The son of a wealthy textile-manufacturer and politician, Peel was the first prime minister from an industrial business background. He earned a double first
in classics and mathematics from Christ Church, Oxford
. He entered the House of Commons
in 1809, and became a rising star in the Tory Party. Peel entered the Cabinet
as Home Secretary (1822–1827), where he reformed and liberalised the criminal law and created the modern police force, leading to a new type of officer known in tribute to him as "bobbies" and "peelers". After a brief period out of office he returned as Home Secretary under his political mentor the Duke of Wellington (1828–1830), also serving as Leader of the House of Commons
. Initially a supporter of continued legal discrimination against Catholics
, Peel reversed himself and supported the repeal of the Test Act
(1828) and the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829
, claiming that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".
Peel often started from a traditional Tory position in opposition to a measure, then reversed his stance and became the leader in supporting liberal legislation. This happened with the Test Act, Catholic Emancipation, the Reform Act, income tax and, most notably, the repeal of the Corn Laws. Historian A. J. P. Taylor
wrote: "Peel was in the first rank of 19th century statesmen. He carried Catholic Emancipation; he repealed the Corn Laws; he created the modern Conservative Party on the ruins of the old Toryism
Peel received his early education from a clergyman tutor in Bury and at a clergyman's local school in Tamworth.
He may also have attended Bury Grammar School
or Hipperholme Grammar School
, though evidence for either is anecdotal rather than textual.
He started at Harrow School
in February 1800.
At Harrow he was a contemporary of Lord Byron
, who recalled of Peel that "we were on good terms" and that "I was always in scrapes, and he never".
On Harrow's Speech Day in 1804, Peel and Byron acted part of Virgil
, Peel playing Turnus
and Byron playing Latinus
Christ Church, Oxford
, which Peel attended 1805–1808, graduating with a double first. He was later MP for the university, 1817–1829.
Early political career
Peel entered politics in 1809 at the age of 21, as MP for the Irish rotten borough
With a scant 24 electors on the rolls, he was elected unopposed. His sponsor for the election (besides his father) was the Chief Secretary for Ireland
, Sir Arthur Wellesley
, the future Duke of Wellington, with whom Peel's political career would be entwined for the next 25 years. Peel made his maiden speech
at the start of the 1810 session, when he was chosen by Prime Minister Spencer Perceval
to second the reply to the king's speech
His speech was a sensation, famously described by the Speaker
, Charles Abbot
, as "the best first speech since that of William Pitt
Peel was firmly opposed to Catholic emancipation
, believing that Catholics could not be admitted to Parliament as they refused to swear the Oath of Allegiance
to the Crown.
In May 1817, Peel delivered the closing speech in opposition to Henry Grattan
's Catholic emancipation bill; the bill was defeated by 245 votes to 221.
Peel resigned as Chief Secretary and left Ireland in August 1818.
The Duke of Wellington, Prime Minister 1828–1830, with Peel
Peel was considered one of the rising stars of the Tory party, first entering the cabinet in 1822 as Home Secretary
As Home Secretary, he introduced a number of important reforms of British criminal law.
He reduced the number of crimes punishable by death, and simplified the law by repealing a large number of criminal statutes and consolidating their provisions into what are known as Peel's Acts
. He reformed the gaol system, introducing payment for gaolers and education for the inmates in the Gaols Act 1823
In 1827 the Prime Minister Lord Liverpool
became incapacitated and was replaced by George Canning
. Peel resigned as home secretary.
Canning favoured Catholic emancipation
, while Peel had been one of its most outspoken opponents (earning the nickname "Orange Peel", with Orange the colour of the anti-Catholic Orange Order
George Canning himself died less than four months later and, after the brief premiership of Lord Goderich
, Peel returned to the post of Home Secretary under the premiership of his long-time ally the Duke of Wellington
During this time he was widely perceived as the number-two in the Tory Party, after Wellington himself.
