In a right-to-left, top-to-bottom script
(commonly shortened to right to left
or abbreviated RTL
), writing starts from the right of the page and continues to the left, proceeding from top to bottom for new lines. This can be contrasted against left-to-right writing systems
, where writing starts from the left of the page and continues to the right.
can also refer to top-to-bottom, right-to-left
(TB-RL or TBRL) scripts such as Chinese
, and Korean
, though in modern times they are also commonly written
left to right. Books designed for predominately TBRL vertical text open in the same direction as those for RTL horizontal text: the spine is on the right and pages are numbered from right-to-left.
and Mandaean (Mandaic) scripts are derived from Aramaic
and are written RTL. Samaritan
is similar, but developed from Proto-Hebrew
rather than Aramaic. Many other ancient and historic scripts derived from Aramaic inherited its right-to-left direction.
Several languages have both Arabic RTL and non-Arabic LTR writing systems. For example, Sindhi
is commonly written in Arabic and Devanagari
scripts, and a number of others have been used. Kurdish
may be written in Arabic, Latin, Cyrillic
or Armenian script.
Ancient examples of text using alphabets such as Phoenician, Greek, or Old Italic may exist variously in left-to-right, right-to-left, or boustrophedon
order; therefore, it is not always possible to classify some ancient writing systems as purely RTL or LTR.
Right-to-left, top-to-bottom text is supported in common computer software.
Often, this support must be explicitly enabled. Right-to-left text can be mixed with left-to-right text in bi-directional text
List of RTL scripts
Examples of right-to-left scripts (with ISO 15924
codes in brackets) are:
- Indus script
- Cypriot syllabary (Cprt 403) – predates Phoenician influence.
- Phoenician alphabet (Phnx 115) – ancient, precursor to Hebrew, Imperial Aramaic, and Greek.
- Imperial Aramaic alphabet (Armi 124) – ancient, closely related to Hebrew and Phoenician. Spread widely by the Neo-Assyrian and Achaemenid empires. The later Palmyrene form (Palm 126) was also used to write Aramaic.
- Old South Arabian (Sarb)
- Old North Arabian (Narb)
- Pahlavi scripts (130–133: Prti, Phli, Phlp, Phlv) – derived from Aramaic.
- Avestan alphabet (Avst 134) – from Pahlavi, with added letters. Used for recording the Zoroastrian sacred texts during the Sassanid era.
- Hatran alphabet (Hatr 127), used to write the Aramaic of Hatra
- Sogdian (no code), and Manichaean (Mani 139, associated with the Manichaean religion) – derived from Syriac. Sogdian eventually rotated from RTL to top-to-bottom, giving rise to the Old Uyghur, Mongolian, and Manchu vertical scripts.
- Nabatean alphabet (Nbat) – intermediate between Syriac and Arabic.
- Old Ge'ez alphabet (Ethi 495)
- Kharosthi (Khar 305) – an ancient script of India, derived from Aramaic.
- Old Turkic runes (also called Orkhon runes Orkh 175)
- Old Hungarian runes (Hung 176).
- Old Italic alphabets (Ital 210) – Early Etruscan was RTL but LTR examples later became more common. Umbrian, Oscan, and Faliscan were written right-to-left. Unicode treats Old Italic as left-to-right, to match modern usage. Some texts are boustrophedon 
- Lydian alphabet (Lydi 116) – ancient; some texts are left-to-right or boustrophedon.
- ^ "Introduction to typing and using RTL (Right to Left) text, and configuring software applications to support RTL".
- ^ "Ethiopic". Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved 10 April 2021. Since the 4th cent. AD, when Ethiopia was Christianized, the Ethiopic script has been written from left to right, though previously the direction of writing was from right to left.
- ^ Davis, Mark; Everson, Michael; Freytag, Asmus; Jenkins, John H. (2001-05-16). "Unicode Standard Annex #27: Unicode 3.1". Most early Etruscan texts have right-to-left directionality. From the third century BCE, left-to-right texts appear, showing the influence of Latin. Oscan, Umbrian, and Faliscan also generally have right-to-left directionality. Boustrophedon appears rarely, and not especially early .... Despite this, for reasons of implementation simplicity, many scholars prefer left-to-right presentation of texts, as this is also their practice when transcribing the texts into Latin script. Accordingly, the Old Italic script has a default directionality of strong left-to-right in this standard. When directional overrides are used to produce right-to-left presentation, the glyphs in fonts must be mirrored ...
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 20:02
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