Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
The Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
), also known as Rojava
is a de facto autonomous region
in northeastern Syria
It consists of self-governing sub-regions
in the areas of Afrin
and Deir Ez-Zor
The region gained its de facto autonomy in 2012 in the context of the ongoing Rojava conflict
and the wider Syrian Civil War
, in which its official military force, the Syrian Democratic Forces
(SDF), has taken part.
The supporters of the region's administration state that it is an officially secular polity
with direct democratic
ambitions based on an anarchistic
, and libertarian socialist ideology
, gender equality
, social ecology
and pluralistic tolerance for religious
, cultural and political diversity
, and that these values are mirrored in its constitution
, society, and politics, stating it to be a model for a federalized Syria
as a whole, rather than outright independence.
The region's administration has also been criticized by various partisan
and non-partisan sources over supposed authoritarianism
, support of the Syrian government, Kurdification
, and has faced some accusations of displacement.
However, despite this the AANES has been the most democratic
system in Syria, with direct open elections, universal equality
, respecting human rights
within the region, as well as defense of minority
and religious rights
Since 2016, Turkish and Turkish-backed Syrian rebel forces have forcefully occupied parts
of Rojava through a series of military operations against the SDF. The AANES and SDF has stated it will defend all regions of autonomous administration from any aggressiveness.
Polity names and translations
flag of TEV-DEM
, adopted circa 2012, commonly used by Kurds in Syria.
Parts of northern Syria are known as Western Kurdistan
: Rojavayê Kurdistanê) or simply Rojava
; Kurdish: [roʒɑˈvɑ]
"the West") among Kurds,
one of the four parts of Greater Kurdistan
The name "Rojava" was thus associated with a Kurdish identity of the administration. As the region expanded and increasingly included areas dominated by non-Kurdish groups, most importantly Arabs, "Rojava" was used less and less by the administration in hopes of deethnicising its appearance and making it more acceptable to other ethnicities.
Regardless, the polity continued to be called "Rojava" by locals and international observers,
with journalist Metin Gurcan noting that "the concept of Rojava [had become] a brand gaining global recognition" by 2019.
The territory around Jazira province of northeastern Syria is called by Syriac-Assyrians as Gozarto
, romanized: Gozarto
), part of the historical Assyrian homeland
The area has also been nicknamed Federal Northern Syria
, and the democratic confederalist autonomous areas of northern Syria
The first name of the local government for the Kurdish-dominated areas in Afrin District
, Ayn al-Arab District
(Kobanî), and northern al-Hasakah Governorate
was Interim Transitional Administration
, adopted in 2013.
After the three autonomus cantons were proclaimed in 2014,
PYD-governed territories were also nicknamed the Autonomous Regions
or Democratic Autonomous Administration
On 17 March 2016, northern Syria's administration self-declared the establishment of a federal system
of government as the Democratic Federation of Rojava – Northern Syria
: Federaliya Demokratîk a Rojava – Bakurê Sûriyê; Arabic
: الفدرالية الديمقراطية لروج آفا – شمال سوريا
: al-Fidirāliyya al-Dīmuqrāṭiyya li-Rūj ʾĀvā – Šamāl Suriyā
; Classical Syriac
: ܦܕܪܐܠܝܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܬܐ ܠܓܙܪܬܐ ܒܓܪܒܝܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܐ
, romanized: Federaloyotho Demoqraṭoyto l'Gozarto b'Garbyo d'Suriya
; sometimes abbreviated as NSR).
The updated December 2016 constitution of the polity uses the name Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
: Federaliya Demokratîk a Bakûrê Sûriyê; Arabic
: الفدرالية الديمقراطية لشمال سوريا
: al-Fidirāliyya al-Dīmuqrāṭiyya li-Šamāl Suriyā
; Classical Syriac
: ܦܕܪܐܠܝܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܬܐ ܕܓܪܒܝ ܣܘܪܝܐ
, romanized: Federaloyotho Demoqraṭoyto d'Garbay Suriya
Since 6 September 2018, the Syrian Democratic Council
has adopted a new name for the region, naming it the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria
: Rêveberiya Xweser a Bakur û Rojhilatê Sûriyeyê; Arabic
: الإدارة الذاتية لشمال وشرق سوريا
; Classical Syriac
: ܡܕܰܒܪܳܢܘܬ݂ܳܐ ܝܳܬ݂ܰܝܬܳܐ ܠܓܰܪܒܝܳܐ ܘܡܰܕܢܚܳܐ ܕܣܘܪܝܰܐ
, romanized: Mdabronuṯo Yoṯayto l-Garbyo w-Madnḥyo d-Suriya
: Kuzey ve Doğu Suriye Özerk Yönetimi
) also sometimes translated into English as the "Self-Administration of North and East Syria", encompassing the Euphrates
, and Jazira
regions as well as the local civil councils in the regions of Raqqa, Manbij, Tabqa, and Deir ez-Zor.
Ruins of the "Red House" of the Assyrian site Dur-Katlimmu
exposed by excavations (6th century AD)
Northern Syria is part of the Fertile Crescent
, and includes archaeological sites dating to the Neolithic, such as Tell Halaf
. In antiquity, the area was part of the Mitanni
kingdom, its centre being the Khabur river valley in modern-day Jazira Region. It was then part of Assyria
, with the last surviving Assyrian imperial records, from between 604 BC and 599 BC, were found in and around the Assyrian city of Dūr-Katlimmu
Later it was ruled by different dynasties and empires – the Achaemenids
, the Hellenistic empires
who succeeded Alexander the Great
, the Artaxiads
, the Iranian Parthians
then by the Byzantines
and successive Arab Islamic caliphates. In course of these regimes, different groups settled in northern Syria, often contributing to population shifts. Arabic tribes have been present in the area for millennia.
Under the Hellenistic Seleucid Empire
(312–63 BC), different tribal groups and mercenaries were settled in northern Syria as military colonists; these included Arabs
and possibly Kurds.[b]
Jan Retso argued that Abai, an Arab settlement where the Seleucid king Antiochus VI Dionysus
was raised, was located in northern Syria.
By the 3rd century, the Arab tribe of the Fahmids lived in northern Syria.
By the 9th century, northern Syria was inhabited by a mixed population of Arabs, Assyrians, Kurds, Turkic groups, and others. Kurdish tribes in the area often operated as soldiers for hire,
and were still placed in specific military settlements in the northern Syrian mountains.
There existed a Kurdish elite of which Saladin
the founder of the Ayyubid dynasty
and the Emir of Masyaf
in the 12th century were part of.
Under Saladin's rule, northern Syria experienced a mass immigration of Turkic groups who came into conflict with Kurdish tribes, resulting in clashes that wiped out several Kurdish communities.
During the Ottoman Empire
(1516–1922), large Kurdish-speaking
tribal groups both settled in and were deported to areas of northern Syria from Anatolia
By the 18th century, five Kurdish tribes existed in northeastern Syria.
The demographics of this area underwent a huge shift in the early part of the 20th century. Some Circassian, Kurdish and Chechen tribes cooperated with the Ottoman
) authorities in the massacres of Armenian
Christians in Upper Mesopotamia
, between 1914 and 1920, with further attacks on unarmed fleeing civilians conducted by local Arab militias.
Many Assyrians fled to Syria during the genocide and settled mainly in the Jazira area.
Starting in 1926, the region saw another immigration of Kurds following the failure of the Sheikh Said rebellion
against the Turkish authorities
While many of the Kurds in Syria have been there for centuries,
waves of Kurds fled their homes in Turkey and settled in Syrian Al-Jazira Province
, where they were granted citizenship by the French Mandate authorities
The number of Turkish Kurds settled in al-Jazira province during the 1920s was estimated at 20,000 people, out of 100,000 inhabitants, with the remainder of the population being Christians (Syriac, Armenian, Assyrian) and Arabs.:458
Syria's independence and rule of the Ba'ath Party
Following Syria's independence
, policies of Arab nationalism
and attempts at forced Arabization
became widespread in the country's north, to a large part directed against the Kurdish population.
The region received little investment or development from the central government and laws discriminated against Kurds owning property, driving cars, working in certain professions and forming political parties.
Property was routinely confiscated by government loansharks. After the Ba'ath Party
seized power in the 1963 Syrian coup d'état
, non-Arab languages were forbidden at Syrian public schools. This compromised the education of students belonging to minorities like Kurds, Turkmen, and Assyrians.
Some groups like Armenians, Circassians, and Assyrians were able to compensate by establishing private schools, but Kurdish private schools were also banned.
Northern Syrian hospitals lacked equipment for advanced treatment and instead patients had to be transferred outside the region. Numerous place names were arabized in the 1960s and 1970s.
In his report for the 12th session of the UN Human Rights Council
titled Persecution and Discrimination against Kurdish Citizens in Syria
, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights
held that "Successive Syrian governments continued to adopt a policy of ethnic discrimination and national persecution against Kurds, completely depriving them of their national, democratic and human rights – an integral part of human existence. The government imposed ethnically-based programs, regulations and exclusionary measures on various aspects of Kurds' lives – political, economic, social and cultural."
Kurdish cultural festivals like Newroz
were effectively banned.
Kurds celebrating Newroz
in Girê Tertebê, near Qamishlo, in 1997
In many instances, the Syrian government arbitrarily deprived ethnic Kurdish citizens of their citizenship. The largest such instance was a consequence of a census in 1962, which was conducted for exactly this purpose. 120,000 ethnic Kurdish citizens saw their citizenship arbitrarily taken away and became stateless
This status was passed to the children of a "stateless" Kurdish father.
In 2010, the Human Rights Watch
(HRW) estimated the number of such "stateless" Kurdish people in Syria at 300,000.
In 1973, the Syrian authorities confiscated 750 square kilometres (290 square miles) of fertile agricultural land in Al-Hasakah Governorate
, which was owned and cultivated by tens of thousands of Kurdish citizens, and gave it to Arab families brought in from other provinces.
In 2007, in the Al-Hasakah Governorate, 600 square kilometres (230 square miles) around Al-Malikiyah
were granted to Arab families, while tens of thousands of Kurdish inhabitants of the villages concerned were evicted.
These and other expropriations was part of the so-called "Arab Belt initiative" which aimed to change the demographic fabric of the resource-rich region.
Accordingly, relations between the Syrian government and the Syrian Kurdish population were tense.
The response of northern Syrian parties and movements to the policies of Hafez al-Assad
's Ba'athist government varied greatly. Some parties opted for resistance, whereas others such as the Kurdish Democratic Progressive Party
and the Assyrian Democratic Party
attempted to work within the system, hoping to bring about changes through soft pressure.
In general, parties that openly represented certain ethnic and religious minorities were not allowed to participate in elections, but their politicians were occasionally allowed to run as Independents.
Some Kurdish politicians won seats during the Syrian elections in 1990
The government also recruited Kurdish officials, in particular as mayors, to ease ethnic relations. Regardless, northern Syrian ethnic groups remained deliberately underrepresented in the bureaucracy, and many Kurdish majority areas were run by Arab officials from other parts of the country.
Security and intelligence agencies worked hard to suppress dissidents, and most Kurdish parties remained underground movements. The government monitored, though generally allowed this "sub-state activity" because the northern minorities including the Kurds rarely caused unrest with the exception of the 2004 Qamishli riots
The situation improved after the death of Hafez al-Assad and the election of his son, Bashar al-Assad
, under whom the number of Kurdish officials grew.
Despite the Ba'athist
internal policies which officially suppressed a Kurdish identity, the Syrian government allowed the Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) to set up training camps from 1980. The PKK was a militant Kurdish group led by Abdullah Öcalan
which was waging an insurgency against Turkey
. Syria and Turkey were hostile toward each other at the time, resulting in the use of the PKK as proxy group.
The party began to deeply influence the Syrian Kurdish population in the Afrin
and Ayn al-Arab Districts
, where it promoted Kurdish identity through music, clothing, popular culture, and social activities. In contrast, the PKK remained much less popular among Kurds in al-Hasakah Governorate
, where other Kurdish parties maintained more influence. Many Syrian Kurds developed a long-lasting sympathy for the PKK, and a large number, possibly more than 10,000, joined its insurgency in Turkey.
A rapprochement between Syria and Turkey brought an end to this phase in 1998, when Öcalan and the PKK were formally expelled from northern Syria. Regardless, the PKK maintained a clandestine presence in the region.
In 2002, the PKK and allied groups organized the Kurdistan Communities Union
(KCK) to implement Öcalan's ideas in various Middle Eastern countries. A KCK branch was also set up in Syria, led by Sofi Nureddin and known as "KCK-Rojava". In an attempt to outwardly distance the Syrian branch from the PKK,
the Democratic Union Party
(PYD) was established as de facto
Syrian "successor" of the PKK in 2003.
The "People's Protection Units
" (YPG), a paramilitary wing of the PYD, was also founded during this time, but remained dormant.
