/ (listen) ro-MAY-nee-ə
: România [romɨˈni.a] (listen)
) is a country located at the crossroads of Central
, and Southeastern Europe
. It shares land borders with Bulgaria
to the south, Ukraine
to the north, Hungary
to the west, Serbia
to the southwest, and Moldova
to the east, and has its opening to the Black Sea
. It has a predominantly temperate
, and covers an area of 238,397 km2
(92,046 sq mi), with a population of around 19 million. Romania is the twelfth-largest country
in Europe, and the sixth-most populous
member state of the European Union
. Its capital and largest city is Bucharest
, while other major urban areas
, and Galați
, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany
's Black Forest
and flows in a generally southeasterly direction for 2,857 km (1,775 mi), before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta
. The Carpathian Mountains
, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak
, at an altitude of 2,544 m (8,346 ft).
Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union
of the Danubian Principalities
. The new state, officially named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire
Following the outbreak of World War I
, after declaring its neutrality
in 1914, Romania fought on the side
of the Allied Powers
beginning in 1916. Afterwards Bukovina
as well as parts of Banat
, and Maramureș
became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania
In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact
and Second Vienna Award
, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union
, and Northern Transylvania
to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact
and, consequently, in June 1941 entered World War II
on the Axis side
, fighting against the Soviet Union
until August 1944, when it joined
and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army
's forces, Romania became a socialist republic
and a member of the Warsaw Pact
. After the 1989 Revolution
, Romania began a transition
and a market economy
Two spelling forms: român
were used interchangeably[a]
until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân
came to mean "bondsman
", while român
retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning.
After the abolition of serfdom
in 1746, the word rumân
gradually fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român
.[b] Tudor Vladimirescu
, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia
to refer exclusively to the principality of Wallachia.
The use of the name Romania
to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century.[c]
In English, the name of the country was formerly spelt Rumania
became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania
is also the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government.
A handful of other languages (including Italian, Hungarian, Portuguese, and Norwegian) have also switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u
, e.g. French Roumanie
, German and Swedish Rumänien
, Spanish Rumania
(the archaic form Rumanía
is still in use in Spain), Polish Rumunia
, Russian Румыния (Rumyniya
), and Japanese ルーマニア (Rūmania
Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase
("Cave with Bones"), radiocarbon date from circa 40,000 years ago, and represent the oldest known Homo sapiens
in Europe. Neolithic
agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly
in the 6th millennium BCE.
Excavations near a salt spring
yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; here salt production began between 5th millennium BCE and 4th BCE.
The first permanent settlements developed into "proto-cities",
which were larger than 320 hectares (800 acres).
The Cucuteni–Trypillia culture
—the best known archaeological culture
of Old Europe
—flourished in Muntenia
, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd millennium BC.
The first fortified settlements appeared around 1800 BCE, showing the militant character of Bronze Age
Greek colonies established on the Black Sea
coast in the 7th century BCE became important centres of commerce with the local tribes.
Among the native peoples, Herodotus
listed the Getae
of the Lower Danube region, the Agathyrsi
of Transylvania and the Syginnae
of the plains along the river Tisza
at the beginning of the 5th century BCE.
Centuries later, Strabo
associated the Getae with the Dacians
who dominated the lands along the southern Carpathian Mountains
in the 1st century BCE.Burebista
was the first Dacian ruler to unite the local tribes.
He also conquered the Greek colonies in Dobruja
and the neighbouring peoples as far as the Middle Danube and the Balkan Mountains
between around 55 and 44 BCE.
After Burebista was murdered in 44 BCE, his kingdom collapsed.
Ruins of sanctuaries at Sarmizegetusa Regia
(Dacia's capital during the reigns of Burebista and Decebalus).
The Romans reached Dacia during Burebista's reign and conquered Dobruja in 46 CE. Dacia
was again united under Decebalus
around 85 CE.
He resisted the Romans for decades, but the Roman army defeated his troops in 106 CE.
and the greater part of Transylvania into a new province
called Roman Dacia
, but Dacian, Germanic
tribes continued to dominate the lands along the Roman frontiers.
The Romans pursued an organised colonisation policy, and the provincials enjoyed a long period of peace and prosperity in the 2nd century.
Scholars accepting the Daco-Roman continuity theory—one of the main theories about the origin of the Romanians
—say that the cohabitation of the native Dacians and the Roman colonists in Roman Dacia was the first phase of the Romanians' ethnogenesis
and other neighbouring tribes made regular raids against Dacia from the 210s.
The Romans could not resist, and Emperor Aurelian
ordered the evacuation of the province Dacia Trajana
Scholars supporting the continuity theory are convinced that most Latin-speaking commoners stayed behind when the army and civil administration was withdrawn.
The Romans did not abandon their fortresses along the northern banks of the Lower Danube for decades, and Dobruja (known as Scythia Minor
) remained an integral part of the Roman Empire until the early 7th century.
Gutthiuda, or the land of the Gothic
, and the neighbouring tribes (370s AD).
The Goths were expanding towards the Lower Danube from the 230s, forcing the native peoples to flee to the Roman Empire or to accept their suzerainty
The Goths' rule ended abruptly when the Huns
invaded their territory in 376, causing new waves of migrations.
The Huns forced the remnants of the local population into submission, but their empire collapsed in 454.
took possession of the former Dacia province.
The nomadic Avars
defeated the Gepids and established a powerful empire around 570.
, who also came from the Eurasian steppes
, occupied the Lower Danube region in 680.
Place names that are of Slavic
origin abound in Romania, indicating that a significant Slavic-speaking population used to live in the territory.
The first Slavic
groups settled in Moldavia and Wallachia in the 6th century,
in Transylvania around 600.
After the Avar Khaganate
collapsed in the 790s, Bulgaria became the dominant power of the region, occupying lands as far as the river Tisa
The Council of Preslav
declared Old Church Slavonic
the language of liturgy in the First Bulgarian Tsardom
The Romanians also adopted Old Church Slavonic as their liturgical language.
(or Hungarians) took control of the steppes north of the Lower Danube in the 830s, but the Bulgarians and the Pechenegs
jointly forced them to abandon this region for the lowlands along the Middle Danube
Centuries later, the Gesta Hungarorum
wrote of the invading Magyars' wars against three dukes—Glad
and the Vlach Gelou
—for Banat, Crișana and Transylvania.
also listed many peoples—Slavs, Bulgarians, Vlachs, Khazars
, and Székelys
—inhabiting the same regions.
The reliability of the Gesta
is debated. Some scholars regard it as a basically accurate account, others describe it as a literary work filled with invented details.
The Pechenegs seized the lowlands abandoned by the Hungarians to the east of the Carpathians.
missionaries proselytised in the lands east of the Tisa from the 940s
and Byzantine troops occupied Dobruja in the 970s.
The first king of Hungary
, Stephen I
, who supported Western European missionaries, defeated the local chieftains and established Roman Catholic bishoprics
(office of a bishop) in Transylvania and Banat in the early 11th century.
Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks
followed them, and the nomadic Cumans
became the dominant power of the steppes in the 1060s.
Cooperation between the Cumans and the Vlachs against the Byzantine Empire is well documented from the end of the 11th century.
Scholars who reject the Daco-Roman continuity theory say that the first Vlach groups left their Balkan
homeland for the mountain pastures of the eastern and southern Carpathians in the 11th century, establishing the Romanians' presence in the lands to the north of the Lower Danube.
Exposed to nomadic incursions, Transylvania developed into an important border province of the Kingdom of Hungary
The Székelys—a community of free warriors—settled in central Transylvania around 1100 and moved to the easternmost regions around 1200.
Colonists from the Holy Roman Empire
—the Transylvanian Saxons
' ancestors—came to the province in the 1150s.
A high-ranking royal official, styled voivode
, ruled the Transylvanian counties
from the 1170s, but the Székely and Saxon seats
(or districts) were not subject to the voivodes' authority.
Royal charters wrote of the "Vlachs' land" in southern Transylvania in the early 13th century, indicating the existence of autonomous Romanian communities
Papal correspondence mentions the activities of Orthodox prelates among the Romanians in Muntenia in the 1230s.
Also in the 13th century, during one of its greatest periods of expansion, the Republic of Genoa
started establishing many colonies
and commercial and military ports on the Black Sea, in the current territory of Romania. The largest Genoese colonies in present-day Romania were Calafat
(still known as such), Constanța
(San Giorgio), Licostomo
(unknown modern location). These would last until the 15th century.