The Test and Corporation Acts
required many officials to be communicants in the Anglican Church and penalised both nonconformists and Catholics. They were no longer enforced but were a matter of humiliation. Peel at first opposed the repeal, but reversed himself and led the repeal on behalf of the government, after consultation with Anglican Church leaders.
The Sacramental Test Act 1828
passed into law in May 1828. In future religious issues he made it a point to consult with church leaders from the major denominations.
The 1828 Clare by-election
returned the Catholic Irish nationalist leader Daniel O'Connell
. By autumn 1828, the Chief Secretary for Ireland was alarmed by the extent of civil disorder and the prospect of a rebellion
if O'Connell were barred from Parliament. Wellington and Peel now conceded the necessity of Catholic emancipation, Peel writing to Wellington that "though emancipation was a great danger, civil strife was a greater danger".
Peel drew up the Catholic Relief bill.
Peel felt compelled to stand for re-election to his seat in Oxford, as he was representing the graduates of Oxford University (many of whom were Anglican clergymen), and had previously stood on a platform of opposition to Catholic Emancipation.
Peel lost his seat in a by-election in February 1829, but soon found another, moving to a rotten borough
, retaining his Cabinet position.
He stood for Tamworth
in the general election of 1830
, representing Tamworth until his death.
Peel guided the Catholic relief bill through the House of Commons, Wellington through the House of Lords. With many Ultra-Tories
vehemently opposed to emancipation, the bill could pass only with Whig support.
Wellington threatened to resign if King George IV
did not give Royal assent;
the King finally relented, the Roman Catholic Relief Act 1829
passing into law in April 1829. Peel's U-turn cost him the trust of many Tories:
according to Norman Gash
, Peel had been "the idolized champion of the Protestant party; that party now regarded him as an outcast".
It was in 1829 that Peel established the Metropolitan Police Force
for London based at Scotland Yard
The 1,000 constables employed were affectionately nicknamed 'bobbies' or, somewhat less affectionately, 'peelers'. Although unpopular at first, they proved very successful in cutting crime in London,
and by 1857 all cities in Britain were obliged to form their own police forces.
Known as the father of modern policing, Peel is thought to have contributed to the Metropolitan Police's first set of "Instructions to Police Officers", emphasising the importance of its civilian nature and policing by consent. However, what are now commonly known as the Peelian Principles
were not written by him but were instead produced by Charles Reith
in his 1948 book A Short History of the British Police
as a nine-point summary of the 1829 "Instructions".
Whigs in power (1830–1834) The middle and working classes in England at that time, however, were clamouring for reform, and Catholic Emancipation was only one of the ideas in the air.
The Tory ministry refused to bend on other issues and were swept out of office in 1830 in favour of the Whigs
The following few years were extremely turbulent, but eventually enough reforms
were passed that King William IV
felt confident enough to invite the Tories to form a ministry again in succession to those of Lord Grey
and Lord Melbourne
Peel was selected as prime minister but was in Italy at the time, so Wellington acted as a caretaker for three weeks until Peel's return.
First term as prime minister (1834–1835)
The Tory Ministry was a minority government and depended on Whig goodwill for its continued existence. Parliament was dissolved in December 1834 and a general election called. Voting took place in January and February 1835, and Peel's supporters gained around 100 seats, but this was not enough to give them a majority.
As his statement of policy at the general election of January 1835, Peel issued the Tamworth Manifesto
This document was the basis on which the modern Conservative Party
was founded. In it Peel pledged that the Conservatives would endorse modest
The Whigs formed a compact with Daniel O'Connell
's Irish Radical members to repeatedly defeat the government on various bills.
Eventually, after only about 100 days in government, Peel's ministry resigned out of frustration and the Whigs under Lord Melbourne returned to power.