Establishment of de facto autonomy and war against ISIL
In 2011, a civil uprising
erupted in Syria, prompting hasty government reforms. One of the issues addressed during this time was the status of Syria's stateless Kurds, as President Bashar al-Assad granted about 220,000 Kurds citizenship.
In course of the next months, the crisis in Syria escalated into a civil war
. The armed Syrian opposition
seized control of several regions, while security forces were overstretched. In mid-2012 the government responded to this development by withdrawing its military from three mainly Kurdish areas
and leaving control to local militias. This has been described as an attempt by the Assad regime to keep the Kurdish population out of the initial civil uprising and civil war.
Map of the territory of the region over time
Map of the changing territory controlled by the region in February 2014, June 2015, October 2016, April 2018, and March 2020
Existing underground Kurdish political parties, namely the PYD and the Kurdish National Council
(KNC), joined to form the Kurdish Supreme Committee
(KSC) and the People's Protection Units (YPG) militia was reestablished to defend Kurdish-inhabited areas in northern Syria. In July 2012, the YPG established control in the towns of Kobanî
, and the Kurdish Supreme Committee established a joint leadership council to administer the towns. Soon YPG also gained control of the cities of Al-Malikiyah
, Ras al-Ayn
, and al-Muabbada
and parts of Hasakah
Doing so, the YPG and its female wing, the Women's Protection Units
(YPJ), mostly battled factions of the Free Syrian Army
, and Islamist militias like the al-Nusra Front
and Jabhat Ghuraba al-Sham
. It also eclipsed rival Kurdish militias,
and absorbed some government loyalist groups.
According to researcher Charles R. Lister, the government's withdrawal and concurrent rise of the PYD "raised many eyebrows", as the relationship between the two entities was "highly contentious" at the time. The PYD was known to oppose certain government policies, but had also strongly criticised the Syrian opposition.
Military situation in December 2015, the SDF would be successful in pushing ISIS out of northern Syria
The Kurdish Supreme Committee
was dissolved in 2013, when the PYD abandoned the alliance with the KNC and established the Movement for a Democratic Society
(TEV-DEM) coalition with other political parties.
On 19 July 2013, the PYD announced that it had written a constitution for an "autonomous Syrian Kurdish region", and planned to hold referendum to approve the constitution in October 2013. Qamishli served as first de facto
capital of the PYD-led governing body,
which was official called the "Interim Transitional Administration".
The announcement was widely denounced by both moderate as well as Islamist factions of the Syrian opposition.
In January 2014, three areas under TEV-DEM rule declared their autonomy as cantons (now Afrin Region
, Jazira Region
and Euphrates Region
) and an interim constitution
was approved. The Syrian opposition and even the Kurdish parties belonging to the KNC condemned this move, regarding the canton system as illegal, authoritarian, and supportive of the Syrian government.
The PYD countered that the constitution was open to review and amendment, and that the KNC had been consulted on its drafting beforehand.
From September 2014 to spring 2015, the YPG forces in Kobanî Canton, supported by some Free Syrian Army militias and leftist international and Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) volunteers, fought and finally repelled an assault by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL) during the Siege of Kobanî
and in the YPG's Tell Abyad offensive
of summer of 2015, the regions of Jazira and Kobanî were connected.
fighter, in November 2014
In March 2016, Hediya Yousef
and Mansur Selum
were elected co-chairpersons for the executive committee to organise a constitution for the region, to replace the 2014 constitution.
Yousef said the decision to set up a federal government was in large part driven by the expansion of territories captured from Islamic State: "Now, after the liberation of many areas, it requires us to go to a wider and more comprehensive system that can embrace all the developments in the area, that will also give rights to all the groups to represent themselves and to form their own administrations."
In July 2016, a draft for the new constitution was presented, based on the principles of the 2014 constitution, mentioning all ethnic groups living in Northern Syria and addressing their cultural, political and linguistic rights.
The main political opposition to the constitution have been Kurdish nationalists
, in particular the KNC, who have different ideological aspirations than the TEV-DEM coalition.
On 28 December 2016, after a meeting of the 151-member Syrian Democratic Council in Rmelan
, a new constitution was resolved; despite objections by 12 Kurdish parties, the region was renamed the Democratic Federation of Northern Syria
, removing the name "Rojava".
Turkish military operations and occupation
Sniper in defense of Northern Syria from Turkey, Afrin
Since 2012, when the first YPG pockets appeared, Turkey had been alarmed by the presence of PKK-related forces at its southern border and grew concerned when the YPG entered into an alliance with the US to oppose ISIS forces in the region.
The Turkish government refused to allow aid to be sent to the YPG during the Siege of Kobanî. This led to the Kurdish riots
, the breakdown of the 2013–2015 peace process
in July 2015 and the renewal of armed conflict
between the PKK and Turkish forces. According to the Turkish pro-government newspaper Daily Sabah,
the YPG's parent organisation, the PYD, provided the PKK with militants, explosives, arms and ammunition.
in August 2016, Turkey launched Operation Euphrates Shield
to prevent the YPG-led Syrian Democratic Forces
(SDF) from linking Afrin Canton (now Afrin Region
) with the rest of Rojava and to capture Manbij
from the SDF. Turkish and Turkish-backed Syrian rebel forces prevented the linking of Rojava's cantons and captured all settlements in Jarabulus
previously under SDF control.
The SDF handed over part of the region to the Syrian government to act as a buffer zone against Turkey.
Manbij remained under SDF control.
In 2019, Turkey launched Operation Peace Spring
against the SDF. On 9 October, the Turkish Air Force
launched airstrikes on border towns.
On 6 October President Donald Trump
had ordered United States troops to withdraw from northeastern Syria where they had been providing support
to the SDF.
Journalists called the withdrawal "a serious betrayal to the Kurds" and "a catastrophic blow to US credibility as an ally and Washington's standing on the world stage"; one journalist stated that "this was one of the worst US foreign policy disasters since the Iraq War
Turkish and Turkish-backed Syrian rebel forces captured 68 settlements, including Ras al-Ayn
, Tell Abyad
during the 9-day operation before a 120-hour ceasefire was announced.
The operation was condemned by the international community,
and human rights violations by Turkish forces were reported.
Media outlets labelled the attack "no surprise" because Turkish president Erdoğan
had for months warned that the presence of the YPG on the Turkish-Syrian border despite the Northern Syria Buffer Zone
An unintended consequence of the attack was that it raised the worldwide popularity and legitimacy of the northeastern Syrian administration, and several PYD and YPG representatives became internationally known to an unprecedented degree. However, these events caused tensions within the KCK, as differences emerged between the PKK and PYD leadership. The PYD was determined to maintain the regional autonomy and hoped for a continued alliance with the United States. In contrast, the PKK central command was now willing to restart negotiations with Turkey, distrusted the United States, and emphasized the international success of its leftist ideology over the survival of Rojava as administrative entity.
"For a former diplomat like me, I found it confusing: I kept looking for a hierarchy, the singular leader, or signs of a government line, when, in fact, there was none; there were just groups. There was none of that stifling obedience to the party, or the obsequious deference to the "big man"—a form of government all too evident just across the borders, in Turkey to the north, and the Kurdish regional government of Iraq to the south. The confident assertiveness of young people was striking.
However, a 2016 paper from Chatham House
stated that power is heavily centralized in the hands of the Democratic Union Party (PYD). Abdullah Öcalan
, a Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK) leader imprisoned in İmralı
, has become an iconic figure in the region whose libertarian socialist ideology
has shaped the region's society and politics through the ruling TEV-DEM
coalition, a political alliance including the PYD and a number of smaller parties. Before TEV-DEM, the region was governed by the Kurdish Supreme Committee, a coalition of the PYD and the Kurdish National Council
(KNC), which was dissolved by the PYD in 2013.
Besides the parties represented in TEV-DEM and the KNC, several other political groups operate in northern Syria. Several of these, such as the Kurdish National Alliance in Syria
the Democratic Conservative Party
the Assyrian Democratic Party
and others actively participate in governing the region.
The politics of the region has been described as having "libertarian transnational aspirations" influenced by the PKK's shift toward anarchism
, but also includes various "tribal, ethno-sectarian, capitalist and patriarchal structures."
The region has a "co-governance" policy in which each position at each level of government in the region includes a "female equivalent of equal authority" to a male.
Similarly, there are aspirations for equal political representation of all ethno-religious components – Arabs, Kurds and Assyrians being the most sizeable ones. This has been compared this to the Lebaneseconfessionalist
system, which is based on that country's major religions.
The PYD-led rule has triggered protests in various areas since they first captured territory. In 2019, residents of tens of villages in the eastern Deir ez-Zor Governorate
demonstrated for two weeks, regarding the new regional leadership as Kurdish-dominated and non-inclusive, citing arrests of suspected ISIL members, looting of oil, lack of infrastructure as well as forced conscription into the SDF as reasons. The protests resulted in deaths and injuries.
It has been stated that the new political structures created in the region have been based on top-down structures, which have placed obstacles for the return of refugees, created dissent as well as a lack of trust between the SDF and the local population.
Qamishli initially served as the de facto
capital of the administration,
but the area's governing body later relocated to Ayn Issa
Article 8 of the 2014 constitution stipulates that "All Cantons in the autonomous regions are founded on the principle of local self-government. Cantons may freely elect their representatives and representative bodies, and may pursue their rights insofar as it does not contravene the articles of the Charter."
The cantons were later reorganized into regions with subordinate cantons/provinces, areas, districts and communes. The first communal elections
in the region were held on 22 September 2017. 12,421 candidates competed for around 3,700 communal positions during the elections, which were organized by the region's High Electoral Commission.
Elections for the councils of the Jazira Region
, Euphrates Region
and Afrin Region
were held in December 2017
Most of Afrin Region was occupied by Turkish-led forces in early 2018, though the administrative division continued to operate from Tell Rifaat
which is under joint YPG-Syrian Army control.
On 6 September 2018, during a meeting of the Syrian Democratic Council
in Ayn Issa
, a new name for the region was adopted, the "Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria", encompassing the Euphrates
, and Jazira
regions as well as the local civil councils in the regions of Raqqa, Manbij, Tabqa, and Deir ez-Zor. During the meeting, a 70-member "General Council for the Autonomous Administration of North and East Syria" was formed.
Seal of the Syrian Democratic Council
In December 2015, during a meeting of the region's representatives in Al-Malikiyah
, the Syrian Democratic Council
(SDC) was established to serve as the political representative of the Syrian Democratic Forces
The co-leaders selected to lead the SDC at its founding were prominent human rights activist Haytham Manna
Executive Board member Îlham Ehmed.
The SDC appoints an Executive Council which deal with the economy, agriculture, natural resources, and foreign affairs.
General elections were planned for 2014 and 2018,
but this was postponed due to fighting.
Education, media, and culture
Theater center in Rojava in Kobani 2014
Under the rule of the Ba'ath Party
, school education consisted of only Arabic
language public schools, supplemented by Assyrian private confessional schools.
In 2015, the region's administration introduced primary education in the native language
or Arabic) and mandatory bilingual
education (Kurdish and Arabic) for public schools,
with English as a mandatory third language.
There are ongoing disagreements and negotiations over curriculums with the Syrian central government,
which generally still pays the teachers in public schools.
High school students in Tev-Cand in a classroom, dancing during a class on Syrian culture
In August 2016, the Ourhi Centre was founded by the Assyrian community in the city of Qamishli, to educate teachers in order to make Syriac-Aramaic
an additional language in public schools in Jazira Region
which then started in the 2016/17 academic year.
According to the region's Education Committee, in 2016/2017 "three curriculums have replaced the old one, to include teaching in three languages: Kurdish, Arabic and Syriac."
In August 2017 Galenos Yousef Issa of the Ourhi Centre announced that the Syriac curriculum would be expanded to grade 6, which earlier had been limited to grade 3, with teachers being assigned to Syriac schools in Al-Hasakah
At the start of the academic year 2018–2019, the curricula in Kurdish and Arabic had been expanded to grades 1–12 and Syriac to grades 1–9. "Jineology
" classes had also been introduced.
In general, schools are encouraged to teach the administration's "uptopian doctrine" which promotes diversity, democracy, and the ideas of Abdullah Öcalan
Local reactions to the changes to the school system and curriculum were mixed. While many praised the new system because it encouraged tolerance and allowed Kurds and other minorities to be taught in their own languages,
others have criticised it as de facto
The federal, regional and local administrations in the region put much emphasis on promoting libraries and educational centers, to facilitate learning and social and artistic activities. Examples are the Nahawand Center for Developing Children's Talents in Amuda
(est. 2015) and the Rodî û Perwîn Library in Kobani
For Assyrian private confessional schools there had at first been no changes.
However, in August 2018 it was reported that the region's authorities was trying to implement its own Syriac curriculum in private Christian schools that have been continuing to use an Arabic curriculum with limited Syriac classes approved by the Assad regime and originally developed by Syrian Education Ministry in cooperation with Christian clergy in the 1950s. The threatening of the closure of schools not complying with this resulted in protests erupting in Qamishli.