Princes Mircea I
and Vlad III of Wallachia
, and Stephen III of Moldavia
defended their countries' independence against the Ottomans. Most Wallachian and Moldavian princes paid a regular tribute to the Ottoman sultans from 1417 and 1456, respectively.
A military commander of Romanian origin, John Hunyadi
, organised the defence of the Kingdom of Hungary until his death in 1456.
Increasing taxes outraged the Transylvanian peasants, and they rose up in an open rebellion
in 1437, but the Hungarian nobles and the heads of the Saxon and Székely communities jointly suppressed their revolt.
The formal alliance of the Hungarian, Saxon, and Székely leaders, known as the Union of the Three Nations
, became an important element of the self-government of Transylvania.
The Orthodox Romanian knezes
("chiefs") were excluded from the Union.
Early Modern Times and national awakening
The Kingdom of Hungary collapsed, and the Ottomans occupied parts of Banat and Crișana in 1541.
Transylvania and Maramureș
, along with the rest of Banat and Crișana developed into a new state under Ottoman suzerainty, the Principality of Transylvania
Reformation spread and four denominations—Calvinism
, and Roman Catholicism—were officially acknowledged in 1568.
The Romanians' Orthodox faith remained only tolerated,
although they made up more than one-third of the population, according to 17th-century estimations.
The princes of Transylvania, Wallachia, and Moldavia joined the Holy League
against the Ottoman Empire in 1594.
The Wallachian prince, Michael the Brave
, united the three principalities under his rule in May 1600.
The neighboring powers forced him to abdicate in September, but he became a symbol of the unification of the Romanian lands in the 19th century.
Although the rulers of the three principalities continued to pay tribute to the Ottomans, the most talented princes—Gabriel Bethlen
of Transylvania, Matei Basarab
of Wallachia, and Vasile Lupu of Moldavia—strengthened their autonomy.
Princes Dimitrie Cantemir
of Moldavia and Constantin Brâncoveanu
of Wallachia concluded alliances with the Habsburg Monarchy and Russia against the Ottomans, but they were dethroned in 1711 and 1714, respectively.
The sultans lost confidence in the native princes and appointed Orthodox merchants from the Phanar
district of Istanbul to rule Moldova and Wallachia.
princes pursued oppressive fiscal policies and dissolved the army.
The neighboring powers took advantage of the situation: the Habsburg Monarchy annexed the northwestern part of Moldavia, or Bukovina
, in 1775, and the Russian Empire
seized the eastern half of Moldavia, or Bessarabia
, in 1812.
A census revealed that the Romanians were more numerous than any other ethnic group in Transylvania in 1733, but legislation continued to use contemptuous adjectives (such as "tolerated" and "admitted") when referring to them.
The Uniate bishop
, Inocențiu Micu-Klein
who demanded recognition of the Romanians as the fourth privileged nation was forced into exile.
Uniate and Orthodox clerics and laymen jointly signed a plea for the Transylvanian Romanians' emancipation
in 1791, but the monarch and the local authorities refused to grant their requests.
Independence and monarchy
Changes in Romania's territory since 1859.
The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca
authorised the Russian ambassador in Istanbul to defend the autonomy of Moldavia and Wallachia (known as the Danubian Principalities
) in 1774.
Taking advantage of the Greek War of Independence
, a Wallachian lesser nobleman, Tudor Vladimirescu, stirred up a revolt against the Ottomans in January 1821, but he was murdered in June by Phanariot Greeks.
After a new Russo-Turkish War
, the Treaty of Adrianople
strengthened the autonomy of the Danubian Principalities in 1829, although it also acknowledged the sultan's right to confirm the election of the princes.
, Nicolae Bălcescu
and other leaders of the 1848 revolutions in Moldavia
demanded the emancipation of the peasants and the union of the two principalities, but Russian and Ottoman troops crushed their revolt.
The Wallachian revolutionists were the first to adopt the blue, yellow and red tricolour
as the national flag
In Transylvania, most Romanians supported the imperial government against the Hungarian revolutionaries
after the Diet passed a law concerning the union of Transylvania and Hungary.
Bishop Andrei Șaguna
proposed the unification of the Romanians of the Habsburg Monarchy in a separate duchy, but the central government refused to change the internal borders.
Alexandru Ioan Cuza
was the first Domnitor
(i.e. Prince) of Romania (at that time the United Principalities of Wallachia and Moldavia) between 1862 and 1866.
The Treaty of Paris
put the Danubian Principalities under the collective guardianship of the Great Powers
After special assemblies
convoked in Moldavia and Wallachia urged the unification of the two principalities, the Great Powers did not prevent the election of Alexandru Ioan Cuza
as their collective domnitor
(or ruling prince) in January 1859.
The united principalities
officially adopted the name Romania on 21 February 1862.
Cuza's government carried out a series of reforms, including the secularisation of the property of monasteries and agrarian reform, but a coalition of conservative and radical politicians forced him to abdicate in February 1866.
Cuza's successor, a German prince, Karl of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
(or Carol I), was elected in May.
The parliament adopted the first constitution of Romania
in the same year.
The Great Powers acknowledged Romania's full independence at the Congress of Berlin
and Carol I was crowned king in 1881.
The Congress also granted the Danube Delta and Dobruja to Romania.
Although Romanian scholars strove for the unification of all Romanians into a Greater Romania
, the government did not openly support their irredentist
The Transylvanian Romanians and Saxons wanted to maintain the separate status of Transylvania in the Habsburg Monarchy, but the Austro-Hungarian Compromise
brought about the union of the province with Hungary in 1867.
Ethnic Romanian politicians sharply opposed the Hungarian government's attempts to transform Hungary into a national state, especially the laws prescribing the obligatory teaching of Hungarian.
Leaders of the Romanian National Party
proposed the federalisation of Austria-Hungary
and the Romanian intellectuals established a cultural association to promote the use of Romanian.
World Wars and Greater Romania
Fearing Russian expansionism, Romania secretly joined the Triple Alliance
of Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy in 1883, but public opinion remained hostile to Austria-Hungary.
Romania seized Southern Dobruja
from Bulgaria in the Second Balkan War
German and Austrian-Hungarian diplomacy supported Bulgaria during the war, bringing about a rapprochement between Romania and the Triple Entente
of France, Russia and the United Kingdom.
The country remained neutral when World War I
broke out in 1914, but Prime Minister Ion I. C. Brătianu
started negotiations with the Entente Powers.
After they promised Austrian-Hungarian territories with a majority of ethnic Romanian population to Romania in the Treaty of Bucharest
, Romania entered the war against the Central Powers
The German and Austrian-Hungarian troops defeated the Romanian army and occupied three-quarters of the country by early 1917.
After the October Revolution
turned Russia from an ally into an enemy, Romania was forced to sign a harsh peace treaty
with the Central Powers in May 1918,
but the collapse of Russia also enabled the union of Bessarabia with Romania
. King Ferdinand
again mobilised the Romanian army on behalf of the Entente Powers a day before Germany capitulated
on 11 November 1918.
Austria-Hungary quickly disintegrated after the war.
The General Congress of Bukovina
proclaimed the union of the province with Romania
on 28 November 1918, and the Grand National Assembly
proclaimed the union of Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș with the kingdom
on 1 December.
Peace treaties with Austria, Bulgaria and Hungary delineated the new borders in 1919 and 1920, but the Soviet Union
did not acknowledge the loss of Bessarabia.
Romania achieved its greatest territorial extent, expanding from the pre-war 137,000 to 295,000 km2
(53,000 to 114,000 sq mi).
A new electoral system granted voting rights
to all adult male citizens, and a series of radical agrarian reforms transformed the country into a "nation of small landowners" between 1918 and 1921.Gender equality
as a principle was enacted, but women could not vote or be candidates.Calypso Botez
established the National Council of Romanian Women to promote feminist ideas.
Romania was a multiethnic country, with ethnic minorities making up about 30% of the population, but the new constitution
declared it a unitary national state in 1923.
Although minorities could establish their own schools, Romanian language, history and geography could only be taught in Romanian.
Agriculture remained the principal sector of economy, but several branches of industry—especially the production of coal, oil, metals, synthetic rubber, explosives and cosmetics—developed during the interwar period
With oil production of 5.8 million tons in 1930, Romania ranked sixth in the world.
Two parties, the National Liberal Party
and the National Peasants' Party
, dominated political life, but the Great Depression in Romania
brought about significant changes in the 1930s.