The only real achievement of Peel's first administration was a commission to review the governance of the Church of England
. This ecclesiastical commission was the forerunner of the Church Commissioners
Leader of the Opposition (1835–1841) In May 1839 he was offered another chance to form a government, this time by the new monarch, Queen Victoria
However, this too would have been a minority government, and Peel felt he needed a further sign of confidence from his Queen. Lord Melbourne had been Victoria's confidant since her accession in 1837, and many of the higher posts in Victoria's household were held by the wives and female relatives of Whigs;
there was some feeling that Victoria had allowed herself to be too closely associated with the Whig party. Peel therefore asked that some of this entourage be dismissed and replaced with their Conservative counterparts, provoking the so-called Bedchamber Crisis
Victoria refused to change her household, and despite pleadings from the Duke of Wellington, relied on assurances of support from Whig leaders. Peel refused to form a government, and the Whigs returned to power.
Second term as prime minister (1841–1846)
Engraving showing the members of Sir Robert Peel's government in 1844
Economic and financial reforms
Peel finally had a chance to head a majority government following the election of July 1841.
Peel came to office during an economic recession which had seen a slump in world trade and a budget deficit of £7.5 million run up by the Whigs
. Confidence in banks and businesses was low, and a trade deficit existed.
To raise revenue Peel's 1842 budget saw the re-introduction of the income tax
removed previously at the end of the Napoleonic War
. The rate was 7d in the pound, or just under 3 per cent. The money raised was more than expected and allowed for the removal and reduction of over 1,200 tariffs on imports including the controversial sugar duties
It was also in the 1842 budget that the repeal of the corn laws
was first proposed.
It was defeated in a Commons vote by a margin of 4:1.
Peel's promise of modest reform was held to, and the second most famous bill of this ministry, while "reforming" in 21st-century eyes, was in fact aimed at the reformers themselves, with their constituency among the new industrial rich. The Factory Act 1844
acted more against these industrialists than it did against the traditional stronghold of the Conservatives, the landed gentry
, by restricting the number of hours that children and women could work in a factory and setting rudimentary safety standards for machinery.
This was a continuation of his own father's work as an MP, as the elder Robert Peel was most noted for reform of working conditions during the first part of the 19th century. Helping him was Lord Shaftesbury
, a British MP who also established the coal mines act
In 1843 Peel was the target of a failed assassination attempt; a criminally insane Scottish wood turner named Daniel M'Naghten
stalked him for several days before, on 20 January, killing Peel's personal secretary Edward Drummond
thinking he was Peel,
which led to the formation of the controversial criminal defense of insanity
Corn Laws and after
The most notable act of Peel's second ministry, however, was the one that would bring it down.
Peel moved against the landholders by repealing the Corn Laws
, which supported agricultural revenues by restricting grain imports.
This radical break with Conservative protectionism was triggered by the Great Irish Famine (1845–1849)
Tory agriculturalists were sceptical of the extent of the problem,
and Peel reacted slowly to the famine, famously stating in October 1846 (already in opposition): "There is such a tendency to exaggeration and inaccuracy in Irish reports that delay in acting on them is always desirable".
His own party failed to support the bill, but it passed with Whig and Radical support. On the third reading
of Peel's Bill of Repeal (Importation Act 1846) on 15 May, MPs
voted 327 votes to 229 (a majority of 98) to repeal the Corn Laws. On 25 June the Duke of Wellington persuaded the House of Lords
to pass it. On that same night Peel's Irish Coercion Bill
was defeated in the Commons by 292 to 219 by "a combination of Whigs, Radicals
, and Tory protectionists".
Following this, on 29 June 1846, Peel resigned as prime minister.
Though he knew repealing the laws would mean the end of his ministry, Peel decided to do so.
It is possible that Peel merely used the Irish Famine as an excuse to repeal the Corn Laws as he had been an intellectual convert to free trade since the 1820s. Blake points out that if Peel had been convinced that total repeal was necessary to stave off the famine, he would have enacted a bill that brought about immediate temporary repeal, not permanent repeal over a three-year period of gradual tapering-off of duties.
The historian Boyd Hilton
argued that Peel knew from 1844 he was going to be deposed as the Conservative leader. Many of his MPs had taken to voting against him, and the rupture within the party between liberals and paternalists, which had been so damaging in the 1820s but masked by the issue of parliamentary reform in the 1830s, was brought to the surface over the Corn Laws. Hilton's hypothesis is that Peel wished to be deposed on a liberal issue so that he might later lead a Peelite/Whig/Liberal alliance.