A deal was later reached in September 2018 between the region's authorities and the local Syriac Orthodox archbishopric, where the two first grades in these schools would learn the region's Syriac curriculum and grades three to six would continue to learn the Damascus approved curriculum.
While there was no institution of tertiary education on the territory of the region at the onset of the Syrian Civil War, an increasing number of such institutions have been established by the regional administrations in the region since.
- In September 2014, the Mesopotamian Social Sciences Academy in Qamishli started classes. More such academies designed under a libertarian socialist academic philosophy and concept are in the process of founding or planning.
- In August 2015, the traditionally-designed University of Afrin in Afrin started teaching, with initial programs in literature, engineering and economics, including institutes for medicine, topographic engineering, music and theater, business administration and the Kurdish language.
- In July 2016, Jazira Canton Board of Education started the University of Rojava in Qamishli, with faculties for Medicine, Engineering, Sciences, and Arts and Humanities. Programs taught include health, oil, computer and agricultural engineering; physics, chemistry, history, psychology, geography, mathematics and primary school teaching and Kurdish literature. Its language of instruction is Kurdish, and with an agreement with Paris 8 University in France for cooperation, the university opened registration for students in the academic year 2016–2017.
- In August 2016 Jazira Canton police forces took control of the remaining parts of Hasakah city, which included the Hasakah campus of the Arabic-language Al-Furat University, and with mutual agreement the institution continues to be operated under the authority of the Damascus government's Ministry of Higher Education.
Public performance in the AANES (Rojava) in administration Tev Cand
Incorporating the Universal Declaration of Human Rights
, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights
, the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights
, as well as other internationally recognized human rights conventions, the 2014 Constitution of North and East Syria
guarantees freedom of speech
and freedom of the press
. As a result, a diverse media landscape has developed in the region,
in each of the Kurdish
languages of the land, as well as in English, and media outlets frequently use more than one language. Among the most prominent media in the region are Hawar News Agency
and ARA News
agencies and websites as well as TV outlets Rojava Kurdistan TV, Ronahî TV
, and the bimonthly magazine Nudem
. A landscape of local newspapers and radio stations has developed. However, media agencies often face economic pressure, as was demonstrated by the closure of news website Welati
in May 2016.
In addition, the autonomous regions have imposed some limits on press freedom, for example forcing the press to get work permits. These can be cancelled, thereby curtailing the ability of certain press agencies to operate. However, the extent of these restricions differed greatly from area to area. By 2016, Kobani Canton was the least restrictive, followed by Jazira Canton which closely monitored and occasionally regulated press activity.
Afrin Canton was the most restrictive, and many local reporters operated anonymously.
Political extremism in the context of the Syrian Civil War can put media outlets under pressure; for example in April 2016 the premises of Arta FM
("the first, and only, independent radio station staffed and broadcast by Syrians inside Syria") in Amuda
was threatened and burned down by unidentified assailants.
In December 2018 the Rojava Information Center was established.
During the Turkish military operation in Afrin
, the KDP
-affiliated Iraqi Kurdish Rudaw Media Network
was also banned from reporting in the region.
On 2 September 2019, the Iraqi Kurdistan
-based Kurdistan 24
network had its license to work in the region, with drawn and had its offices confiscated by Rojava authorities.
Internet connections in the region are often slow due to inadequate infrastructure. Internet lines are operated by Syrian Telecom
, which as of January 2017 is working on a major extension of the fibre optic cable network in southern Jazira Region
Children in (AANES) school curriculum children learning to play instruments
After the establishment of the de facto autonomous region, the Center of Art and Democratic Culture, located in Jazira Region, has become a venue for aspiring artists who showcase their work.
Among major cultural events in the region is the annual Festival of Theater
in March/April as well as the Rojava Short Story Festival
in June, both in the city of Qamishli, and the Afrin Short Film Festival
The Jazira Region
is a major wheat and cotton producer and has a considerable oil industry. The Euphrates Region
suffered most destruction of the three regions and has huge challenges in reconstruction, and has recently seen some greenhouse
agriculture construction. The Afrin Region
has had a traditional specialization on olive oil including Aleppo soap
made from it, and had drawn much industrial production from the nearby city of Aleppo
due to the fighting in Aleppo city
from 2012 to 2016. Price controls
are managed by local committees, which can set the price of basic goods such as food and medical goods.
It has been theorized that the Assad government had deliberately underdeveloped parts of Northern Syria in order to Arabize the region and make secession attempts less likely.
During the Syrian Civil War
, the infrastructure of the region on average experienced less destruction than other parts of Syria. In May 2016, Ahmed Yousef, head of the Economic Body and chairman of Afrin University, stated that at the time, the economic output of the region (including agriculture, industry and oil) accounted for about 55% of Syria's gross domestic product.
In 2014, the Syrian government was still paying some state employees,
but fewer than before.
However, the administration of the region stated that "none of our projects are financed by the regime".
system in Syria created by the AANES in southern Afrin.
At first, there were no direct
or indirect taxes
on people or businesses in the region; instead, the administration raised money mainly through tariffs
and selling oil and other natural resources.
However, in July 2017, it was reported that the administration in the Jazira Region had started to collect income tax
to provide for public services in the region.
In May 2016, The Wall Street Journal
reported that traders in Syria experience the region as "the one place where they aren't forced to pay bribes."
The main sources of revenue for the autonomous region have been presented as: 1. Public properties such as grain silos and oil and gas in the Jazira Region, 2. Local taxation and customs fees taken at the border crossings, 3. Service delivery, 4. Remittances from Iraq and Turkey, and 5. Local donations. In 2015, the autonomous administration shared information about the region's finances where its 2014 revenue was about 3 billion Syrian Pounds (≈5.8 million USD) of which 50% was spent on "self-defense and protection", 18% for the Jazira Canton (now Jazira Region), 8.5% for the Kobani Canton (now Euphrates Region), 8.5% for the Afrin Canton (now Afrin Region), 15% for the "Internal Committee" and any remainder was a reserve for the next year.
The AANES has by far the highest average salaries
and standard of living
throughout Syria, with salaries being twice as large as in regime controlled Syira, following the collapse of the Syrian Pound
the AANES doubled salaries to maintain inflation
, and allow for good wages. The AANES still faces challenges with distribution, food security
, and healthcare
External economic relations
Oil and food production is substantial,
so they are important exports. Agricultural products include sheep, grain and cotton. Important imports are consumer goods and auto parts.
Trade with Turkey and access to humanitarian and military aid is difficult due to a blockade by Turkey.
Turkey does not allow business people or goods to cross its border. The blockade from adjacent territories held by Turkey and ISIL, and partially also the KRG, temporarily caused heavy distortions of relative prices in Jazira Region and Euphrates Region (while separate, Afrin Region borders government-controlled territory since February 2016); for example in Jazira Region and Euphrates Region, through 2016 petrol cost only half as much as bottled water.
Economy policy framework
The autonomous administration is supporting efforts for workers to form cooperatives, such as this sewing cooperative in Derik.
The autonomous region is ruled by a coalition which bases its policy ambitions to a large extent on the libertarian socialist ideology of Abdullah Öcalan
and have been described as pursuing a model of economy that blends co-operative and private enterprise.
In 2012, the PYD launched what it called the "Social Economy Plan", later renamed the "People's Economy Plan" (PEP). Private property
and entrepreneurship are protected under the principle of "ownership by use". Dr. Dara Kurdaxi, a regional official, has stated: "The method in Rojava is not so much against private property, but rather has the goal of putting private property in the service of all the peoples who live in Rojava."
Communes and co-operatives have been established to provide essentials.
Co-operatives account for a large proportion of agricultural production and are active in construction, factories, energy production, livestock, pistachio and roasted seeds, and public markets.
Several hundred instances of collective farming
occurred across towns and villages in the region, with communes consisting of approximately 20–35 people.
According to the region's "Ministry of Economics", approximately three-quarters of all property has been placed under community ownership and a third of production has been transferred to direct management by workers' councils
Law and security
Syrian civil laws are valid in the region if they do not conflict with the Constitution of the autonomous region. One example for amendment is personal status law, which in Syria is based on Sharia
and applied by Sharia Courts,
while the secular
autonomous region proclaims absolute equality of women under the law, allowing civil marriage
and banning forced marriage
and underage marriage.
A new criminal justice approach was implemented that emphasizes restoration
The death penalty was abolished.
Prisons house mostly people charged with terrorist activity related to ISIL and other extremist groups.
A September 2015 report of Amnesty International
stated that 400 people were incarcerated by the region's authorities and criticized deficiencies in due process
of the judicial system of the region.
The justice system in the region is influenced by Abdullah Öcalan's libertarian socialist ideology
. At the local level, citizens create Peace and Consensus Committees
, which make group decisions on minor criminal cases and disputes as well as in separate committees resolve issues of specific concern to women's rights like domestic violence and marriage. At the regional level, citizens (who need not be trained jurists) are elected by the regional People's Councils
to serve on seven-member People's Courts
. At the next level are four Appeals Courts
, composed of trained jurists. The court of last resort is the Regional Court
, which serves the region as a whole. Separate from this system, the Constitutional Court
renders decisions on compatibility of acts of government and legal proceedings with the constitution of the region (called the Social Contract).
Policing and security
Policing in the region is performed by the Asayish
armed formation. Asayish was established on 25 July 2013 to fill the gap of security when the Syrian security forces withdrew.
Under the Constitution of North and East Syria
, policing is a competence of the regions. The Asayish forces of the regions are composed of 26 official bureaus that aim to provide security and solutions to social problems. The six main units of Asayish are Checkpoints Administration, Anti-Terror Forces Command (HAT), Intelligence Directorate, Organized Crime Directorate, Traffic Directorate and Treasury Directorate. 218 Asayish centers were established and 385 checkpoints with 10 Asayish members in each checkpoint were set up. 105 Asayish offices provide security against ISIL on the frontlines across Northern Syria. Larger cities have general directorates responsible for all aspects of security including road controls. Each region has a HAT command, and each Asayish center organizes itself autonomously.
Female fighters of the YPJ
play a significant combat role in the region.
HXP militiamen on parade in 2016.
The Self-Defence Forces
(HXP) is a territorial defense militia and the only conscript armed force in the region. HXP is locally recruited to garrison their municipal area and is under the responsibility and command of the respective regions of the NES. Occasionally, HXP units have supported the YPG, and SDF in general, during combat operations against ISIL outside their own municipality and region.
Satellite images of the village of Husseiniya
in 2014 and 2015, reportedly leveled by the YPG.
In the course of the Syrian Civil War, including the years 2014 and 2015, reports by Human Rights Watch
(HRW) and Amnesty International
stated that militias associated with the autonomous region
were committing war crimes, in particular members of the People's Protection Units
The reports from 2014 include reports of arbitrary arrests and torture, other reports include the use of child soldiers
After the report, the YPG publicly accepted the deficiencies
and in October 2015 the YPG demobilized 21 minors from the military service in its ranks.
Reports have been comprehensively debated and contested by both the YPG and other human rights organizations.
In 2018, HRW again accused the YPG of recruiting minors. The YPG responded that if 16- and 17-year-olds are hired, the relatives are notified, but do not have to consent, and the minors are kept away from combat zones.
Since September 2015, the YPG have received human rights training from Geneva Call
and other international organizations.
praying in a Yazidi temple, with a mural of the holy Melek Taus
, in AANES (Rojava) following the expulsion of ISIS
Some persistent issues in the region concern ethnic minority rights
. One issue of contention is the consequence of Baathist Syrian government's exprorpiation
of land from Kurdish owners and settling of tribal Arabs there in 1973 and 2007,
There have been calls to expel the settlers and return the land to its previous owners, which has led the political leadership of the region to press the Syrian government for a comprehensive solution.
During the ongoing Syrian Civil War, organizations such as the Turkish government,
and the Middle East Observer
have stated that SDF was forcibly displacing inhabitants of captured areas with predominantly Arab population such as Tell Abyad. These displacements were considered attempts at ethnic cleansing
However, the head of the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights
rebutted these reports
and the UN Independent International Commission of Inquiry find no evidence of YPG or SDF forces committing ethnic cleansing in order to change the demographic composition of territories under their control.
The demographics of the region have historically been highly diverse, with several major shifts in regard to which groups form majorities or minorities in the last centuries.[c]
The Al-Hasakah Governorate
historically been the domain of nomad and sedentary Arabs.
Most of the Kurdish population in the area have immigrated from Turkey during the 20th century.
One major shift in modern times was in the early part of the 20th century due to the Assyrian
and Armenian Genocides
, when many Assyrians and Armenians fled to Syria from Turkey. In the 1920s after the failed Kurdish rebellions
in Kemalist Turkey
, there was a large influx of Kurds to Syria's northeast, called "Jazira province" at the time. It is estimated that 25,000 Kurds fled at this time to Syria, under French Mandate authorities
, who encouraged their immigration,
and granted them Syrian citizenship.
Consequently, the French official reports show the existence of at most 45 Kurdish villages in Jazira prior to 1927. A new wave of refugees arrived in 1929.