The democratic parties were squeezed between conflicts with the fascist and anti-Semitic Iron Guard
and the authoritarian tendencies of King Carol II
The King promulgated a new constitution
and dissolved the political parties in 1938, replacing the parliamentary system with a royal dictatorship.
Romania's territorial losses in the summer of 1940. Of these territories, only Northern Transylvania
was regained after the end of World War II.
The 1938 Munich Agreement
convinced King Carol II that France and the United Kingdom could not defend Romanian interests.
German preparations for a new war required the regular supply of Romanian oil and agricultural products.
The two countries concluded a treaty concerning the coordination of their economic policies in 1939, but the King could not persuade Adolf Hitler
to guarantee Romania's frontiers.
Romania was forced to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union
on 26 June 1940, Northern Transylvania
to Hungary on 30 August, and Southern Dobruja to Bulgaria in September.
After the territorial losses, the King was forced to abdicate in favour of his minor son, Michael I
, on 6 September, and Romania was transformed into a national-legionary state
under the leadership of General Ion Antonescu
Antonescu signed the Tripartite Pact
of Germany, Italy and Japan on 23 November.
The Iron Guard staged a coup against Antonescu, but he crushed the riot with German support and introduced a military dictatorship in early 1941.
Romania entered World War II
soon after the German invasion of the Soviet Union
in June 1941.
The country regained Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina, and the Germans placed Transnistria
(the territory between the rivers Dniester and Dnieper) under Romanian administration.
Romanian and German troops massacred at least 160,000 local Jews in these territories; more than 105,000 Jews and about 11,000 Gypsies died during their deportation from Bessarabia to Transnistria.
Most of the Jewish population of Moldavia, Wallachia, Banat and Southern Transylvania survived,
but their fundamental rights were limited.
After the German occupation of Hungary
in March 1944, about 132,000 Jews – mainly Hungarian-speaking – were deported to extermination camps
from Northern Transylvania with the Hungarian authorities' support.
After the Soviet victory in the Battle of Stalingrad
in 1943, Iuliu Maniu
, a leader of the opposition to Antonescu, entered into secret negotiations with British diplomats who made it clear that Romania had to seek reconciliation with the Soviet Union.
To facilitate the coordination of their activities against Antonescu's regime, the National Liberal and National Peasants' parties established the National Democratic Bloc, which also included the Social Democratic
After a successful Soviet offensive, the young King Michael I ordered Antonescu's arrest
and appointed politicians from the National Democratic Bloc to form a new government on 23 August 1944.
Romania switched sides during the war, and nearly 250,000 Romanian troops joined the Red Army's military campaign against Hungary and Germany, but Joseph Stalin
regarded the country as an occupied territory within the Soviet sphere of influence.
Stalin's deputy instructed the King to make the Communists' candidate, Petru Groza
, the prime minister in March 1945.
The Romanian administration in Northern Transylvania was soon restored, and Groza's government carried out an agrarian reform.
In February 1947, the Paris Peace Treaties
confirmed the return of Northern Transylvania to Romania, but they also legalised the presence of units of the Red Army in the country.
During the Soviet occupation of Romania, the Communist-dominated government called for new elections
in 1946, which they fraudulently won
, with a fabricated 70% majority of the vote.
Thus, they rapidly established themselves as the dominant political force.Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej
, a Communist party leader imprisoned in 1933, escaped in 1944 to become Romania's first Communist leader. In February 1947, he and others forced King Michael I
and leave the country and proclaimed Romania a people's republic
Romania remained under the direct military occupation and economic control of the USSR until the late 1950s. During this period, Romania's vast natural resources were drained continuously by mixed Soviet-Romanian companies (SovRoms
) set up for unilateral exploitative purposes.
In 1948, the state began to nationalise
private firms and to collectivise
Until the early 1960s, the government severely curtailed political liberties and vigorously suppressed any dissent with the help of the Securitate
—the Romanian secret police. During this period the regime launched several campaigns of purges
during which numerous "enemies of the state
" and "parasite elements" were targeted for different forms of punishment including: deportation, internal exile, internment in forced labour camps and prisons—sometimes for life—as well as extrajudicial killing
Nevertheless, anti-Communist resistance
was one of the most long-lasting in the Eastern Bloc.
A 2006 Commission
estimated the number of direct victims of the Communist repression at two million people.
As Romania's foreign debt increased sharply between 1977 and 1981 (from US$3 billion to $10 billion),
the influence of international financial organisations—such as the International Monetary Fund
(IMF) and the World Bank
—grew, gradually conflicting with Ceaușescu's autocratic
rule. He eventually initiated a policy of total reimbursement of the foreign debt by imposing austerity steps
that impoverished the population and exhausted the economy. The process succeeded in repaying all of Romania's foreign government debt in 1989. At the same time, Ceaușescu greatly extended the authority of the Securitate secret police and imposed a severe cult of personality
, which led to a dramatic decrease in the dictator's popularity and culminated in his overthrow and eventual execution, together with his wife, in the violent Romanian Revolution
of December 1989 in which thousands were killed or injured. The charges for which they were executed were, among others, genocide by starvation.
A rally in Bucharest (1990)
After the 1989 revolution, the National Salvation Front
(NSF), led by Ion Iliescu
, took partial multi-party democratic and free market measures.
In April 1990, a sit-in protest contesting the results of that year's legislative elections
and accusing the NSF, including Iliescu, of being made up of former Communists and members of the Securitate grew rapidly to become what was called the Golaniad
. Peaceful demonstrations degenerated into violence, prompting the intervention of coal miners summoned by Iliescu. This episode has been documented widely by both local
and foreign media,
and is remembered as the June 1990 Mineriad
The subsequent disintegration of the Front produced several political parties, including most notably the Social Democratic Party
(PDSR then PSD) and the Democratic Party
(PD and subsequently PDL). The former governed Romania from 1990 until 1996 through several coalitions and governments, with Ion Iliescu as head of state. Since then, there have been several other democratic changes of government: in 1996 Emil Constantinescu
was elected president, in 2000 Iliescu returned to power, while Traian Băsescu
was elected in 2004 and narrowly re-elected in 2009.
In November 2014, Sibiu
) former FDGR/DFDR
mayor Klaus Iohannis
was elected president, unexpectedly defeating former Prime Minister Victor Ponta
, who had been previously leading in the opinion polls. This surprise victory was attributed by many analysts to the implication of the Romanian diaspora
in the voting process, with almost 50% casting ballots for Klaus Iohannis in the first round, compared to only 16% for Ponta.
In 2019, Iohannis was re-elected president in a landslide victory over former Prime Minister Viorica Dăncilă
The post–1989 period is also characterised by the fact that most of the former industrial and economic enterprises which were built and operated during the Communist period were closed, mainly as a result of the policies of privatisation of the post–1989 regimes.
NATO and EU integration
The country applied in June 1993 for membership in the European Union
and became an Associated State of the EU in 1995, an Acceding Country in 2004, and a full member
on 1 January 2007.
During the 2000s, Romania enjoyed one of the highest economic growth rates in Europe and has been referred at times as "the Tiger of Eastern Europe".
This has been accompanied by a significant improvement in living standards as the country successfully reduced domestic poverty and established a functional democratic state.
However, Romania's development suffered a major setback during the late-2000s' recession
leading to a large gross domestic product contraction and a budget deficit in 2009.
This led to Romania borrowing from the International Monetary Fund.
Worsening economic conditions led to unrest
and triggered a political crisis in 2012.
Romania still faces problems related to infrastructure,
Near the end of 2013, The Economist
reported Romania again enjoying "booming" economic growth
at 4.1% that year, with wages rising fast and a lower unemployment than in Britain. Economic growth accelerated in the midst of government liberalisations in opening up new sectors to competition and investment—most notably, energy and telecoms.
In 2016 the Human Development Index
ranked Romania as a nation of "Very High Human Development".
Following the experience of economic instability throughout the 1990s, and the implementation of a free travel agreement with the EU, a great number of Romanians emigrated to Western Europe and North America, with particularly large communities in Italy
. In 2016, the Romanian diaspora was estimated to be over 3.6 million people, the fifth-highest emigrant population in the world.