As an aside in reference to the repeal of the Corn Laws, Peel did make some moves to subsidise the purchase of food for the Irish, but this attempt was small and had little tangible effect. In the age of laissez-faire
government taxes were small, and subsidies or direct economic interference was almost nonexistent. That subsidies were actually given was very much out of character for the political times; Peel's successor, Lord John Russell
, received more criticism than Peel on Irish policy. The repeal of the Corn Laws was more political than humanitarian.
Peel's support for free trade could already be seen in his 1842 and 1845 budgets;
in late 1842 Graham
wrote to Peel that "the next change in the Corn Laws must be to an open trade" while arguing that the government should not tackle the issue.
Speaking to the cabinet in 1844, Peel argued that the choice was maintenance of the 1842 Corn Law or total repeal.
Despite all of Peel's efforts, his reform programs had little effect on the situation in Ireland.
Settlement of International Land Disputes/Policies
Peel was magnanimous towards Irish famine and permitted quick settlements of disputes at frontiers in India and America and amended laws in 1846:-
These three steps paved the way for disaster management of Irish Famine
and his supporters raised contempt and wary against Peel and voted him out for Lord John Russell
while Peel was bringing another law for Ireland Security. Russell couldn't handle the Irish Famine as Peel had managed to keep minimum casualties in its first year, worst being 1847. Efforts of Peel got wasted as Russell didn't arrange public distribution properly.
Later career and death
Peel did retain a hard core of supporters however, known as Peelites
and at one point in 1849 was actively courted by the Whig/Radical coalition. He continued to stand on his conservative principles, however, and refused. Nevertheless, he was influential on several important issues, including the furtherance of British free trade with the repeal of the Navigation Acts
Peel was a member of the committee which controlled the House of Commons Library
, and on 16 April 1850 was responsible for passing the motion that controlled its scope and collection policy for the rest of the century.
Peel was thrown from his horse while riding on Constitution Hill
in London on 29 June 1850. The horse stumbled on top of him, and he died three days later on 2 July at the age of 62 due to a broken collarbone
rupturing his subclavian vessels.
Peel became engaged to Julia Floyd (1795–1859) (daughter of General Sir John Floyd, 1st Baronet
, and his first wife Rebecca Darke) in March 1820 and was married on the 8 June 1820.
They had seven children:
- Julia Peel (30 April 1821 – 14 August 1893). She married George Child Villiers, 6th Earl of Jersey, on 12 July 1841. They had five children. She married her second husband, Charles Brandling, on 12 September 1865.
- Sir Robert Peel, 3rd Baronet (4 May 1822 – 9 May 1895). He married Lady Emily Hay on 17 June 1856. They had five children.
- Sir Frederick Peel (26 October 1823 – 6 June 1906). He married Elizabeth Shelley (niece of the poet Percy Shelley through his brother John: died 30 July 1865) on 12 August 1857. He was remarried to Janet Pleydell-Bouverie on 3 September 1879.
- Sir William Peel (2 November 1824 – 27 April 1858).
- John Floyd Peel (24 May 1827 – 21 April 1910). He married Annie Jenny in 1851.
- Arthur Wellesley Peel (3 August 1829 – 24 October 1912). He married Adelaide Dugdale, daughter of William Stratford Dugdale and Harriet Ella Portman, on 14 August 1862. They had seven children.
- Eliza Peel (c. 1832 – April 1883). She married Hon. Francis Stonor (son of Thomas Stonor, 3rd Baron Camoys) on 25 September 1855. They had four children.
Memory and legacy
In his lifetime many critics called him a traitor to the Tory cause, or as "a Liberal wolf in sheep's clothing", because his final position reflected liberal ideas.
The consensus view of scholars for much of the 20th century idealised Peel in heroic terms. Historian Boyd Hilton
wrote that he was portrayed as:
The great Conservative patriot: a pragmatic gradualist, as superb in his grasp of fundamental issues as he was adroit in handling administrative detail, intelligent enough to see through abstract theories, a conciliator who put nation before party and established consensus politics.