The mandatory authorities continued to encourage Kurdish immigration into Syria, and by 1939, the villages numbered between 700 and 800.
Another account by Sir John Hope Simpson estimated the number of Kurds in Jazira province at 20,000 out of 100,000 people at the end of 1930.:556
The number of Kurds continued to grow and the French geographers Fevret and Gibert estimated that in 1953 out of the total 146,000 inhabitants of Jazira, agriculturalist Kurds made up 60,000 (41%), nomad Arabs 50,000 (34%), and a quarter of the population were Christians.
Under the French Mandate of Syria, newly arriving Kurds were granted citizenship by French Mandate authorities
and enjoyed considerable rights as the French Mandate authority encouraged minority autonomy as part of a divide and rule
strategy and recruited heavily from the Kurds and other minority groups, such as Alawite
, for its local armed forces.
The last significant wave of Kurdish incoming migration from Turkey happened between 1945 and 1961 which strongly contributed to the growth of al-Hasakah Governorate's population from 240,000 to 305,000 between 1954 and 1961.
In addition to the demographic changes brought about by the Kurdish immigration from Turkey, the Syrian government initiated Arabization policy. Therefore, 4000 Arab families from areas flooded by the Tabqa Dam in Raqqa and Aleppo were resettled in new village in al-Hasakah Governorate.
Another shift in modern times was the Baath policy of settling additional Arab population in northern Syria, while displacing local Kurds.
Most recently, during the Syrian Civil War
, many refugees have fled to the north of the country. Some ethnic Arab citizens from Iraq have fled to northern Syria as well.
However, as of January 2018, only two million people are estimated to remain in the area under the region's administration with estimates of around half a million people emigrating since the beginning of the civil war, to a large degree because of the economic hardships the region has faced during the war.
As result of the civil war, estimates as to the ethnic composition of northern Syria vary widely, ranging from claims about a Kurdish majority and Arab minority to claims about Kurds being a small minority; Al Jazeera
stated in October 2019 that just 10 percent of the 4.5 million inhabitants of northern and northeastern Syria were Kurds.
Two ethnic groups have a significant presence throughout Northern Syria:
Two ethnic groups have a significant presence in certain regions of Northern Syria:
The streets of Qamishli during Christmas
- Assyrians are an ethnic group. Their presence in Syria is in the Jazira Region of the autonomous region, particularly in the urban areas (Qamishli, al-Hasakah, Ras al-Ayn, Al-Malikiyah, Al-Qahtaniyah), in the northeastern corner and in villages along the Khabur River in the Tell Tamer area. They traditionally speak varieties of Northeastern Neo-Aramaic, a Semitic language. There are many Assyrians among recent refugees to Northern Syria, fleeing Islamist violence elsewhere in Syria back to their traditional lands. In the secular polyethnic political climate of the region, the Dawronoye modernization movement has a growing influence on Assyrian identity in the 21st century.
- Turkmen are an ethnic group with a major presence in the area between Afrin Region and Euphrates Region, where they form regional majorities in the countryside from Azaz and Mare' to Jarabulus, and a minor presence in Afrin Region and Euphrates Region.
Town center of Raqqa, 2009
Regarding the status of different languages in the autonomous region, its "Social Contract" stipulates that "all languages in Northern Syria are equal in all areas of life, including social, educational, cultural, and administrative dealings. Every people shall organize its life and manage its affairs using its mother tongue."
In practice, Arabic and Kurmanji are predominantly used across all areas and for most official documents, with Syriac being mainly used in the Jazira Region with some usage across all areas while Turkish and Circassian are also used in the region of Manbij.
The four main languages spoken in Northern Syria are the following, and are from three different language families:
For these four languages, three different scripts are in use in Northern Syria:
This list includes all cities and towns in the region with more than 10,000 inhabitants. The population figures are given according to the 2004 Syrian census.
Cities highlighted in light grey are partially under the civil control of the Syrian government.
Relations with the Syrian government
The region does not state to pursue full independence but rather autonomy within a federal and democratic Syria.
In July 2016, Constituent Assembly co-chair Hediya Yousef
formulated the region's approach towards Syria as follows:
We believe that a federal system is ideal form of governance for Syria. We see that in many parts of the world, a federal framework enables people to live peacefully and freely within territorial borders. The people of Syria can also live freely in Syria. We will not allow for Syria to be divided; all we want is the democratization of Syria; its citizens must live in peace, and enjoy and cherish the ethnic diversity of the national groups inhabiting the country.
In March 2015, the Syrian Information Minister announced that his government considered recognizing the Kurdish autonomy "within the law and constitution".
While the region's administration is not invited to the Geneva III peace talks on Syria
or any of the earlier talks, Russia in particular calls for the region's inclusion and does to some degree carry the region's positions into the talks, as documented in Russia's May 2016 draft for a new constitution for Syria.
In October 2016, there were reports of a Russian initiative for federalization with a focus on northern Syria, which at its core called to turn the existing institutions of the region into legitimate institutions of Syria; also reported was its rejection for the time being by the Syrian government.
The Damascus ruling elite is split over the question whether the new model in the region can work in parallel and converge with the Syrian government, for the benefit of both, or if the agenda should be to centralize again all power at the end of the civil war, necessitating preparation for ultimate confrontation with the region's institutions.
An analysis released in June 2017 described the region's "relationship with the regime fraught but functional" and a "semi-cooperative dynamic".
In late September 2017, Syria's Foreign Minister said that Damascus would consider granting Kurds more autonomy in the region once ISIL is defeated.
On 13 October 2019, the SDF announced that it had reached an agreement with the Syrian Army which allowed the latter to enter the SDF-held cities of Manbij and Kobani in order to dissuade a Turkish attack on those cities as part of the cross-border offensive by Turkish and Turkish-backed Syrian rebels.
The Syrian Army also deployed in the north of Syria together with the SDF along the Syrian-Turkish border and entered into several SDF-held cities such as Ayn Issa and Tell Tamer.
Following the creation of the Second Northern Syria Buffer Zone
the SDF stated that it was ready to merge with the Syrian Army if when a political settlement between the Syrian government and the SDF is achieved.
Kurdish-inhabited areas in 1992 according to the CIA
The region's relationship with the Kurdistan Regional Government
in Iraq is complicated. One context is that the governing party there, the Kurdistan Democratic Party
(KDP), views itself and its affiliated Kurdish parties in other countries as a more conservative and nationalist alternative and competitor to the KCK political agenda and blueprint in general.
The political system of Iraqi Kurdistan
stands in stark contrast to the region's system. Like the KCK umbrella organization, the PYD has some anti-nationalist ideological leanings while having Kurdish nationalist factions as well.
They have traditionally been opposed by the Iraqi-Kurdish KDP-sponsored Kurdish National Council
in Syria with more clear Kurdish nationalist leanings.
The region's role in the international arena is comprehensive military cooperation of its militias under the Syrian Democratic Forces
(SDF) umbrella with the United States
and the international (US-led) coalition against the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
In a public statement in March 2016, the day after the declaration of the regions autonomy, U.S. Defense Secretary Ashton Carter praised the People's Protection Units
(YPG) militia as having "proven to be excellent partners of ours on the ground in fighting ISIL. We are grateful for that, and we intend to continue to do that, recognizing the complexities of their regional role."
Late October 2016, U.S. Army Lt. Gen. Stephen Townsend
, the commander of the international Anti-ISIL-coalition, said that the SDF would lead the impending assault on Raqqa
, ISIL's stronghold and capital, and that SDF commanders would plan the operation with advice from American and coalition troops.
At various times, the U.S. deployed U.S. troops embedded with the SDF to the border between the region and Turkey
, in order to deter Turkish aggressions against the SDF.
In February 2018, the United States Department of Defense
released a budget blueprint for 2019 with respect to the region, which included $300 million for the Syrian Democratic Forces
(SDF) and $250 million for border security.
In April 2018, the President of France
, Emmanuel Macron
dispatched troops to Manbij
in a bid to assist Syrian Democratic Forces
(SDF) militias and in order to defuse tensions with Turkey.
In the diplomatic field, the de facto autonomous region lacks any formal recognition. While there is comprehensive activity of reception of the region's representatives
with a broad range of countries, only Russia
has on occasion openly supported the region's political ambition of federalization of Syria
in the international arena,
while the U.S. does not.
After peace talks between Syrian civil war parties in Astana in January 2017, Russia offered a draft for a future constitution of Syria, which would, among other things, change the "Syrian Arab Republic" into the "Republic of Syria", introduce decentralized authorities as well as elements of federalism
like "association areas", strengthen the parliament at the cost of the presidency, and realize secularism
by abolishing Islamic jurisprudence as a source of legislation.
The region opened official representation offices in Moscow
during 2016, Stockholm
and The Hague
A broad range of public voices in the U.S. and Europe have called for more formal recognition of the region.
International cooperation has been in the field of educational and cultural institutions, like the cooperation agreement of Paris 8 University
with the newly founded University of Rojava
or planning for a French
cultural centre in Amuda
is consistently hostile, which has been attributed to a perceived threat from the region's emergence, in that it would encourage activism for autonomy among Kurds in Turkey
in the Kurdish–Turkish conflict
. In this context, in particular the region's leading Democratic Union Party
(PYD) and the YPG militia being members of the Kurdistan Communities Union
(KCK) network of organisations, which also includes both political and military Kurdish organizations in Turkey itself, including the Kurdistan Workers' Party
(PKK). Turkey's policy towards the region is based on an economic blockade,
persistent attempts of international isolation,
opposition to the cooperation between the American-led anti-ISIL coalition and the Syrian Democratic Forces,
and support of Islamist
opposition fighters hostile to the autonomous region,
with some reports even including ISIL among these.
Turkey has on several occasions militarily attacked the region's territory and defence forces.
This has resulted in some expressions of international solidarity with the region.[d]
On 9 October 2019, Turkey launched an attack on northern Syria
"to destroy the terror corridor" on the Turkish southern border, as president Erdogan put it, after US President Donald Trump abandoned his support. Subsequent media reports have speculated that the offensive would lead to the displacement of hundreds of thousands of people.
In December 2019, an international conference hosted by the International Alliance for the Defence of Rights and Freedoms (AIDL) was held at the European Parliament which condemned the Turkish invasion of northeastern Syria, and called for the self-declared Autonomous Administration of North East Syria to be recognized and to be included in UN-led Constitutional Committee tasked to draft a new constitution for Syria. The official position of the European Union remained the same however, that the Autonomous Administration should be "respected" and included in talks while rejecting "any recognition in the national sense of the word" and that "the territorial integrity of Syria is fundamental".
Syrian Constitutional Committee
On 20 November 2019, a new Syrian Constitutional Committee
began operating in order to discuss a new settlement and to draft a new constitution for Syria.
This committee comprises about 150 members. It includes representatives of the Syrian regime, opposition groups, and countries serving as guarantors of the process such as e.g. Russia. However, this committee has faced strong opposition from the Assad regime. 50 of the committee members represent the regime, and 50 members represent the opposition. The committee began its work in November 2019 in Geneva, under UN auspices. However, the Assad regime delegation left on the second day of the process.
At a summit in October 2018, envoys from Russia, Turkey, France and Germany issued a joint statement affirming the need to respect territorial integrity of Syria as a whole. This forms one basis for their role as "guarantor nations."
The second round of talks occurred around 25 November, but was not successful due to opposition from the Assad regime.
At the Astana Process meeting in December 2019, a UN official stated that in order for the third round of talks to proceed, co-chairs from the Assad regime and the opposition need to agree on an agenda.
The committee has two co-chairs, Ahmad Kuzbari representing the Assad regime, and Hadi Albahra from the opposition. It is unclear if the third round of talks will proceed on a firm schedule, until the Assad regime provides its assent to participate.
Accusations of human rights violations, war crimes and ethnic cleansing
have been made against the YPG since the beginning of the Syrian civil war
, such as in the take-over of the border town of Tal Abyad from the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant
(ISIL) and other operations.
Some of the accusations have come from Turkey and Turkish-backed Syrian militias and opposition groups in the region, while others have come from numerous Human Rights organizations, as well as western and regional journalists.
In March 2017 the "United Nations Independent International Commission of Inquiry on Syria" was unable to find evidence to substantiate claims about ethnic cleansing, stating:
“Though allegations of ‘ethnic cleansing’ continued to be received during the period under review, the Commission found no evidence to substantiate claims that YPG or SDF forces ever targeted Arab communities on the basis of ethnicity, nor that YPG cantonal authorities systematically sought to change the demographic composition of territories under their control through the commission of violations directed against any particular ethnic group,”
“By deliberately demolishing civilian homes, in some cases razing and burning entire villages, displacing their inhabitants with no justifiable military grounds, the Autonomous Administration is abusing its authority and brazenly flouting international humanitarian law, in attacks that amount to war crimes."
"In its fight against IS, the Autonomous Administration appears to be trampling all over the rights of civilians who are caught in the middle. We saw extensive displacement and destruction that did not occur as a result of fighting. This report uncovers clear evidence of a deliberate, co-ordinated campaign of collective punishment of civilians in villages previously captured by IS, or where a small minority were suspected of supporting the group.”
