^ 16 May 1950. Mainz wird Regierungssitz von Rheinland-Pfalz. Archived 24 May 2011 at the Wayback Machine in: Landeshauptarchiv Koblenz
- ^ "Mainz statt Koblenz: 60 Jahre Hauptstadt". Fr-online.de (in German). 17 May 2010. Retrieved 14 December 2014.
- ^ "Forest facts - German forestry - 300 yrs of sustainability campaign". www.forstwirtschaft-in-deutschland.de. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ "Holiday regions in Romantic Germany". Gastlandschaften Rheinland-Pfalz. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- ^ Tabellen Bevölkerung
- ^ "Statistisches Jahrbuch 2018" (PDF). Statistisches Jahrbuch Rheinland-Pfalz. Statistisches Landesamt Rheinland-Pfalz: 61. 2018. ISSN 1863-9100.
- ^ "Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany): Counties, Cities and Communes - Population Statistics, Charts and Map". www.citypopulation.de. Retrieved 21 December 2018.
- ^ "Bevölkerung". Statistische Ämter des Bundes und der Länder. Retrieved 16 June 2018.
- ^ Evangelische Kirche in Deutschland – Kirchemitgliederzahlen Stand 31. Dezember 2018 EKD, January 2020
- ^ "Rheinland-Pfalz: Gespräche mit Islamverbänden". Süddeutsche Zeitung. 4 April 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- ^ ShUM-Cities on the Rhine – Jewish heritage for the world
- ^ "Application for UNESCO World Heritage "ShUM Cities" > Stadt Worms". www.worms.de.
- ^ Charles Hawley: Germany Considers Jewish History for UNESCO Heritage Spiegel-online, 2 August 2012
- ^ "Jüdisches Leben blüht auf". Landesregierung Rheinland-Pfalz. 15 April 2014. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- ^ "Antisemitismusbeauftragter: Juden sind verunsichert". Die Welt. 22 May 2019. Retrieved 27 August 2020.
- ^ "Regional GDP per capita ranged from 30% to 263% of the EU average in 2018". Eurostat.
- ^ Viniculture and industry at:Rhineland-Palatinate - in the middle of Europe, retrieved 1 November 2017
- ^ Mainz|Rheinhesse description on the pages of great wine capitals, retrieved 1 November 2017
- ^ "Summary of German Wine Institute (DWI) 2018 report". Archived from the original on 12 February 2020. Retrieved 12 February 2020.
- ^ "Weinbauland Rheinland-Pfalz auch beim Ökowein spitze – Griese fordert: Kaliumphosphonat wieder für Ökoweinbau zulassen". mueef.rlp.de.
- ^ Cultivated grape varieties in Rhineland-Palatinate 2005 Archived 6 February 2008 at the Wayback Machine publisher: Statistical Office of Rhineland-Palatinate
- ^ Financial Report Geschäftsbericht 2017/2018
- ^ "Arbeitslosenquote nach Bundesländern in Deutschland 2018 | Statista". Statista (in German). Retrieved 13 November 2018.
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Kreuz – Rad – Löwe, Rheinland-Pfalz und seine Geschichte, Verlag Philipp von Zabern, Mainz 2012
- Band 1 (Von den Anfängen der Erdgeschichte bis zum Ende des Alten Reiches): ISBN 9783805345101
- Bände 2 (Vom ausgehenden 18. Jahrhundert bis ins 21. Jahrhundert) und 3 (Historische Statistik): ISBN 9783805342919
Last edited on 1 August 2021, at 19:16
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