Biographer Norman Gash
wrote that Peel "looked first, not to party, but to the state; not to programmes, but to national expediency".
Gash added that among his personal qualities were, "administrative skill, capacity for work, personal integrity, high standards, a sense of duty [and] an outstanding intellect".
Gash emphasised the role of personality on Peel's political career:
Peel was endowed with great intelligence and integrity, and an immense capacity for hard work. A proud, stubborn, and quick-tempered man he had a passion for creative achievement; and the latter part of his life was dominated by his deep concern for the social condition of the country. Though his great debating and administrative talents secured him an outstanding position in Parliament, his abnormal sensitivity and coldness of manner debarred him from popularity among his political followers, except for the small circle of his intimate friends. As an administrator he was one of the greatest public servants in British history; in politics he was a principal architect of the modern conservative tradition. By insisting on changes unpalatable to many of his party, he helped to preserve the flexibility of the parliamentary system and the survival of aristocratic influence. The repeal of the Corn Laws in 1846 won him immense prestige in the country, and his death in 1850 caused a national demonstration of sorrow unprecedented since the death of William Pitt in 1806.
A 2021 study in the Economic Journal
found that that the repeal of the corn laws adversely affected the welfare of the top 10% of income earners in Britain, whereas the bottom 90% of income earners gained.
Statues of Sir Robert Peel are found in the following British and Australian locations:
- Memorial outside the Robert Peel public house in Bury town centre, his birthplace.
- Parliament Square, London.
- Peel Park in Accrington.
- Winckley Square in Preston city centre.
- West Midlands Police Training Centre, Edgbaston, Birmingham.
- Piccadilly Gardens in Manchester.
- Montrose town centre.
- Woodhouse Moor, Leeds.
- Tamworth town centre.
- George Square, Glasgow.
- Peel Park, Bradford.
- Wool Exchange, Bradford.
- Peel Centre, Hendon Police College, Hendon.
- Gawsworth Old Hall, Cheshire.
- High Street, Dronfield
- Sandy Bay, Tasmania, Australia.
Public houses and hotels
- Robert Peel public house in Bury town centre, his birthplace.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Tamworth.
- Peel Hotel, Tamworth.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Edgeley, Stockport, Cheshire.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Heckmondwike, West Yorkshire.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Leicester.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Malden Road, London NW5.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Peel Precinct, Kilburn, London NW6.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, London SE17.
- Sir Robert Peel Hotel, Preston.
- Peel Park Hotel, Accrington, Lancashire.
- Sir Robert Peel public house Rowley Regis.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Southsea.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Stoke-on-Trent.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey.
- Sir Robert Peel public house, Bloxwich, Walsall.
- The Sir Robert Peel Hotel (colloquially known as "The Peel"), a gay bar and nightclub located at the corner of Peel and Wellington Streets in the Melbourne suburb of Collingwood, in Australia.
- The Sir Robert Peel Hotel on the corner of Queensberry Street and Peel Street in the Melbourne suburb of North Melbourne, Victoria, in Australia.
- The Sir Robert Peel Motor Lodge Hotel, Alexandria Bay, New York.
- Peel Park, Bradford is named after Sir Robert Peel. It is one of the largest parks in the city, and indeed Yorkshire.
- Peel Tower Monument, built on top of Holcombe Hill in Ramsbottom, Bury.
- The Sir Robert Peel Hospital in Tamworth.
- A small monument in the centre of the town of Dronfield in Derbyshire. Nearby is the Peel Centre, a community centre in a former Methodist church.
- Peel Streets in the CBD, Melbourne and in Collingwood, Victoria Melbourne Australia.
- Peel Street in the CBD, Adelaide, South Australia.
- Peel Street, Montreal and its Peel Metro station. The street also features a high-rise residential building called Sir-Robert-Peel.
- The Peel River in Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia.
- Peel High School in Tamworth, New South Wales, Australia.
- Robert Peel Primary School in Sandy, Bedfordshire.