The region has also been criticized extensively by various partisan and non-partisan sides over political authoritarianism
A KDP-S politician accused the PYD of delivering him to the Assad regime,
as well as the YPG is accused of fighting alongside regime forces in the 2017 Aleppo offensive
It has also been criticized for banning journalists, media outlets and political parties that are critical of the YPG narrative in areas under its control.
- ^ The name "Rojava" ("The West") was initially used by the region's PYD-led government, before its usage was dropped in 2016. Since then, the name is still used by locals and international observers.
- ^ It is difficult to properly define early Kurds, as "Kurdish" was often used as a catch-all word for nomadic tribal groups west of Iran during antiquity and medieval times.
- ^ Since at least the early Middle Ages, northern Syria has been settled by a mixed population of Arabs, Turkmen, Kurds, and Christian ethnoreligious groups including Assyrian people. Arab nomads came to dominate the region after the Ikhshidid dynasty's decline in the 10th century. During the Ottoman Empire (1516–1922), large Kurdish-speaking tribal groups both settled in and were deported to areas of northern Syria from Anatolia. In addition, Cherkessians farmers migrated to northern Syria in the 19th century.
- ^ Concerns over Turkish actions were expressed by US, Russian and Germany officials.
- ^ a b c d "New administration formed for northeastern Syria". Kurdistan24. By Wladimir van Wilgenburg
- ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (23 November 2019). "Turkish-backed groups launch attack near strategic Syrian town of Ain Issa". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 18 December 2020.
- ^ Fetah, Vîviyan (17 July 2018). "Îlham Ehmed: Dê rêxistinên me li Şamê jî ava bibin". rudaw.net (in Kurdish). Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 29 September 2019.
- ^ a b "Syrian Kurds declare new federation in bid for recognition". Middle East Eye. 17 March 2016.
- ^ "Amina Omar ,Ryad Derrar elected as co-chairs of MSD".
- ^ "War Statistics / Syrian War Statistics – Syrian Civil War Map". Syrian Civil War Map – Live Middle East Map/ Map of the Syrian Civil War.
- ^ a b Fabrice Balanche. "Sectarianism in Syria's Civil War" (PDF). The Washington Institute for Near East Policy. p. 24.
- ^ "'Rojava' no longer exists, 'Northern Syria' adopted instead". Kurdistan24.
- ^ a b "Turkey's military operation in Syria: All the latest updates". al Jazeera. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 29 October 2019.
- ^ a b "The Communist volunteers fighting the Turkish invasion of Syria". Morning Star. 31 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 97–98.
- ^ a b "Electoral Commission publish video of elections 2nd stage | ANHA". hawarnews.com. 1 December 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017.
- ^ "Delegation from the Democratic administration of Self-participate of self-participate in the first and second conference of the Shaba region". Cantonafrin.com. 4 February 2016. Archived from the original on 9 August 2016. Retrieved 12 June 2016.
- ^ "Turkey's Syria offensive explained in four maps". BBC News. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "Syria Kurds adopt constitution for autonomous federal region". TheNewArab. 31 December 2016. Archived from the original on 5 October 2018. Retrieved 5 October 2018.
- ^ a b "Syria's war: Assad on the offensive". The Economist. 13 February 2016. Retrieved 1 May 2016.
- ^ a b Shahvisi, Arianne (2018). "Beyond Orientalism: Exploring the Distinctive Feminism of democratic confederalism in Rojava". Geopolitics: 1–25. doi:10.1080/14650045.2018.1554564.
- ^ http://www.doiserbia.nb.rs/img/doi/0353-5738/2020/0353-57382003319B.pdf
- ^ "German MP Jelpke: Rojava needs help against Corona pandemic". ANF News.
- ^ Şimşek, Bahar; Jongerden, Joost (29 October 2018). "Gender Revolution in Rojava: The Voices beyond Tabloid Geopolitics". Geopolitics: 1–23. doi:10.1080/14650045.2018.1531283 – via DOI.org (Crossref).
- ^ a b Zabad (2017), pp. 219, 228–229.
- ^ a b "Syria Kurds challenging traditions, promote civil marriage". ARA News. 20 February 2016. Archived from the original on 22 February 2016. Retrieved 23 August 2016.
- ^ a b c Carl Drott (25 May 2015). "The Revolutionaries of Bethnahrin". Warscapes. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 156–163.
- ^ "PYD leader: SDF operation for Raqqa countryside in progress, Syria can only be secular". ARA News. 28 May 2016. Archived from the original on 1 October 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- ^ a b c d e f g Ross, Carne (30 September 2015). "The Kurds' Democratic Experiment". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- ^ In der Maur, Renée; Staal, Jonas (2015). "Introduction". Stateless Democracy (PDF). Utrecht: BAK. p. 19. ISBN 978-90-77288-22-1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 25 October 2016. Retrieved 19 April 2016.
- ^ Jongerden, Joost (6 December 2012). "Rethinking Politics and Democracy in the Middle East" (PDF). Ekurd.net. Retrieved 9 October 2016.
- ^ a b c "ANALYSIS: 'This is a new Syria, not a new Kurdistan'". MiddleEastEye. 21 March 2016. Retrieved 25 May 2016.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 94, 130–131, 184.
- ^ a b "Syria, Report by UN Commission of Inquiry (March 2017)". International Committee of the Red Cross. 10 March 2017. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- ^ Küçük, Bülent; Özselçuk, Ceren (1 January 2016). "The Rojava Experience: Possibilities and Challenges of Building a Democratic Life". South Atlantic Quarterly. 115 (1): 184–196. doi:10.1215/00382876-3425013 – via read.dukeupress.edu.
- ^ Gerber, Damian; Brincat, Shannon (2018). "When Öcalan met Bookchin: The Kurdish Freedom Movement and the Political Theory of Democratic Confederalism". Geopolitics: 1–25. doi:10.1080/14650045.2018.1508016.
- ^ Staff, Reuters (12 October 2019). "Kurdish-led SDF says Turkish invasion has revived IS, urges no-fly zone" – via www.reuters.com.
- ^ "SDF: Turkey aims at carrying out an ethnic genocide". ANF News.
- ^ "SDF fighters: Turkey tries to widen occupation attacking Ayn Issa". ANF News.
- ^ "SDF-Turkey". Ahval.
- ^ Lister 2015, p. 154: "On 19 July the PYD formally announced that it had written a constitution for an autonomous Syrian Kurdish region to be known as West Kurdistan."
- ^ "Yekîneya Antî Teror a Rojavayê Kurdistanê hate avakirin". Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar (in Kurdish). 7 April 2015. Archived from the original on 12 May 2015. Retrieved 13 May 2015.
- ^ Kurdish Awakening: Nation Building in a Fragmented Homeland, (2014), by Ofra Bengio, University of Texas Press, p. 2
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 89, 151–152.
- ^ a b c d e f Metin Gurcan (7 November 2019). "Is the PKK worried by the YPG's growing popularity?". al-Monitor. Retrieved 7 November 2019.
- ^ "Nordsyrien: Warum ein Deutscher sein Leben für die Kurden riskiert" [Northern Syria: Why a German risks his life for the Kurds]. ARD (in German). 31 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ Awde, Nicholas; Lamassu, Nineb; Al-Jeloo, Nicholas (2007). Aramaic (Assyrian/Syriac) Dictionary & Phrasebook: Swadaya-English, Turoyo-English, English-Swadaya-Turoyo. Hippocrene Books. p. 300. ISBN 9780781810876.
- ^ a b Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 93–94.
- ^ a b "The Autonomous Administration in Northern Syria: Questions of Legitimacy and Identity". Omran Center for Strategic Studies. 26 July 2018. Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- ^ a b "Syria civil war: Kurds declare federal region in north". Aljazeera. 17 March 2016.
- ^ Bradley, Matt; Albayrak, Ayla; Ballout, Dana. "Kurds Declare 'Federal Region' in Syria, Says Official". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved 18 March 2016.
- ^ "Reşnivîsa Hevpeymana Civakî ya Federaliya Demokratîk a Bakurê Sûriyeyê – ANHA". ku.hawarnews.com.
- ^ "Hevpeymana Civakî ya Federaliya Demokratîk ji bo Bakurê Sûriyê".
- ^ "Second day of Northern Syria Constituent Assembly conference takes place". Hawar News Agency. 28 December 2016. Archived from the original on 11 June 2017. Retrieved 28 December 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurdish groups, allies say approve blueprint for federal system". Reuters. 29 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
- ^ "'Rojava' no longer exists, 'Northern Syria' adopted instead". Kurdistan24. 31 December 2016. Retrieved 1 January 2017.
- ^ "ܩܝܡܐ ܟܢܘܫܝܝܐ ܕܦܕܪܐܠܝܘܬ݂ܐ ܕܝܡܩܪܐܛܝܬܐ ܕܓܪܒܝ ܣܘܪܝܐ".[permanent dead link]
- ^ a b c "Final statement of Autonomous Administration of North , East Syria – ANHA | Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar". Autonomous Administration of North East Syria
- ^ a b "Amina Omar : Autonomous Administration its purpose to serve people". hawarnews.com. Consolidation of administrations – ANHA | Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar
- ^ Assyria 1995: Proceedings of the 10th Anniversary Symposium of the Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project / Helsinki, 7–11 September 1995.
- ^ Crook, JA; et al. (1985). The Cambridge Ancient History Volume 9: The Last Age of the Roman Republic, 146–43 BC. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 603. ISBN 978-1139054379.
- ^ Andrea, Alfred J.; Overfield, James H. (2015). The Human Record: Sources of Global History, Volume I: To 1500 (8 ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 133. ISBN 978-1305537460.
- ^ Daryaee, Touraj (2014). Sasanian Persia: The Rise and Fall of an Empire. I.B.Tauris. p. 33. ISBN 978-0857716668.
- ^ a b Retso (2003), pp. 315–317.
- ^ Vanly (1992), pp. 116–117.
- ^ Burns, Ross (2013). Aleppo, A History. Routledge. pp. 142–144. ISBN 9780415737210.
- ^ a b Burns, Ross (2013). Aleppo, A History. Routledge. p. 129. ISBN 9780415737210.
- ^ a b Travis, Hannibal. Genocide in the Middle East: The Ottoman Empire, Iraq, and Sudan. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press, 2010, 2007, pp. 237–77, 293–294.
- ^ a b c R. S. Stafford (2006). The Tragedy of the Assyrians. pp. 24–25. ISBN 9781593334130.
- ^ Hovannisian, Richard G., 2007. The Armenian Genocide: Cultural and Ethical Legacies. Accessed on 11 November 2014.
- ^ Tejel, Jordi (2008). Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society (PDF). pp. 25–29.
- ^ "Ray J. Mouawad, Syria and Iraq – Repression Disappearing Christians of the Middle East". Middle East Forum. 2001. Retrieved 20 March 2015.
- ^ Bat Yeʼor (2002). Islam and Dhimmitude: Where Civilizations Collide. p. 162. ISBN 9780838639429.
- ^ Abu Fakhr, Saqr, 2013. As-Safir daily Newspaper, Beirut. in Arabic Christian Decline in the Middle East: A Historical View
- ^ "Abandoned by America: How the Kurds have once again been 'stabbed in the back'". The National. Retrieved 3 May 2020.
- ^ Ross Burns (2013), p.138
- ^ a b Dawn Chatty (2010). Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern Middle East. Cambridge University Press. pp. 230–232. ISBN 978-1-139-48693-4.
- ^ a b Simpson, John Hope (1939). The Refugee Problem: Report of a Survey (First ed.). London: Oxford University Press. ASIN B0006AOLOA.
- ^ a b c d e f g h "The Silenced Kurds". Human Rights Watch. 8 (4). October 1996.
- ^ Marcus, Aliza (2009). Blood and belief: the PKK and the Kurdish fight for independence (1. publ. in paperback. ed.). New York: New York University Press. p. 61. ISBN 978-0814795873.
- ^ "After 52-year ban, Syrian Kurds now taught Kurdish in schools". Al-Monitor. 6 November 2015.
- ^ a b Abboud, Samer N. (2015). Syria. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 978-0745698014.
- ^ a b c "A murder stirs Kurds in Syria". The Christian Science Monitor.
- ^ a b c d "Persecution and Discrimination against Kurdish Citizens in Syria, Report for the 12th session of the UN Human Rights Council"(PDF). Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2009.
- ^ Tejel, Jordi; Welle, Jane (2009). Syria's kurds history, politics and society (PDF) (1. publ. ed.). London: Routledge. pp. X–X. ISBN 978-0-203-89211-4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- ^ "HRW World Report 2010". Human Rights Watch. 2010.
- ^ Lister (2015), pp. 13–14.