Geography and climate
Topographic map of Romania
Romania is the largest country in Southeastern Europe
and the twelfth-largest
in Europe, having an area of 238,397 square kilometres (92,046 sq mi).:17
It lies between latitudes 43°
and 49° N
and longitudes 20°
and 30° E
. The terrain is distributed roughly equally between mountains, hills, and plains. The Carpathian Mountains dominate the centre of Romania, with 14 mountain ranges
reaching above 2,000 m or 6,600 ft—the highest is Moldoveanu Peak
at 2,544 m or 8,346 ft.:11
They are surrounded by the Moldavian
plateaus, the Carpathian Basin
and the Wallachian
Romania is home to six terrestrial ecoregions: Balkan mixed forests
, Central European mixed forests
, East European forest steppe
, Pannonian mixed forests
, Carpathian montane conifer forests
, and Pontic steppe
Natural and semi-natural ecosystems cover about 47% of the country's land area.
There are almost 10,000 km2
(3,900 sq mi) (about 5% of the total area) of protected areas in Romania
covering 13 national parks
and three biosphere
river forms a large part of the border with Serbia
, and flows into the Black Sea, forming the Danube Delta, which is the second-largest and best-preserved delta in Europe, and a biosphere reserve
and a biodiversity World Heritage Site
At 5,800 km2
(2,200 sq mi),
the Danube Delta
is the largest continuous marshland in Europe,
and supports 1,688 different plant species alone.
Romania has one of the largest areas of undisturbed forest in Europe, covering almost 27% of its territory.
The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index
mean score of 5.95/10, ranking it 90th globally out of 172 countries.
Some 3,700 plant species
have been identified in the country, from which to date 23 have been declared natural monuments
, 74 extinct, 39 endangered, 171 vulnerable, and 1,253 rare.
Owing to its distance from open sea and its position on the southeastern portion of the European continent, Romania has a climate that is temperate
, with four distinct seasons. The average annual temperature is 11 °C (52 °F) in the south and 8 °C (46 °F) in the north.
In summer, average maximum temperatures in Bucharest rise to 28 °C (82 °F), and temperatures over 35 °C (95 °F) are fairly common in the lower-lying areas of the country.
In winter, the average maximum temperature is below 2 °C (36 °F).
Precipitation is average, with over 750 mm (30 in) per year only on the highest western mountains, while around Bucharest it drops to approximately 570 mm (22 in).:29
There are some regional differences: in western sections, such as Banat, the climate is milder and has some Mediterranean influences; the eastern part of the country has a more pronounced continental climate. In Dobruja, the Black Sea also exerts an influence over the region's climate.
Romania map of Köppen climate classification, according with Clima României from the Administrația Națională de Meteorologie, Bucharest 2008
Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for the eight largest cities in Romania
The justice system is independent of the other branches of government and is made up of a hierarchical system of courts with the High Court of Cassation and Justice
being the supreme court of Romania.
There are also courts of appeal, county courts and local courts. The Romanian judicial system is strongly influenced by the French model
, is based on civil law
and is inquisitorial
in nature. The Constitutional Court
) is responsible for judging the compliance of laws and other state regulations with the constitution, which is the fundamental law of the country and can only be amended through a public referendum.
Romania's 2007 entry into the EU has been a significant influence on its domestic policy, and including judicial reforms
, increased judicial cooperation with other member states, and measures to combat corruption.
Diplomatic missions of Romania
Romania is a noteworthy ally of the United States, being the first NATO
member state that agreed to support increasing its defence
spending after the 2017 Trump-Iohannis meeting at the White House
Since December 1989, Romania has pursued a policy of strengthening relations with the West
in general, more specifically with the United States and the European Union, albeit with limited relations involving
the Russian Federation
. It joined the NATO on 29 March 2004, the European Union (EU) on 1 January 2007, while it joined the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank in 1972, and is a founding member of the World Trade Organization
In the past, recent governments have stated that one of their goals is to strengthen ties with and helping other countries (in particular Moldova
, and Georgia
) with the process of integration with the rest of the West.
Romania has also made clear since the late 1990s that it supports NATO and EU membership for the democratic former Soviet republics in Eastern Europe and the Caucasus
Romania also declared its public support for Turkey
, and Croatia
joining the European Union.
Romania opted on 1 January 2007, to accede to the Schengen Area
, and its bid to join was approved by the European Parliament
in June 2011, but was rejected by the EU Council
in September 2011. As of August 2019, its acceptance into the Schengen Area is hampered because the European Council has misgivings about Romania's adherence to the rule of law
a fundamental principle of EU membership.
Romanian marine troopers during a combined Dutch-Romanian exercise at Vadu
The Romanian Armed Forces consist of land
, and naval forces
led by a Commander-in-chief
under the supervision of the Ministry of National Defence
, and by the president as the Supreme Commander during wartime. The Armed Forces consist of approximately 15,000 civilians and 75,000 military personnel—45,800 for land, 13,250 for air, 6,800 for naval forces, and 8,800 in other fields.
Total defence spending in 2007 accounted for 2.05% of total national GDP, or approximately US$2.9 billion, with a total of $11 billion spent between 2006 and 2011 for modernization and acquisition of new equipment.
Romania contributed troops to the international coalition in Afghanistan
beginning in 2002,
with a peak deployment of 1,600 troops in 2010 (which was the 4th largest contribution according to the US).
Its combat mission in the country concluded in 2014.
Romanian troops participated in the occupation of Iraq
, reaching a peak of 730 soldiers before being slowly drawn down to 350 soldiers. Romania terminated its mission in Iraq and withdrew its last troops on 24 July 2009, among the last countries to do so. The frigate the Regele Ferdinand
participated in the 2011 military intervention in Libya
Romania is divided into 41 counties
, pronounced judetse) and the municipality of Bucharest
. Each county is administered by a county council, responsible for local affairs, as well as a prefect
responsible for the administration of national affairs at the county level. The prefect is appointed by the central government but cannot be a member of any political party.
Each county is subdivided further into cities
, which have their own mayor and local council. There are a total of 320 cities and 2,861 communes in Romania.:17
A total of 103 of the larger cities have municipality
status, which gives them greater administrative power over local affairs. The municipality of Bucharest is a special case, as it enjoys a status on par to that of a county. It is further divided into six sectors:6
and has a prefect, a general mayor (primar
), and a general city council.
The NUTS-3 (Nomenclature of Territorial Units for Statistics) level divisions of the European Union reflect Romania's administrative-territorial structure and correspond to the 41 counties plus Bucharest.
The cities and communes correspond to the NUTS-5 level divisions, but there are no current NUTS-4 level divisions. The NUTS-1 (four macroregions
) and NUTS-2
(eight development regions
) divisions exist but have no administrative capacity and are used instead for coordinating regional development projects and statistical purposes.
In 2019, Romania has a GDP (PPP) of around $547 billion and a GDP per capita
) of $28,189.
According to the World Bank, Romania is a high-income economy
According to Eurostat
, Romania's GDP per capita (PPS) was 70% of the EU average (100%) in 2019, an increase from 44% in 2007 (the year of Romania's accession to the EU), making Romania one of the fastest growing economies in the EU.
After 1989 the country experienced a decade of economic instability and decline, led in part by an obsolete industrial base and a lack of structural reform. From 2000 onward, however, the Romanian economy was transformed into one of relative macroeconomic
stability, characterised by high growth, low unemployment and declining inflation. In 2006, according to the Romanian Statistics Office
, GDP growth in real terms was recorded at 7.7%, one of the highest rates in Europe.
However, a recession following the global financial crisis of 2008–2009
forced the government to borrow externally, including an IMF
€20 billion bailout program.
According to The World Bank
, GDP per capita in purchasing power parity grew from $13,687 in 2007 to $28,206 in 2018.
Romania's net average monthly wage increased to 666 euro as of 2020,
and an inflation rate of −1.1% in 2016.
Unemployment in Romania was at 4.3% in August 2018, which is low compared to other EU countries.
Industrial output growth reached 6.5% year-on-year in February 2013, the highest in the Europe.
The largest local companies include car maker Automobile Dacia
, Ford Romania
, RCS & RDS
and Banca Transilvania
As of 2020, there are around 6000 exports per month. Romania's main exports are: cars, software, clothing and textiles, industrial machinery, electrical and electronic equipment, metallurgic products, raw materials, military equipment, pharmaceuticals, fine chemicals, and agricultural products (fruits, vegetables, and flowers). Trade is mostly centred on the member states of the European Union, with Germany and Italy being the country's single largest trading partners. The account balance in 2012 was estimated to be 4.52% of GDP.
After a series of privatizations and reforms in the late 1990s and 2000s, government intervention in the Romanian economy is somewhat less than in other European economies.
In 2005, the government replaced Romania's progressive tax
system with a flat tax
of 16% for both personal income and corporate profit, among the lowest rates in the European Union.