- A British steamer named SS Sir Robert Peel, based in Canada, was burned by American forces on 29 May 1838, at the height of American-Canadian tensions over the Caroline Affair.
- Tamworth-raised musician Julian Cope sings "the king and queen have offered me the estate of Robert Peel" on the song 'Laughing Boy', from his 1984 LP Fried.
- The right wing of the Trafford Centre is called Peel Avenue, named after Robert Peel.
- The official mascot of Bury Football Club is Robbie the Bobby, in honour of Sir Robert Peel.
- One of the buildings which make up the Home Office headquarters, 2 Marsham St, is named Peel.
- The Peel building, situated on Peel Campus of the University of Salford.
- The Sir Robert Peel monument, Cnr George & High Streets, Montrose, Scotland
- Peel Crescent in Mansfield, Nottinghamshire, UK.
- Peel St and Peel Metro Station in Montreal. The street is the main north–south axis, downtown.
- Peel Street, Hong Kong a small street in Hong Kong.
- Peel Street in Simcoe, Ontario, Canada is named in his honour.
- The Regional Municipality of Peel (originally Peel County) in Ontario, Canada.
- New Zealand pioneer Francis Jollie settled in Canterbury in 1853 and named Peel Forest after the former prime minister, as he had died in the year that Canterbury was founded. The adjacent mountain and the settlement that formed also took Peel's name.
- The names "bobbies" and "peelers" for British police officers.
Letitia Elizabeth Landon
gave her tribute to Sir Robert in her poem Sir Robert Peel
, published in Fisher's Drawing Room Scrap Book, 1837.
has original text related to this article:
Robert Peel is a secondary character in the novel "Dodger" by Terry Pratchett.
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- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 40–42; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 302–05; Read, Peel and the Victorians, 125; 129.
- ^ Read, Peel and the Victorians, 121–22.
- ^ "Old Bailey Online – The Proceedings of the Old Bailey, 1674–1913 – Central Criminal Court". www.oldbaileyonline.org. Retrieved 16 February 2018.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 113–15.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, vi.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 66; Ramsay; Sir Robert Peel, 332–33.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 72.
- ^ Schonhardt-Bailey, p. 239.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 68–69, 70, 72; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 347; Read, Peel and the Victorians, 230–31.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 67–69.
- ^ Blake, Disraeli, 221-222.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 70.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 69–71.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, pp. 35–37, 59.
- ^ Quoted in Gash, Sir Robert Peel, 362.
- ^ Gash, Sir Robert Peel, 429.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, pp. 48–49.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 78–80; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 353–55.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 78; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 377; Read, Peel and the Victorians, 257.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 80; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 361–63; Read, Peel and the Victorians, 1; 266–70.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 86–87; Ramsay, Sir Robert Peel, 364.
- ^ "Thomas Sir Lawrence – Julia, Lady Peel : The Frick Collection". Collections.frick.org. Retrieved 28 February 2016.
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- ^ Mosley, Charles, ed. (2003). Burke's Peerage, Baronetage & Knightage. 1 (107th ed.). Wilmington, Delaware, U.S.: Burke's Peerage (Genealogical Books) Ltd. p. 659.
- ^ Richard A. Gaunt (2010). Sir Robert Peel: The Life and Legacy. I.B.Tauris. p. 3. ISBN 9780857716842.
- ^ Boyd Hilton, "Peel: A Reappraisal," Historical Journal 22#3 (1979) pp. 585–614 quote p 587
- ^ Gash, vol 1, pp 13–14.
- ^ Gash, vol 2, pg 712.
- ^ Norman Gash, "Peel, Sir Robert" Collier Encyclopedia (1996) v 15 p 528.
- ^ Adelman, Peel and the Conservative Party: 1830–1850, 86–87; Ramsay, 365.
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- ^ "Sir Robert Peel Statue Bury". Panoramio.com. Retrieved 26 August 2010.
- ^ The UK-based Peel Hotels group are named after their founders Robert and Charles Peel, not Sir Robert Peel
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