- ^ Mardean Isaac (20 December 2015). "The Assyrians of Syria: History and Prospects". Syria Comment. Archived from the original on 17 June 2019. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- ^ Gold, Danny (31 October 2012). "Meet the YPG, the Kurdish militia that doesn't want help from anyone". VICE. Retrieved 9 October 2014. A member of YPG's central command … said that the YPG formed in 2004 shortly after the Qamishlo riots, when a number of Kurdish youth realized that they needed to be able to defend themselves more efficiently. They did not officially declare themselves until the revolution started in 2011.
- ^ a b c d e (in Dutch) 'Kurds stuck in a scrape from all sides' ('Koerden zitten van alle kanten klem'). Carolien Roelants (Middle-East correspondent) in NRC Handelsblad, 15 October 2019. Retrieved 19 October 2019.
- ^ "Armed Kurds Surround Syrian Security Forces in Qamishli". Rudaw. 22 July 2012. Archived from the original on 24 July 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- ^ "Girke Lege Becomes Sixth Kurdish City Liberated in Syria". Rudaw. 24 July 2012. Archived from the original on 29 November 2012. Retrieved 27 July 2012.
- ^ a b Lister (2015), pp. 95–96.
- ^ Lister (2015), pp. 95–96, 153–154, 175.
- ^ Andrea Glioti (13 February 2014). "Syrian Kurds recruit regime loyalists to fight jihadists". al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 3 August 2017. Retrieved 6 April 2017.
- ^ "In Syria, a Battle Between Radical Leftism and Militant Islam". Harvard Political Review. 22 January 2017. Retrieved 22 January 2017.
- ^ Lister (2015), pp. 357–358.
- ^ "Syria's Kurds declare de-facto federal region in north". Associated Press. 17 March 2016. Retrieved 17 January 2017.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds in six-month countdown to federalism". 12 April 2016. Retrieved 19 June 2016.
- ^ a b "Syrian Kurds declare Qamishli as capital for the new federal system". ARA News. 5 July 2016. Archived from the original on 8 July 2016. Retrieved 5 July 2016.
- ^ "After approving constitution, what's next for Syria's Kurds?". Al-Monitor. 22 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- ^ "Kurds, Arabs and Assyrians talk to Enab Baladi about the "Federal Constitution" in Syria". 26 July 2016. Retrieved 26 July 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds, allies set to approve new government blueprint". Reuters. 28 December 2016.
- ^ Kingsley, Patrick (16 October 2019). "The World Condemns Erdogan's War on Kurds. But Turkey Applauds". The New York Times.
- ^ "Interpol removes top PKK-affiliated figure from its red notice list". Daily Sabah. 24 July 2019.
- ^ "TSK: 32 Köy Terörist Unsurlardan Temizlendi". Yeni Asır. 31 August 2016.
- ^ Illingworth, Andrew (2 March 2017). "BREAKING: Kurdish-led SDF to handover huge section of territory to SAA". The New York Times.
- ^ "Terrified children, empty streets in Syria's Afrin as Turkey attacks". France24. 20 January 2018.
- ^ Iddon, Paul (19 February 2019). "The significance of the Shahba Canton for the YPG". Rudaw Media Network. Retrieved 24 October 2019.
- ^ McKernan, Bethan (9 October 2019). "Turkey launches military operation in northern Syria". The Guardian.
- ^ "Trump makes way for Turkey operation against Kurds in Syria". BBC News. 7 October 2019. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- ^ "US betrayal of Kurds destroys the West's credibility for years to come". Sky News.
- ^ "Trump's Syria move 'delivers a blow to US credibility worldwide'". Al Jazeera.
- ^ "Trump's Gut, and the Gutting of American Credibility". The New York Times.
- ^ "Trump's decision on Syria has already turned into a foreign policy disaster". NBC News.
- ^ "قوات النظام تبدأ دخول مدينة منبج شمال شرق حلب بالتزامن مع استمرار انسحاب قوات التحالف من المدينة • المرصد السوري لحقوق الإنسان". 15 October 2019.
- ^ "Syrian Army enters strategic city in Al-Raqqa with heavy equipment: video". 15 October 2019.
- ^ "Syrian army enters Kurdish-held city, air base to help counter Turkish assault". xinhuanet.com.
- ^ "Syrian army moves to confront Turkish forces as US withdraws". timesofisrael.com.
- ^ "Syrian forces enter key border town". Times. 16 October 2019.
- ^ "India slams Turkey for its 'unilateral military offensive' in northeast Syria | India News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 10 October 2019.
- ^ "Damning evidence of war crimes by Turkish forces and allies in Syria". Amnesty International. 18 October 2019.
- ^ a b "2014 Charter of the Social Contract of Rojava". Peace in Kurdistan. 29 January 2014. Retrieved 18 June 2016.
- ^ a b c Andrea Glioti, Rojava: A libertarian myth under scrutiny, Al-Jazeera (6 August 2016).
- ^ "A Very Different Ideology in the Middle East". Rudaw.
- ^ Khalaf, Rana. "Governing Rojava Layers of Legitimacy in Syria" (PDF). The Royal Institute of International Affairs. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 31 May 2017.
- ^ "Kurdish Supreme Committee in Syria Holds First Meeting". Rudaw. 27 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- ^ "Now Kurds are in charge of their fate: Syrian Kurdish official". Ekurd.net. Rudaw. 29 July 2012. Retrieved 6 January 2014.
- ^ "Writings of Obscure American Leftist Drive Kurdish Forces in Syria". Voice of America. 16 January 2017.
- ^ ""The Kurdish National Alliance," a new political entity in the column". Enab Baladi. 15 February 2016.
- ^ "High Electoral Commission disclosed Local Administration elections' outcomes". Hawar News Agency. 5 December 2017. Archived from the original on 8 December 2017.
- ^ "المحافظين الديمقراطي" حزبٌ جديد يُعلن عن نفسه في قامشلو [The Democratic Conservatives are a new party declaring itself in Qamishlo]. buyer (in Arabic). 28 August 2017. Retrieved 25 September 2019.
- ^ "Electoral Commission publish video of elections 2nd stage". Hawar News Agency. 25 November 2017. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
- ^ "A Dream of Secular Utopia in ISIS' Backyard". New York Times. 29 November 2015. Retrieved 20 October 2019.
- ^ "YPG, backed by al-Khabour Guards Forces, al-Sanadid army and the Syriac Military Council, expels IS out of more than 230 towns, villages and farmlands". Syrian Observatory For Human Rights. 28 May 2015. Archived from the original on 29 May 2015. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ Gupta, Rahila (9 April 2016). "Rojava's commitment to Jineolojî: the science of women". openDemocracy. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ "SDF plays central role in Syrian civil war"(PDF). IHS Jane's 360. IHS. 20 January 2016. pp. 3–4. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 April 2016. Retrieved 28 February 2017.
- ^ "Anti-Kurdish protests in east Syria could endanger US plans". Associated Press. 5 September 2019. Retrieved 13 October 2019.
- ^ Kheder Khaddour (2018). BACK TO WHAT FUTURE? What Remains for Syria's Displaced People (PDF). Carnegie Middle East Center. pp. 13–14.
- ^ "المفوضية العليا للانتخابات – Komseriya Bilind Ya Hilbijartinan". Facebook.com. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- ^ Rodi Said (22 September 2017). "Syrians vote in Kurdish-led regions of north". Reuters.
- ^ "YPG attacks FSA-controlled Azaz province". Daily Sabah. 18 September 2019. Retrieved 20 October 2019. The eastern part of Syria's Afrin region is comprised of two districts: Tel Rifaat, currently occupied by the terrorist group [i. e. YPG], and Azaz, which remains under the control of Syrian opposition forces.
- ^ Baraa Sabri (17 July 2019). "The Fate of Tel Rifaat Hangs in the Balance". Washington Institute. Retrieved 20 October 2019. Whereas before the greater Afrin region was under Kurdish occupation with both Arab majorities and Kurdish majorities, the situation reversed into a complete Turkish occupation of entirely Kurdish areas as well as the initially disputed Arab majority areas. Meanwhile, Tel Rifaat and Menagh remained under YPG control with semi-official Russian protection. [...] The Kurdish battalions that remained in the Tel Rifaat area and guarded the camps of displaced Kurds from Afrin have lived in a tense environment, well within reach of the Turkish pincers.
- ^ "Dêrîk congress decides to establish Democratic Syria Assembly". Firat News Agency. kurdishinfo. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- ^ "Haytham Manna Elected Joint Chairman of Syrian Democratic Council". The Syrian Observer. 14 October 2015. Retrieved 26 May 2016.
- ^ "Executive Board of Democratic Syria Assembly elected". Ajansa Nûçeyan a Firatê English. Archived from the original on 20 December 2015. Retrieved 2 August 2016.
- ^ a b c "Striking out on their own". The Economist.
- ^ David Commins; David W. Lesch (5 December 2013), Historical Dictionary of Syria (in German), Scarecrow Press, p. 239, ISBN 978-0-8108-7966-9
- ^ a b Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 109–110.
- ^ "Education in Rojava after the revolution". ANF. 16 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ "After 52-year ban, Syrian Kurds now taught Kurdish in schools". Al-Monitor. 6 November 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Rojava schools to re-open with PYD-approved curriculum". Rudaw. 29 August 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ a b c "Hassakeh: Syriac Language to Be Taught in PYD-controlled Schools". The Syrian Observer. 3 October 2016. Retrieved 5 October 2016.
- ^ "Kurds introduce own curriculum at schools of Rojava". ARA News. 2 October 2015. Archived from the original on 6 June 2017. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Revolutionary Education in Rojava". New Compass. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 10 May 2016.
- ^ "Education in Rojava: Academy and Pluralistic versus University and Monisma". Kurdishquestion. 12 January 2014. Archived from the original on 10 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Syriac Christians revive ancient language despite war". ARA News. 19 August 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- ^ "Rojava administration launches new curriculum in Kurdish, Arabic and Assyrian". ARA News. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 7 October 2016.
- ^ "Syriacs will study their language in schools this year – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com.
- ^ "The Syriacs are taught their language for the first time – ANHA". en.hawarnews.com. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2017.
- ^ "What is reality of educational process in North Syria, new year's curricula? – ANHA | Ajansa Nûçeyan a Hawar". hawarnews.com.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 110–111.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 111–112.
- ^ a b "Kurds establish university in Rojava amid Syrian instability". Kurdistan24. 7 July 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ^ "The Assyrians of Syria: History and Prospects". AINA. 21 December 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Christians, Kurds at Odds Over Syria School Curriculum". Al Shahid News. 13 September 2018.
- ^ "Why Did the Kurdish "Self-Management" Close the Syriac Private School in Eastern al-Hasakah?". Enab Baladi. 11 August 2018.
- ^ By Rudaw. "Rojava authority's efforts to provide Syriac education met with resistance". Rudaw.
- ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg. "Syrian Kurds open church in Kobani, once besieged by IS". Kurdistan24.
- ^ Delil Souleiman. "Syriacs protest Kurdish authorities over Syria school curriculum". Yahoo News.
- ^ "Revolutionary Education in Rojava". New Compass. 17 February 2015. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Syria's first Kurdish university attracts controversy as well as students". Al-Monitor. 18 May 2016. Archived from the original on 21 May 2016. Retrieved 19 May 2016.
- ^ "'University of Rojava' to be opened". ANF. 4 July 2016. Archived from the original on 4 January 2017. Retrieved 4 July 2016.
- ^ "Rojava university seeks to eliminate constraints on education in Syria's Kurdish region". ARA News. 15 August 2016. Retrieved 15 August 2016.
- ^ a b "Syria Country report, Freedom of the Press 2015". Freedom House. 2015. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- ^ "In blow to Kurdish independent media, Syrian Kurdish website shuts down". ARA News. 15 May 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- ^ "Syria's first Kurdish radio station burnt". Kurdistan24. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 6 July 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurdish administration condemns burning of radio ARTA FM office in Amude". ARA News. 27 April 2016. Retrieved 9 July 2016.
- ^ Bellingreri, Marta (24 December 2019). "Rojava Information Center, a media bridge to the world outside". Al-Monitor. Retrieved 29 March 2020.
- ^ By Rudaw. "Rudaw expresses regret over ban by Kobani authorities in Syria". Rudaw.
- ^ Kurdistan24. "Statement from Kurdistan 24 Company for Media and Research Ltd". Kurdistan24. Retrieved 2 September 2019.
- ^ انترنت في الحسكة والقامشلي خلال 10 أيام (in Arabic). syriannewscenter.net. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 13 January 2017.
- ^ "Kurdish art, music flourish as regime fades from northeast Syria". Al-Monitor. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- ^ هيئة الثقافة تفتتح معرضاً في سري كانيه بالحسكة (in Arabic). ARA News. 12 September 2015.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds hold theatre festival in Rojava amid war". Kurdistan24. April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- ^ a b "Efrîn Economy Minister Yousef: Rojava challenging norms of class, gender and power". Diclenews.com. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- ^ a b c "Rojava's Sustainability and the PKK's Regional Strategy". Washington Institute. 24 August 2016.
- ^ "Will Syria's Kurds succeed at self-sufficiency?". 3 May 2016. Archived from the original on 8 May 2016. Retrieved 18 May 2016.