The economy is based predominantly on services, which account for 56.2% of the country's total GDP as of 2017, with industry and agriculture accounting for 30% and 4.4% respectively.
Approximately 25.8% of the Romanian workforce is employed in agriculture, one of the highest rates in Europe.
Romania has attracted increasing amounts of foreign investment following the end of Communism, with the stock of foreign direct investment
(FDI) in Romania rising to €83.8 billion in June 2019.
Romania's FDI outward stock (an external or foreign business either investing in or purchasing the stock of a local economy) amounted to $745 million in December 2018, the lowest value among the 28 EU member states.
According to a 2019 World Bank report, Romania ranks 52nd out of 190 economies in the ease of doing business, one place higher than neighbouring Hungary and one place lower than Italy.
The report praised the consistent enforcement of contracts and access to credit in the country, while noting difficulties in access to electricity and dealing with construction permits.
Since 1867 the official currency has been the Romanian leu
("lion") and following a denomination in 2005.
After joining the EU in 2007, Romania is expected to adopt the Euro
In January 2020, Romania's external debt was reported to be US$122 billion according to CEIC data.
Graph depicting Romania's electricity supply mix as of 2015
According to the Romania's National Institute of Statistics (INSSE), Romania's total road network was estimated in 2015 at 86,080 kilometres (53,488 mi).
The World Bank estimates the railway network at 22,298 kilometres (13,855 mi) of track, the fourth-largest railroad network in Europe.
Romania's rail transport
experienced a dramatic decline after 1989 and was estimated at 99 million passenger journeys in 2004, but has experienced a recent (2013) revival due to infrastructure improvements and partial privatisation of lines,
accounting for 45% of all passenger and freight movements in the country. Bucharest Metro
, the only underground
railway system, was opened in 1979 and measures 61.41 km (38.16 mi) with an average ridership in 2007 of 600,000 passengers during the workweek in the country.
There are sixteen international commercial airports
in service today. Over 12.8 million passengers flew through Bucharest's Henri Coandă International Airport
Romania is a net exporter of electrical energy and is 52nd worldwide in terms of consumption of electric energy.
Around a third of the produced energy comes from renewable sources, mostly as hydroelectric power.
In 2015, the main sources were coal (28%), hydroelectric (30%), nuclear (18%), and hydrocarbons (14%).
It has one of the largest refining capacities in Eastern Europe, even though oil and natural gas production has been decreasing for more than a decade.
With one of the largest reserves of crude oil
and shale gas
it is among the most energy-independent countries in the European Union,
and is looking to expand its nuclear power plant at Cernavodă
There were almost 18.3 million connections to the Internet in June 2014.
According to Bloomberg
, in 2013 Romania ranked fifth in the world, and according to The Independent
, it ranks number one in Europe at Internet speeds,
ranked among the highest in the world.
Tourism is a significant contributor to the Romanian economy, generating around 5% of GDP.
The number of tourists has been rising steadily, reaching 9.33 million foreign tourists in 2016, according to the Worldbank.
Tourism in Romania attracted €400 million in investments in 2005.
More than 60% of the foreign visitors in 2007 were from other EU countries.
The popular summer attractions of Mamaia
and other Black Sea Resorts
attracted 1.3 million tourists in 2009.
Most popular skiing resorts are along the Valea Prahovei
and in Poiana Brașov
. Castles, fortifications, or strongholds
as well as preserved medieval Transylvanian cities or towns such as Cluj-Napoca
, Sibiu, Brașov
, or Sighișoara
also attract a large number of tourists. Bran Castle
, near Brașov, is one of the most famous attractions in Romania, drawing hundreds of thousands of tourists every year as it is often advertised as being Dracula
In 2014, Romania had 32,500 companies active in the hotel and restaurant industry, with a total turnover of €2.6 billion.
More than 1.9 million foreign tourists visited Romania in 2014, 12% more than in 2013.
According to the country's National Statistics Institute, some 77% came from Europe (particularly from Germany, Italy, and France), 12% from Asia, and less than 7% from North America.
Science and technology
During the 1990s and 2000s, the development of research was hampered by several factors, including: corruption, low funding, and a considerable brain drain
In recent years, Romania has ranked the lowest or second-lowest in the European Union by research and development
spending as a percentage of GDP, standing at roughly 0.5% in 2016 and 2017, substantially below the EU average of just over 2%.
The country joined the European Space Agency
(ESA) in 2011,
In 2018, however, Romania lost its voting rights in the ESA due to a failure to pay €56.8 million in membership contributions to the agency.
In the early 2010s, the situation for science in Romania was characterised as "rapidly improving" albeit from a low base.
In January 2011, Parliament passed a law that enforces "strict quality control on universities and introduces tough rules for funding evaluation and peer review".
Romanians in Romania by counties (Ethnic maps 1930–2011)
According to the 2011 Romanian census
, Romania's population was 20,121,641.
Like other countries in the region, its population is expected to decline gradually as a result of sub-replacement fertility rates
and negative net migration rate
. In October 2011, Romanians
made up 88.9% of the population. The largest ethnic minorities
are the Hungarians
, 6.1% of the population, and the Roma
, 3.0% of the population.[d]
The Roma minority
is usually underestimated in census data and may represent up to 10% of the population.
Hungarians constitute a majority in the counties of Harghita
. Other minorities include Ukrainians
, and Serbs
In 1930, there were 745,421 Germans living in Romania,
but only about 36,000 remained in the country to this day.
As of 2009, there were also approximately 133,000 immigrants living in Romania, primarily from Moldova and China
The total fertility rate
(TFR) in 2018 was estimated at 1.36 children born per woman, which is below the replacement rate of 2.1, and one of the lowest in the world,
it remains considerably below the high of 5.82 children born per woman in 1912.
In 2014, 31.2% of births were to unmarried women.
The birth rate
(9.49‰, 2012) is much lower than the mortality rate
(11.84‰, 2012), resulting in a shrinking (−0.26% per year, 2012) and aging population (median age: 41.6 years, 2018), one of the oldest populations in the world,
with approximately 16.8% of total population aged 65 years and over.
The life expectancy in 2015 was estimated at 74.92 years (71.46 years male, 78.59 years female).
The number of Romanians and individuals with ancestors born in Romania living abroad is estimated at around 12 million.
After the Romanian Revolution of 1989
, a significant number of Romanians emigrated to other European countries, North America or Australia.
For example, in 1990, 96,919 Romanians permanently settled abroad.
Map of Romanian language frequency as spoken in Romania by districts (according to the 2011 census).
Map highlighting the use of the Romanian language worldwide, both as a native and as a foreign language.
The official language is Romanian, a Romance language
(the most widely spoken of the Eastern Romance branch
), which presents a consistent degree of similarity to Aromanian
, and Istro-Romanian
, but shares many features equally with the rest of the Western Romance languages
, specifically Italian
, and Catalan
The Romanian alphabet
contains the same 26 letters of the standard Latin alphabet, as well as five additional ones (namely ă
, and ș
), totaling 31.
Romanian is spoken as a first language by approximately 90% of the entire population, while Hungarian
and Vlax Romani
are spoken by 6.2% and 1.2% of the population, respectively. There are also approximately 50,000 native speakers of Ukrainian
(concentrated in some compact regions, near the border where they form local majorities),
25,000 native speakers of German, and 32,000 native speakers of Turkish
living in Romania.
According to the Constitution, local councils ensure linguistic rights to all minorities. In localities with ethnic minorities of over 20%, that minority's language can be used in the public administration, justice system, and education. Foreign citizens and stateless persons who live in Romania have access to justice and education in their own language.
English and French are the main foreign languages taught in schools.
In 2010, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie
identified 4,756,100 French speakers in the country.
According to the 2012 Eurobarometer
, English is spoken by 31% of Romanians, French is spoken by 17%, and Italian and German, each by 7%.
is the most widespread religious denomination in the country (2002).
Romania is a secular state
and has no state religion
. An overwhelming majority of the population identify themselves as Christians
. At the country's 2011 census, 81.0% of respondents identified as Orthodox Christians
belonging to the Romanian Orthodox Church
. Other denominations include Protestantism
(6.2%), Roman Catholicism
(4.3%), and Greek Catholicism
(0.8%). From the remaining population, 195,569 people belong to other Christian denominations or have another religion, which includes 64,337 Muslims
(mostly of Turkish and Tatar ethnicity) and 3,519 Jewish
(Jews once constituted 4% of the Romanian population—728,115 persons in the 1930 census). Moreover, 39,660 people have no religion or are atheist
, whilst the religion of the rest is unknown.