- ^ "Flight of Icarus? The PYD's Precarious Rise in Syria" (PDF). International Crisis Group. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2014.
- ^ "Zamana LWSL".
- ^ "Efrîn Economy Minister: Rojava Challenging Norms Of Class, Gender And Power". 22 December 2014.
- ^ "Poor in means but rich in spirit". Ecology or Catastrophe. Retrieved 18 February 2015.
- ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (11 July 2017). "Rojava Administration to Impose Tax System in Northern Syria". Co-operation in Mesopotamia.
- ^ "In Syria's Mangled Economy, Truckers Stitch Together Warring Regions". Wall Street Journal. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- ^ "Rojava's Future: Four Models Explained". The Washington Institute.
- ^ Cockburn, Patrick (4 February 2021). "After IS" – via www.lrb.co.uk.
- ^ "Kurds Fight Islamic State to Claim a Piece of Syria". The Wall Street Journal.
- ^ "Das Embargo gegen Rojava". TATORT (Kurdistan Delegation). Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds risk their lives crossing into Turkey". Middle East Eye. 29 December 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2015.
- ^ "Rojava: The Economic Branches in Detail". cooperativeeconomy.info. 14 January 2017. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- ^ "US welcomes opening of border between Rojava and Iraqi Kurdistan". ARA News. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ "Business booming in Rojava after outlet opened with Kurdistan Region". Kurdistan24. 22 April 2017.
- ^ "First aid convoy arrives in Rojava through new land corridor". ARA News. 26 June 2017. Archived from the original on 28 June 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2017.
- ^ "Iran-backed Iraqi force says takes Islamic State villages near Syria". Reuters. 29 May 2017.
- ^ "Iraq paramilitaries reach Iraq's border with Syria". ABC News. 29 May 2017.
- ^ "PKK planning to open trade route between Rojava and Iraq". Iraqi News. 4 June 2017.
- ^ a b "Rojava, Syria: A revolution of hope and healing". Vancouver Observer. 19 April 2017. Retrieved 19 April 2017.
- ^ A Small Key Can Open a Large Door: The Rojava Revolution (1st ed.). Strangers in a Tangled Wilderness. 4 March 2015.
- ^ Michael Knapp, 'Rojava – the formation of an economic alternative: Private property in the service of all'.
- ^ "How do cooperatives work in Rojava?". cooperativeeconomy.info. Retrieved 16 January 2017.
- ^ Dr. Ahmad Yousef. "Rojava experience of the social economy : reality and prospects" (PDF). Sange.fi. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- ^ A Small Key Can Open a Large Door: The Rojava Revolution (1st ed.). Strangers in a Tangled Wilderness. 4 March 2015. According to Dr. Ahmad Yousef, an economic co-minister, three-quarters of traditional private property is being used as commons and one quarter is still being owned by use of individuals...According to the Ministry of Economics, worker councils have only been set up for about one third of the enterprises in Rojava so far.
- ^ "Syria". Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. p. 13. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- ^ "Islamic Family Law: Syria (Syrian Arab Republic)". Law.emory.edu. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- ^ Zabad (2017), pp. 156–163.
- ^ "Kurdish 'Angelina Jolie' devalued by media hype". BBC. 12 September 2016. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- ^ a b "Syrian Kurds tackle conscription, underage marriages and polygamy". ARA News. 15 November 2016. Archived from the original on 16 November 2016. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
- ^ "Power to the people: a Syrian experiment in democracy". Financial Times. 23 October 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- ^ a b "The New Justice System in Rojava". biehlonbookchin.com. 13 October 2014. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds Get Outside Help to Manage Prisons". Voice of America. 23 September 2015. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- ^ "Syria: Arbitrary detentions and blatantly unfair trials mar PYD fight against terrorism". Amnesty International. 7 September 2015. Retrieved 12 September 2016.
- ^ "Highest to Lowest – Prison Population Rate". World Prison Brief.
- ^ a b c "Rojava Asayish: Security institution not above but within the society". ANF. 6 June 2016. Archived from the original on 24 September 2016. Retrieved 6 June 2016.
- ^ "Rojava Dispatch Six: Innovations, the Formation of the Hêza Parastina Cewherî (HPC)". Modern Slavery.
- ^ Rudaw (6 April 2015). "Rojava defense force draws thousands of recruits". Rudaw. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- ^ Gold, Danny (31 October 2010). "Meet the YPG, the Kurdish Militia That Doesn't Want Help from Anyone". Vice. Retrieved 9 October 2014.
- ^ "Syria: Abuses in Kurdish-run Enclaves". Human Rights Watch. 18 June 2014.
- ^ "Syria". Amnesty International. 13 October 2015.
- ^ a b "Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban". Hrw.org. 15 July 2015. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- ^ "Under Kurdish Rule – Abuses in PYD-run Enclaves of Syria". Hrw.org. 19 June 2014. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- ^ U.N. Security Council (5 June 2015). Report of the Secretary-General: Children and armed conflict (Report). para. 191. Actual numbers are expected to be higher.... A number of pro-Government groups, including Hizbullah, also reportedly recruited children in small numbers.
- ^ YPG demobilizes 21 children under the age of 18 from the military service in its ranks (Report). Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. 28 October 2015. Archived from the original on 21 November 2015.
- ^ "Amnesty accuses US-backed Syrian Kurdish group of demolishing homes". The Jerusalem Post.
- ^ "Syria: Kurdish Forces Violating Child Soldier Ban Despite Promises, Children Still Fight". Hurriyet Daily News. 24 October 2015. Retrieved 13 June 2016.
- ^ "Syria: Armed Group Recruiting Children in Camps". Human Rights Watch. 3 August 2018.
- ^ Perry, Tom; Malla, Naline (10 September 2015). "Western states train Kurdish force in Syria, force's leader says". Reuters. Amnesty International this month faulted the Kurdish administration for arbitrary detentions and unfair trials.... [Ciwan] Ibrahim said ... efforts were underway to improve its human rights record.... The Geneva Call ... promotes good treatment of civilians in war zones...
- ^ "Syrian Kurds give women equal rights, snubbing jihadists". Yahoo. 9 November 2014.
- ^ "Power to the people: a Syrian experiment in democracy". Financial Times. 23 October 2015.
- ^ a b c Meredith Tax (14 October 2016). "The Rojava Model". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ a b c Si Sheppard (25 October 2016). "What the Syrian Kurds Have Wrought. The radical, unlikely, democratic experiment in northern Syria". The Atlantic. Retrieved 25 October 2016.
- ^ "Assyrian leader accuses PYD of monopolizing power in Syria's north". ARA. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 22 October 2016.
- ^ a b c "Syria rejects Russian proposal for Kurdish federation". Al-Monitor. 24 October 2016.
- ^ "Turkey accuses Kurdish forces of 'ethnic cleansing' in Syria". Agence France-Presse. 16 June 2015. Archived from the original on 5 November 2018. Retrieved 27 August 2018. President Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Sunday said he was troubled by the advance of Kurdish forces, saying they could in the future create a structure to threaten Turkey.
- ^ "Syria: US ally's razing of villages amounts to war crimes". Amnesty International. 13 October 2015.
- ^ "Syria: Kurdish militias plan a demographic change in Manbij". Middle East Observer. 14 August 2016.
- ^ "Tal Abyad: Achilles Heel of the Syrian Kurdish Belt". Middle East Observer. 21 December 2018.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds accused of ethnic cleansing and killing opponents". The Telegraph. 18 May 2016.
- ^ ""There's no 'ethnic cleansing' in Til Abyad against the Turkmen and Arabic population.", Gesellschaft für bedrohte Völker, 26. Juni 2015". GFBV.de. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- ^ Morton (2020), pp. 122–123, 167.
- ^ a b Fevret, Maurice; Gibert, André (1953). "La Djezireh syrienne et son réveil économique". Revue de géographie de Lyon (in French) (28): 1–15. Retrieved 29 March 2012.
- ^ Storm, Lise (2005). "Ethnonational Minorities in the Middle East Berbers, Kurds, and Palestinians". A Companion to the History of the Middle East. Utrecht: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 475. ISBN 1-4051-0681-6.
- ^ McDowell, David (2005). A Modern History of the Kurds (3. revised and updated. ed., repr. ed.). London [u.a.]: Tauris. p. 469. ISBN 1-85043-416-6.
- ^ Kreyenbroek, Philip G.; Sperl, Stefan (1992). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. London: Routledge. pp. 147. ISBN 0-415-07265-4.
- ^ Yildiz, Kerim (2005). The Kurds in Syria : the forgotten people (1. publ. ed.). London [etc.]: Pluto Press, in association with Kurdish Human Rights Project. p. 25. ISBN 0745324991.
- ^ McDowall, David. Modern History of the Kurds, I. B. Tauris & Company, Limited, 2004. pp. 473–474.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds provide safe haven for thousands of Iraqis fleeing ISIS". ARA News. 3 July 2016. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
- ^ "Rojava hosts thousands of displaced Iraqi civilians as war on ISIS intensifies". ARA News. 17 October 2016. Retrieved 18 October 2016.
- ^ Allsopp & van Wilgenburg (2019), pp. 7–16.
- ^ "'We're Arabs just as much as Kurds': Syrian Kurds call for unity". Al Jazeera.
- ^ Killing of Iraq Kurds 'genocide', BBC, "The Dutch court said it considered "legally and convincingly proven that the Kurdish population meets requirement under Genocide Conventions as an ethnic group"."
- ^ "Kurds". The Columbia Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Encyclopedia.com. 2014. Retrieved 29 December 2014.
- ^ Izady, Mehrdad R. (1992). The Kurds: A Concise Handbook. Taylor & Francis. p. 198. ISBN 978-0-8448-1727-9.
- ^ Bois, T.; Minorsky, V.; MacKenzie, D.N. (2009). "Kurds, Kurdistan". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, T.; Bosworth, C. E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W. P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia Islamica. Brill. The Kurds, an Iranian people of the Near East, live at the junction of more or less laicised Turkey. ... We thus find that about the period of the Arab conquest a single ethnic term Kurd (plur. Akrād) was beginning to be applied to an amalgamation of Iranian or iranicised tribes. ... The classification of the Kurds among the Iranian nations is based mainly on linguistic and historical data and does not prejudice the fact there is a complexity of ethnical elements incorporated in them.
- ^ Barbara A. West (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. p. 518. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7.
- ^ Frye, Richard Nelson. "IRAN v. PEOPLES OF IRAN (1) A General Survey". Encyclopædia Iranica. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- ^ "Culturally Sensitive Social Work Practice with Arab Clients in Mental Health Settings". Socialworkers.org.
- ^ Shoup, John A. (31 October 2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 9781598843620.
- ^ Shoup, John A. (31 October 2011). Ethnic Groups of Africa and the Middle East: An Encyclopedia. ISBN 9781598843620. Retrieved 26 May 2014.
- ^ Barakat, Halim (1993). The Arab world society, culture, and state. Berkeley: University of California Press. ISBN 0520914422.
- ^ "Overview of Middle East - Minority Rights Group". Minority Rights Group.
- ^ Dona J. Stewart (22 December 2008). The Middle East Today: Political, Geographical and Cultural Perspectives. Routledge. p. 49. ISBN 978-1-135-98078-8.
- ^ Anthony Gorman; Andrew Newman (2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Africa and the Middle East. Infobase Publishing. p. 32. ISBN 978-1-4381-2676-0.
- ^ W. Montgomery Watt; Pierre Cachia (1976). Who Is an Arab?. Carnegie Council.
- ^ a b Margaret Nydell (23 March 2012). Understanding Arabs, Fifth Edition: A Contemporary Guide to Arab Society. p. 169. ISBN 9780983955801.
- ^ a b John Joseph (2000). The Modern Assyrians of the Middle East. p. 30. ISBN 9004116419.
- ^ For Assyrians as indigenous to the Middle East, see
- Mordechai Nisan, Minorities in the Middle East: A History of Struggle and Self-Expression, p. 180
- Carl Skutsch, Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities, p. 149
- Steven L. Danver, Native Peoples of the World: An Encyclopedia of Groups, Cultures and Contemporary Issues, p. 517
- UNPO Assyria
- Richard T. Schaefer, Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, p. 107
- ^ For Assyrians speaking a Neo-Aramaic language, see
- The British Survey, By British Society for International Understanding, 1968, p. 3
- Carl Skutsch, Encyclopedia of the World's Minorities, p. 149
- Farzad Sharifian, René Dirven, Ning Yu, Susanne Niemeier, Culture, Body, and Language: Conceptualizations of Internal Body Organs across Cultures and Languages, p. 268
- UNPO Assyria
- ^ "Glavin: In Iraq and Syria, it's too little, too late". Ottawa Citizen. 14 November 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2016.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 9 December 2018. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
- ^ "HISTORY OF THE KURDISH LANGUAGE". Encyclopædia Iranica.