Although 54.0% of the population lived in urban areas
this percentage has been declining since 1996.
Counties with over ⅔ urban population are Hunedoara
, while those with less than a third are Dâmbovița
(30.06%) and Giurgiu
Bucharest is the capital and the largest city in Romania, with a population of over 1.8 million in 2011. Its larger urban zone
has a population of almost 2.2 million,
which are planned to be included into a metropolitan area
up to 20 times the area of the city proper
Another 19 cities have a population of over 100,000, with Cluj-Napoca and Timișoara of slightly more than 300,000 inhabitants, Iași
, Constanța, Craiova
, and Brașov with over 250,000 inhabitants, and Galați and Ploiești
with over 200,000 inhabitants.Metropolitan areas
have been constituted for most of these cities.
The Colțea Hospital in Bucharest completed a $90 million renovation in 2011.
Since the Romanian Revolution of 1989, the Romanian educational system has been in a continuous process of reform that has received mixed criticism.
In 2004, some 4.4 million individuals were enrolled in school. Of these, 650,000 were in kindergarten
(three-six years), 3.11 million in primary and secondary level, and 650,000 in tertiary level (universities).
In 2018, the adult literacy rate was 98.8%.
Kindergarten is optional between three and five years. Since 2020, compulsory schooling starts at age 5 with the last year of kindergarten (grupa mare) and is compulsory until twelfth grade.
Primary and secondary education is divided into 12 or 13 grades. There is also a semi-legal, informal private tutoring
system used mostly during secondary school, which prospered during the Communist regime.
Romania ranks fifth in the all-time medal count at the International Mathematical Olympiad
with 316 total medals, dating back to 1959. Ciprian Manolescu
managed to write a perfect paper (42 points) for a gold medal more times than anybody else in the history of the competition, in 1995, 1996 and 1997.
Romania has achieved the highest team score in the competition, after China, Russia, the United States and Hungary. Romania also ranks sixth in the all-time medal count at the International Olympiad in Informatics
with 107 total medals, dating back to 1989.
Romania has a universal health care
system; total health expenditures by the government are roughly 5% of GDP.
It covers medical examinations, any surgical operations, and any post-operative medical care, and provides free or subsidised medicine for a range of diseases. The state is obliged to fund public hospitals and clinics. The most common causes of death are cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Transmissible diseases are quite common by European standards.
In 2010, Romania had 428 state and 25 private hospitals,
with 6.2 hospital beds per 1,000 people,
and over 200,000 medical staff, including over 52,000 doctors.
As of 2013, the emigration rate of doctors was 9%, higher than the European average of 2.5%.
Arts and monuments
The topic of the origin of Romanian culture began to be discussed by the end of the 18th century among the Transylvanian School
Several writers rose to prominence in the 19th century, including: George Coșbuc
, Ioan Slavici
, Mihail Kogălniceanu
, Vasile Alecsandri
, Nicolae Bălcescu
, Ion Luca Caragiale
, Ion Creangă
, and Mihai Eminescu
, the later being considered the greatest and most influential Romanian poet, particularly for the poem Luceafărul
In the 20th century, a number of Romanian artists and writers achieved international acclaim, including: Tristan Tzara
, Marcel Janco
, Nicolae Grigorescu
, Marin Preda
, Liviu Rebreanu
, Eugène Ionesco
, Emil Cioran
, and Constantin Brâncuși
. Brâncuși has a sculptural ensemble in Târgu Jiu, while his sculpture Bird in Space
, was auctioned in 2005 for $27.5 million.
Romanian-born Holocaust survivor Elie Wiesel
received the Nobel Peace Prize
in 1986, while Banat Swabian
writer Herta Müller
received the 2009 Nobel Prize in Literature
The list of World Heritage Sites includes six cultural sites
located within Romania, including eight painted churches of northern Moldavia
, eight wooden churches of Maramureș, seven villages with fortified churches in Transylvania, the Horezu Monastery
, and the Historic Centre of Sighișoara
The city of Sibiu, with its Brukenthal National Museum
, was selected as the 2007 European Capital of Culture
Multiple castles exist in Romania, including the popular tourist attractions of Peleș Castle
, and Bran Castle or "Dracula's Castle".
Holidays, traditions, and cuisine
There are 12 non-working public holidays, including the Great Union Day
, celebrated on 1 December in commemoration of the 1918 union of Transylvania with Romania.
Winter holidays include the Christmas and New Year festivities during which various unique folklore dances and games are common: plugușorul
, and capra
The traditional Romanian dress
that otherwise has largely fallen out of use during the 20th century, is a popular ceremonial vestment worn on these festivities, especially in rural areas.
There are sacrifices of live pigs during Christmas and lambs during Easter that has required a special exemption from EU law after 2007.
In the Easter
, traditions such as painting the eggs
are very common. On 1 March features mărțișor
gifting, which is a tradition that females are gifted with a type of talisman that is given for good luck.
is the most popular sport in Romania with over 219,000 registered players as of 2018. The market for professional football in Romania is roughly €740 million according to UEFA
The core player of this golden generation
was Gheorghe Hagi
, who was nicknamed "Maradona of the Carpathians".
Other successful players include the European Golden Shoe
winners: Dudu Georgescu
, Dorin Mateuț
and Rodion Cămătaru
, Nicolae Dobrin
, Ilie Balaci
, Mihai Mocanu
, Mircea Rednic
, Cornel Dinu
, Mircea Lucescu
, Costică Ștefănescu
, Liță Dumitru
, Lajos Sătmăreanu
, Ștefan Sameș
, Ladislau Bölöni
, Anghel Iordănescu
, Miodrag Belodedici
, Helmuth Duckadam
, Marius Lăcătuș
, Victor Pițurcă
and many others, and most recently Gheorghe Popescu
, Florin Răducioiu
, Dorinel Munteanu
, Dan Petrescu
, Adrian Mutu
, Cristian Chivu
or Cosmin Contra
Romania's home ground is the Arena Națională
Romania's 306 all-time Summer Olympics medals
would rank 12th most among all countries, while its 89 gold medals would be 14th most. The 1984 Summer Olympics
was their most successful run, where they won 53 medals in total, 20 of them gold, ultimately placing 2nd to the hosts United States in the medal rankings
. Amongst countries who have never hosted the event themselves, they are second in the total number of medals earned.
is country's major medal-producing sport,
with Olympic and sport icon Nadia Comăneci
becoming the first gymnast ever to score a perfect ten in an Olympic event at the 1976 Summer Olympics
Other Romanian athletes who collected five gold medals like Comăneci are rowers Elisabeta Lipa
(1984–2004) and Georgeta Damian
The Romanian competitors have won gold medals in other Olympic sports: athletics, canoeing, wrestling, shooting, fencing, swimming, weightlifting, boxing, and judo.
- ^ "am scris aceste sfente cărți de învățături, să fie popilor rumânesti ... să înțeleagă toți oamenii cine-s rumâni creștini" "Întrebare creștinească" (1559), Bibliografia românească veche, IV, 1944, p. 6.
"... că văzum cum toate limbile au și înfluresc întru cuvintele slăvite a lui Dumnezeu numai noi românii pre limbă nu avem. Pentru aceia cu mare muncă scoasem de limba jidovească si grecească si srâbească pre limba românească 5 cărți ale lui Moisi prorocul si patru cărți și le dăruim voo frați rumâni și le-au scris în cheltuială multă ... și le-au dăruit voo fraților români, ... și le-au scris voo fraților români" Palia de la Orăștie (1581–1582), București, 1968.
În Țara Ardealului nu lăcuiesc numai unguri, ce și sași peste seamă de mulți și români peste tot locul ..., Grigore Ureche, Letopisețul Țării Moldovei, p. 133–134.
- ^ In his literary testament Ienăchiță Văcărescu writes: "Urmașilor mei Văcărești!/Las vouă moștenire:/Creșterea limbei românești/Ș-a patriei cinstire."
In the "Istoria faptelor lui Mavroghene-Vodă și a răzmeriței din timpul lui pe la 1790" a Pitar Hristache writes: "Încep după-a mea ideie/Cu vreo câteva condeie/Povestea mavroghenească/Dela Țara Românească.
- ^ In 1816, the Greek scholar Dimitrie Daniel Philippide published his work The History of Romania in Leipzig, followed by The Geography of Romania.
On the tombstone of Gheorghe Lazăr in Avrig (built in 1823) there is the inscription: "Precum Hristos pe Lazăr din morți a înviat/Așa tu România din somn ai deșteptat."
- ^ 2002 census data, based on population by ethnicity Archived 24 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine, gave a total of 535,250 Roma in Romania. Many ethnicities are not recorded, as they do not have ID cards Archived 15 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. International sources give higher figures than the official census (e.g.,  UNDP's Regional Bureau for Europe, World Bank, "International Association for Official Statistics" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2008.
- ^ "Constitution of Romania". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 2 October 2013.
- ^ "Reservations and Declarations for Treaty No.148 – European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages". Council of Europe. Council of Europe. Archived from the original on 8 December 2015. Retrieved 3 December 2015.
- ^ a b c d e "Romanian 2011 census (final results)" (PDF) (in Romanian). INSSE. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 July 2013. Retrieved 28 August 2012.
- ^ a b "2011 census results by religion" (xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- ^ "Ministers of the Romanian Government". Gov.ro. Government of Romania. Retrieved 24 December 2020.
- ^ Elgie, Robert (28 November 2017). Political Leadership: A Pragmatic Institutionalist Approach. Springer. ISBN 9781137346223 – via Google Books.
- ^ Romania Directory. Editura Cronos. 1 April 1990. ISBN 9789739000000 – via Google Books.
- ^ "DECRET-LEGE 2 27/12/1989 - Portal Legislativ". legislatie.just.ro.
- ^ "Populaţia rezidentă la 1 Ianuarie 2020" [The usually resident population on 1 January 2020] (PDF). Insse.ro (in Romanian). National Institute of Statistics. Retrieved 28 August 2020.
- ^ a b c d "World Economic Outlook Database, April 2021 Edition". IMF.org. International Monetary Fund. Retrieved 16 April 2021.
- ^ "Gini coefficient of equivalised disposable income – EU-SILC survey". ec.europa.eu. Eurostat. Retrieved 8 May 2020.
- ^ "2020 Human Development Report" (PDF). United Nations Development Programme. 2020. Retrieved 15 December 2020.
- ^ "Romania Geography". aboutromania.com. Archived from the original on 28 March 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- ^ "The Story of the Romanian Royal Family – a Journey into the Past". TravelMakerTours.com. 12 January 2018. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- ^ Stoleru, Ciprian (13 September 2018). "Romania during the period of neutrality". Europe Centenary. Retrieved 4 March 2020.
- ^ a b "World Bank Country and Lending Groups". datahelpdesk.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 1 July 2020.
- ^ "Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 1998; New Explanatory Dictionary of the Romanian Language, 2002" (in Romanian). Dexonline.ro. Archived from the original on 17 May 2016. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- ^ Veress, Andréas. Acta et Epistolae. I. p. 243. nunc se Romanos vocant
- ^ Cl. Isopescu (1929). "Notizie intorno ai romeni nella letteratura geografica italiana del Cinquecento". Bulletin de la Section Historique. XVI: 1–90. ... si dimandano in lingua loro Romei ... se alcuno dimanda se sano parlare in la lingua valacca, dicono a questo in questo modo: Sti Rominest ? Che vol dire: Sai tu Romano, ...
- ^ Holban, Maria (1983). Călători străini despre Țările Române (in Romanian). II. Ed. Științifică și Enciclopedică. pp. 158–161. Anzi essi si chiamano romanesci, e vogliono molti che erano mandati quì quei che erano dannati a cavar metalli ...
- ^ Cernovodeanu, Paul (1960). "Voyage fait par moy, Pierre Lescalopier l'an 1574 de Venise a Constantinople, fol 48". Studii și Materiale de Istorie Medievală (in Romanian). IV: 444. Tout ce pays la Wallachie et Moldavie et la plus part de la Transilvanie a eté peuplé des colonies romaines du temps de Traian l'empereur ... Ceux du pays se disent vrais successeurs des Romains et nomment leur parler romanechte, c'est-à-dire romain ...
- ^ Ion Rotaru, Literatura română veche, "The Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung" Archived 9 June 2011 at the Wayback Machine, București, 1981, pp. 62–65
- ^ Brezeanu, Stelian (1999). Romanitatea Orientală în Evul Mediu. Bucharest: Editura All Educational. pp. 229–246.
- ^ Goina, Călin. "How the State Shaped the Nation: an Essay on the Making of the Romanian Nation" Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine in Regio – Minorities, Politics, Society.
- ^ "Wallachia and Moldavia, 1859–61". Archived from the original on 9 June 2007. Retrieved 5 January 2008.
- ^ See, for example, "Rumania: Remarkable Common Ground" Archived 31 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The New York Times (21 December 1989).
- ^ See the Google Ngrams for Romania, Rumania, and Roumania.
- ^ "General principles" (in Romanian). cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2017. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- ^ a b Price 2013, pp. 60–61.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 1–2.
- ^ Price 2013, pp. 125–127.
- ^ Gibbs, Patrick. "Antiquity Vol 79 No 306 December 2005 The earliest salt production in the world: an early Neolithic exploitation in Poiana Slatinei-Lunca, Romania Olivier Weller & Gheorghe Dumitroaia". Antiquity.ac.uk. Archived from the original on 30 April 2011. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- ^ John Noble Wilford (1 December 2009). "A Lost European Culture, Pulled From Obscurity". The New York Times (30 November 2009). Archived from the original on 23 April 2017.
- ^ Rustoiu 2005, pp. 32, 35–36.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 14–15.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 9–10.
- ^ Opreanu 2005, pp. 68–69, 97–98.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 22–23.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 13–14.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 19–20.
- ^ Opreanu 2005, pp. 105–107.
- ^ Opreanu 2005, p. 108, 110–111.
- ^ Heather 2010, pp. 116–117, 165.
- ^ a b Opreanu 2005, pp. 117–118.
- ^ Heather 2010, pp. 151, 207–208.
- ^ Bóna 1994, pp. 66–67.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 62–63.
- ^ Heather 2010, pp. 395–397.
- ^ Bóna 1994, pp. 97–99.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 14–15.
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, p. 140.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 15–16 (note 41).
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, pp. 140–141.
- ^ Bóna 1994, p. 111.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 182–183.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 189–190.
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, p. 152.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 248–250.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 40–41.
- ^ Curta 2006, pp. 304–305.
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, p. 157.
- ^ Bóna 1994, p. 183.
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, pp. 158–159.
- ^ Bóna 1994, pp. 144–145.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 41–43.
- ^ Bóna 1994, p. 189.
- ^ Heyd, Guglielmo. Le Colonie Commerciali Degli Italiani in Oriente Nel Medio Evo (in Italian). HardPress Publishing. p. 97.
- ^ Iliescu, Octavian. Revue Roumaine d'Histoire (Contributions à l'histoire des colonies génoises en Roumanie aux XIIIe – XVe siècles). Editions de l'Académie de la République socialiste de Roumanie. pp. 25–52.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 43–44.
- ^ Sălăgean 2005, p. 202.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 26–29.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 60–61, 63–66.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 61–62.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 30–31.
- ^ a b c Pop 1999, pp. 52–53.
- ^ Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, p. 419.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 55–56.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 75–76.
- ^ Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 432–434.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 44–45.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 55–56.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 73–74.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 74–75, 78.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 75–76.
- ^ a b Trócsányi & Miskolczy 1994, pp. 427–428.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 89–90.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 73–74.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 103–104.
- ^ a b Hitchins 2014, pp. 96–97.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 105–106.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 109–111.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 109–111.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 118–119.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 149–150.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 169–170.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 170–171.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 124–125.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 167–169.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 167–168.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 174–175.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 198–199.
- ^ Pop 1999, pp. 131–132.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 214–215.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 216–217.
- ^ a b International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania (28 January 2012). "Executive Summary: Historical Findings and Recommendations" (PDF). Final Report of the International Commission on the Holocaust in Romania. Yad Vashem (The Holocaust Martyrs' and Heroes' Remembrance Authority). Archived(PDF) from the original on 12 January 2012. Retrieved 28 January 2012.
- ^ Köpeczi 1994, p. 689.
- ^ Hitchins 2014, pp. 211–212.
- ^ Georgescu 1991, pp. 223–224.
- ^ Köpeczi 1994, p. 692.