- ^ D. N. MacKenzie (1961). "The Origins of Kurdish". Transactions of the Philological Society. 60: 68–86. doi:10.1111/j.1467-968X.1961.tb00987.x.
- ^ "Could Christianity be driven from Middle East?". BBC. 15 April 2015. Retrieved 15 April 2015.
- ^ "2004 Syrian Census" (PDF). Cbssyr.org. 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 March 2013. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ Rojava authorities. "Announce elections". Rudaw.
- ^ Muslim, Salim. "Only way to keep Syria united by the adoption of a decentralised, democratic and secular system". vrede.be. Vrede vzw. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- ^ Iddon, Paul (10 September 2017). "The power plays behind Russia's deconfliction in Afrin". Rudaw. Rudaw. Rudaw. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- ^ "Kurdish force may leave Raqqa campaign if Turkey continues attacks". Rudaw. Rudaw. Rudaw. 28 July 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2018.
- ^ "أعمال وإنجازات مجلس المنصورة المدني خلال عامه الأول". 10 July 2018.
- ^ "Al-Hasaka Health Directorate: One person infection to endanger everyone's life – ANHA | HAWARNEWS | English". hawarnews.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- ^ "هيئة الصحة والبيئة – المجلس التنفيذي".
- ^ "An appeal from Health Body of Al-Jazeera region – ANHA | HAWARNEWS | English". hawarnews.com. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- ^ "Search Results for "Health"". Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- ^ "In Northern Syria, Destruction and Displacement Confront Health Workers – Syrian Arab Republic". ReliefWeb. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- ^ "Syria: Caring for displaced people and preparing for coronavirus in Idlib". Doctors Without Borders – USA. Retrieved 5 May 2020.
- ^ "KRG: Elections in Jazira are Not Acceptable". Basnews. 14 March 2015. Archived from the original on 16 March 2015. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds point finger at Western-backed opposition". Reuters. 23 May 2016. Retrieved 24 May 2016.
- ^ a b "Russia finishes draft for new Syria constitution". Now.MMedia/Al-Akhbar. 24 May 2016. Archived from the original on 7 August 2016.
- ^ Ghadi Sary (September 2016). "Kurdish Self-governance in Syria: Survival and Ambition"(PDF). Chatham House. Archived from the original (PDF) on 19 November 2017. Retrieved 20 November 2016.
- ^ Sam Heller (30 June 2017). "The Signal in Syria's Noise". warontherocks.com.
- ^ "Syria to consider granting Kurds greater autonomy". Al Jazeera. Retrieved 25 April 2018.
- ^ "Report: Syrian army to enter SDF-held Kobani, Manbij". Reuters. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "Syrian army to deploy along Turkish border in deal with Kurdish-led forces". Reuters. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "Syrian army moves to confront Turkish forces as US withdraws". Times of Israel. 14 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds accuse Turkey of violations, Russia says peace plan on track". Reuters. 24 October 2019. Retrieved 1 November 2019.
- ^ "What Kobani Means for Turkey's Kurds". The New Yorker. 8 November 2014.
- ^ "6 reasons why Turkey's war against the PKK won't last". Al-Monitor. 8 September 2015. Archived from the original on 28 March 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- ^ "Kurdish Militants and Turkey's New Urban Insurgency". War on the Rocks. 23 March 2016. Retrieved 20 May 2016.
- ^ "Kurdistan's Politicized Society Confronts a Sultanistic System". Carnegie Middle East Center. 18 August 2015. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurdish leader: We will respect outcome of independence referendum". ARA News. 3 August 2016. Archived from the original on 19 October 2017. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- ^ "Kurdish National Council announces plan for setting up 'Syrian Kurdistan Region'". ARA News. 4 August 2016. Retrieved 4 August 2016.
- ^ "Inside Syria: Kurds Roll Back ISIS, but Alliances Are Strained". New York Times. 10 August 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ Wladimir von Wilgenburg (23 May 2016). "ANALYSIS: Kurds welcome US support, but want more say on Syria's future". MiddleEastEye. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Pentagon chief praises Kurdish fighters in Syria". Hurriyet Daily News. 18 March 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "US general: Syrian Democratic Forces will lead the assault on Raqqa". Stars and Stripes. 26 October 2016. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
- ^ Schrupp, Kenneth (24 July 2018). "Iraq: Iranian Subversion and American Engagement". The California Review. Retrieved 25 July 2019.
- ^ Carla Babb (6 March 2017). "US Troops in Manbij to 'Deter' Skirmishes Between Turks, Kurds". VOA News.
- ^ "Ever-closer ties between US and Kurds stoke Turkish border tensions". The Guardian. 1 May 2017.
- ^ "Kurdish citizens 'rest easy' after American military patrols parade through cities in northern Syria". syriadirect.org. 2 May 2017.
- ^ a b "How the US stood with Syria's Kurds". Al-Monitor. 4 May 2017.
- ^ "Pentagon budget retains same troop levels in Iraq, Syria". Al-Monitor. 12 February 2018. Archived from the original on 13 February 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2018.
- ^ "Syrie : Emmanuel Macron annonce l'envoi de soldats au secours des Kurdes" (in French). Le Parisien. 29 March 2018.
- ^ Taştekin, Fehim (12 February 2015). "Hollande-PYD meeting challenges Erdogan". Al-Monitor.
- ^ "YPJ Commander Nesrin Abdullah speaks in Italian Parliament". JINHA. 23 June 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurdish PYD, Turkey's HDP leaders attend 'Ocalan conference' in Athens". eKurd. 17 February 2016. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- ^ "Build Kurdistan relationship or risk losing vital Middle East partner – News from Parliament". UK Parliament. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ "Rome Declares Kobane 'Sister City'". Kurdishquestion. 5 April 2015. Archived from the original on 13 December 2016. Retrieved 19 August 2016.
- ^ "Mark C. Toner, Deputy Spokesperson. Daily Press Briefing. Washington, DC. November 7, 2016". United States Department of State. 7 November 2016. Retrieved 7 November 2016.
- ^ "US-led coalition has no intention to create federal Kurdish state in Syria: official". Ara news. 30 March 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2017.
- ^ "Syria Opposition Rejects Russian Draft of New Constitution". Bloomberg. 25 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- ^ "Syrian draft constitution recognizes Kurdish language, no mentions of federalism". Rudaw. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- ^ رووداو تنشر مسودة الدستور السوري التي أعدها خبراء روس (in Arabic). Rudaw. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- ^ "Moscow invites Kurds and Syrian opposition to explain Astana". ARA News. 26 January 2017. Retrieved 26 January 2017.
- ^ "Rojava's first representation office outside Kurdistan opens in Moscow". Nationalia. 11 February 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds inaugurate representation office in Sweden". ARA News. 18 April 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ "Berlin'de Rojava temsilciliği açıldı". Evrensel.net (in Turkish). 7 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds open unofficial representative mission in Paris". Al Arabiya. 24 May 2016. Retrieved 22 May 2016.
- ^ "Syrian Kurds inaugurate representation office in the Netherlands". ARA News. 8 September 2016. Retrieved 8 September 2016.
- ^ Steven A. Cook (14 March 2016). "Between Ankara and Rojava". Foreign Affairs. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ Kamran Matin (12 December 2016). "The Geneva Peace Talks on Syria and the Kurds". NRT. Retrieved 18 December 2016.
- ^ "Rojava university seeks to eliminate constraints on education in Syria's Kurdish region". ARA News. 15 August 2016.
- ^ "L'écrivain Patrice Franceschi veut créer un centre culturel au Kurdistan syrien". Europe1. 27 March 2016.
- ^ "French delegation seeks to open cultural center in Rojava". NRT. 9 August 2016.
- ^ "Kurds plan to set up French institute in Syria". ARA News. 8 September 2016.
- ^ "From Rep. of Turkey Ministry of Foreign Affairs". Archived from the original on 5 December 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Turkish President Erdoğan slams US over YPG support". Hurryiet Daily News. 28 May 2016. Retrieved 2 November 2016.
- ^ "How Can Turkey Overcome Its Foreign Policy Mess?". Lobolog (Graham E. Fuller). 19 February 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Syria's Afrin: a plundered settlement one year on". Retrieved 23 March 2018.
- ^ Wladimir van Wilgenburg (12 June 2015). "The Rise of Jaysh al-Fateh in Northern Syria". Jamestown Foundation. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ David L. Phillips (11 September 2014). "Research Paper: ISIS-Turkey Links". Huffington Post. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Senior Western official: Links between Turkey and ISIS are now 'undeniable'". Businessinsider. 28 July 2015. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ Burak Bekdil (Summer 2015). "Turkey's Double Game with ISIS". Middle East Quarterly. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Turkey accused of shelling Kurdish-held village in Syria". The Guardian. 27 July 2015. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ "Turkey strikes Kurdish city of Afrin northern Syria, civilian casualties reported". ARA News. 19 February 2016. Archived from the original on 3 November 2016. Retrieved 9 June 2016.
- ^ Christopher Phillips (22 September 2016). "Turkey's Syria Intervention: A Sign of Weakness Not Strength". Newsweek. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ Fehim Taştekin (9 September 2016). "US backing ensures Arab-Kurd alliance in Syria will survive". Al-Monitor. Archived from the original on 9 September 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Germany warns Turkey from attacking Kurds in Syria". Iraqi News. 28 August 2016.
- ^ U.S. Senator John McCain, Chairman of the United States Senate Armed Services Committee (27 October 2016). "Statement by SASC Chairman John McCain on Turkish Government Attacks on Syrian Kurds". Archived from the original on 28 October 2016. Retrieved 28 October 2016.
- ^ "Turkey launches an attack on northern Syria". The Economist. ISSN 0013-0613. Retrieved 9 October 2019.
- ^ EU condemns Turkey again while sticking to its position on the Kurdish administration in north-east Syria, Tuesday, 17 December 2019.
- ^ "Final declaration of the EP Conference on Rojava". ANF News.
- ^ a b c d e f Regime continues to violate Sochi deal amid diplomatic efforts for political solution in Syria DAILY SABAH, ISTANBUL Published 10 December 2019.
- ^ AFP. "Turkey accuses Syrian Kurds of 'ethnic cleansing'". www.timesofisrael.com. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- ^ "Syrian rebels accuse Kurdish forces of 'ethnic cleansing' of Sunni Arabs". The Telegraph. Archived from the original on 17 April 2019. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- ^ "Have the Syrian Kurds Committed War Crimes?". The Nation. 7 February 2017. Retrieved 14 February 2020.
- ^ "Kurds accused of "ethnic cleansing" by Syria rebels". cbsnews. Retrieved 22 June 2015.
- ^ "UN says no ethnic cleansing by Kurds in northern Syria". Koerdisch Instituut Brussel. 21 March 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- ^ "UN: YPG and SDF have not committed ethnic cleansing".
- ^ "A_HRC_34_CRP.3_E.docx". www.ohchr.org. Retrieved 3 March 2020.
- ^ "Syria: US ally's razing of villages amounts to war crimes". www.amnesty.org.
- ^ "Kurdish authorities handed over political prisoner to Syrian regime: Official". www.kurdistan24.net. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- ^ "Journalism in Rojava (II): Independent media between freedom and control". openDemocracy. Retrieved 2 May 2020.
- Allsopp, Harriet; van Wilgenburg, Wladimir (2019). The Kurds of Northern Syria. Volume 2: Governance, Diversity and Conflicts. London; New York City; etc.: I.B. Tauris. ISBN 978-1-8386-0445-5.
- Lister, Charles R. (2015). The Syrian Jihad: Al-Qaeda, the Islamic State and the Evolution of an Insurgency. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780190462475.
- Meri, Josef W. (2006). Medieval Islamic Civilization: An Encyclopedia. Volume 1: A - K. New York City, London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.
- Morton, Nicholas (2020). The Crusader States and their Neighbours: A Military History, 1099-1187. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0198824541.
- Retso, Jan (2003). The Arabs in Antiquity: Their History from the Assyrians to the Umayyads. London; New York City: Routledge. ISBN 0-7007-1679-3.
- Sinclair, Christian; Kajjo, Sirwan (2013). "The Evolution of Kurdish Politics in Syria". In David A. McMurray; Amanda Ufheil-Somers (eds.). The Arab Revolts. Dispatches on Militant Democracy in the Middle East. Bloomington, Indiana: Indiana University Press. pp. 177–187. ISBN 978-0-253-00975-3.
- Tejel, Jordi (2009). Syria's Kurds: History, Politics and Society. Abingdon-on-Thames, New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-415-42440-0.
- Vanly, Ismet Chériff (1992). "The Kurds in Syria and Lebanon". In Philip G. Kreyenbroek; Stefan Sperl (eds.). The Kurds: A Contemporary Overview. New York City, London: Routledge. pp. 112–134. ISBN 978-0-415-96691-7.
- Zabad, Ibrahim (2017). Middle Eastern Minorities: The Impact of the Arab Spring. London; New York City: Routledge. ISBN 978-1-472-47441-4.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Rojava
Last edited on 14 May 2021, at 18:23
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.