- ^ Giurescu, "'Alegeri' după model sovietic", p.17 (citing Berry), 18 (citing Berry and note); Macuc, p.40; Tismăneanu, p.113
- ^ "Romania: Country studies – Chapter 1.7.1 "Petru Groza's Premiership"". Federal Research Division, Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romania". CIA – The World Factbook. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romania – Country Background and Profile". ed-u.com. Archived from the original on 10 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Rîjnoveanu, Carmen (2003). "Romania's Policy of Autonomy in the Context of the Sino-Soviet Conflict" (PDF). Czech Republic Military History Institute, Militärgeschichtliches Forscheungamt. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 June 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Roper, Stephen D. (2000). Romania: The Unfinished Revolution. London: Routledge. p. 18. ISBN 978-90-5823-027-0.
- ^ Cioroianu, Adrian (2005). On the Shoulders of Marx. An Incursion into the History of Romanian Communism (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Curtea Veche. pp. 68–73. ISBN 978-973-669-175-1.
- ^ Stoica, Stan (2007). Dicționar de Istorie a României (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Merona. pp. 77–78, 233–34. ISBN 978-973-7839-21-3.
- ^ Ionițoiu, Cicerone (2000). Victimele terorii comuniste. Arestați, torturați, întemnițați, uciși. Dicționar (in Romanian). Bucharest: Editura Mașina de scris. ISBN 978-973-99994-2-7.[page needed]
- ^ Consiliul National pentru Studierea Ahivelor Securității, Bande, bandiți si eroi; Grupurile de rezistență și Securitatea (1948–1968), Editura Enciclopedica, București, 2003
- ^ Raportul Comisiei Prezidențiale pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România (PDF) (Report). Comisia Prezidențială pentru Analiza Dictaturii Comuniste din România. 15 December 2006. pp. 215–217.
- ^ Political Tension 1968 (in Romanian). Bucharest: British Pathé. 21 August 1968. Archived from the original on 21 August 2014.
- ^ "Romania: Soviet Union and Eastern Europe". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Middle East policies in Communist Romania". Country Studies.us. Archived from the original on 5 July 2009. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Deletant, Dennis. "New Evidence on Romania and the Warsaw Pact, 1955–1989" (PDF). Cold War International History Project e-Dossier Series. Archived (PDF) from the original on 17 January 2012.
- ^ Carothers, Thomas. "Romania: The Political Background" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008. This seven-year period can be characterised as a gradualistic, often ambiguous transition away from communist rule towards democracy.
- ^ Hellman, Joel (January 1998). "Winners Take All: The Politics of Partial Reform in Postcommunist". Transitions World Politics. 50 (2): 203–234. doi:10.1017/S0043887100008091. S2CID 55115094.
- ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- ^ Bohlen, Celestine (15 June 1990). "Evolution in Europe; Romanian miners invade Bucharest". The New York Times. Retrieved 31 August 2008. Responding to an emergency appeal by President Ion Iliescu, thousands of miners from northern Romania descended on the capital city today
- ^ "Institutul de Investigare a Crimelor Comunismului si Memoria Exilului Romanesc". mineriade.iiccr.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2011. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- ^ Presa internationala despre alegerile din Romania: Traian Basescu a castigat la limita; Romanii au mici sperante sa se dezghete ajutorul de la FMI – International Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. HotNews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ Reguly, Eric (20 May 2014). "In Gold Blood". Newsweek.
- ^ "Romania profile – Leaders – BBC News-GB". Archived from the original on 17 July 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ Popescu, Claudia. "Deindustrialization and Urban Shrinkage in Romania. What Lessons for the Spatial Policy?". Archived from the original on 31 December 2016. Retrieved 8 October 2016.
- ^ Ilie, Luiza (October 2015). "Romania's powerful mayors tumble in corruption crackdown". Reuters.
- ^ "Romania PM Ponta resigns over Bucharest nightclub fire Archived 15 November 2015 at the Wayback Machine". BBC News. 4 November 2015.
- ^ "Huge Romania rally despite decree repeal". BBC News. 6 February 2017.
- ^ Marinas, Radu-Sorin (26 November 2017). "Thousands of Romanians rally against ruling party's judicial overhaul". Reuters.
- ^ "Corruption Perceptions Index 2019". transparency.org. Transparency International. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
- ^ "NATO update: NATO welcomes seven new members". NATO. Archived from the original on 11 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "EU approves Bulgaria and Romania". BBC News. 26 September 2006. Archived from the original on 3 December 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Adevarul". Adevarul.ro. Archived from the original on 20 September 2008. Retrieved 25 September 2010.
- ^ a b Human Development Report 2009 – Country Fact Sheets – Romania Archived 1 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Hdrstats.undp.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ Tracking the Millennium Development GoalArchived 26 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine. MDG Monitor. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ Joe Parkinson (4 December 2009). "Romania Faces Crucial Vote". Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on 10 July 2017.
- ^ "Romania and the IMF". IMF. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
- ^ Gheorghe Stoica; Lavinia Stan. "Romanian Politics in 2012: Intra-Cabinet Coexistence and Political Instability". South-East European Journal of Political Science. Archived from the original on 24 February 2014.
- ^ "Romania's Infrastructure and International Transport Links". Assessment of the Romanian Economy. Romania Central. Archived from the original on 21 March 2009. Retrieved 21 August 2010.
- ^ Romania, world's 53rd country in quality of life index – Denisa Morariu. Denisamorariu.wordpress.com (8 January 2010). Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ Sistemul de invatamant distrus de lipsa reformelor – Cluj Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine. citynews.ro. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ D+C 2010/03 – Focus – Roos: In Romania and Bulgaria, civil-society organisations are demanding rule of law – Development and Cooperation – International Journal Archived 9 August 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Inwent.org. Retrieved on 21 August 2010.
- ^ "Romania is booming". The Economist. 17 December 2013. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017.
- ^ "Human Development Report 2016 – "Human Development for Everyone"" (PDF). HDRO (Human Development Report Office) United Nations Development Programme. Archived(PDF) from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 22 March 2017.
- ^ "Report: Romanian diaspora, fifth largest in the world". Romania Insider.
- ^ a b c d e Romanian Statistical Yearbook 2017(PDF) (Report). National Institute of Statistics (Romania). 2018. Retrieved 7 June 2018.
- ^ Dinerstein, Eric; et al. (2017). "An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm". BioScience. 67 (6): 534–545. doi:10.1093/biosci/bix014. ISSN 0006-3568. PMC 5451287. PMID 28608869.
- ^ "Romania's Biodiversity". Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection of Romania (via enrin.grida.no). Archived from the original on 10 February 2008.
- ^ "Protected Areas in Romania". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 17 November 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 9 January 2008.
- ^ "Danube Delta Reserve Biosphere". Romanian Ministry of Waters, Forests and Environmental Protection (via envir.ee). Archived from the original on 26 April 2005. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Danube Delta". UNESCO's World Heritage Centre. Archived from the original on 27 January 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ Wohl, Ellen (2010). A World of Rivers: Environmental Change on Ten of the World's Great Rivers. University of Chicago Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-226-90480-1.
- ^ "Romania". Fao.org. Archived from the original on 10 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ Grantham, H. S.; et al. (2020). "Anthropogenic modification of forests means only 40% of remaining forests have high ecosystem integrity - Supplementary Material". Nature Communications. 11 (1): 5978. doi:10.1038/s41467-020-19493-3. ISSN 2041-1723. PMC 7723057. PMID 33293507.
- ^ a b "Flora si fauna salbatica" (in Romanian). enrin.grida.no. Archived from the original on 23 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- ^ "EarthTrends: Biodiversity and Protected Areas – Romania" (PDF). Archived from the original(PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Bears. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- ^ "Canids: Foxes, Wolves, Jackals and Dogs. Status Survey and Conservation Action Plan"(PDF). IUCN/SSC Canid Specialist Group. Archived (PDF) from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 2 October 2014.
- ^ "Romania: Climate". U.S. Library of Congress. Archived from the original on 23 September 2006. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ a b "Permafrost Monitoring and Prediction in Southern Carpathians, Romania". CliC International Project Office (CIPO). 22 December 2004. Archived from the original on 16 May 2011. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Meteo Romania | Site-ul Administratiei Nationale de Meteorologie". Archived from the original on 22 January 2016.
- ^ "Klimatafel von Rumänien". Baseline climate means (1961–1990) from stations all over the world (in German). Deutscher Wetterdienst. Archived from the original on 14 July 2015. Retrieved 20 December 2016.
- ^ Verheijen, Tony (14 March 1990). Oxford Scholarship Online: Semi-Presidentialism in Europe. Oxfordscholarship.com. ISBN 9780191599156. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ a b c d "Romania". The Europa World Year Book. 2 (48 ed.). London and New York: Routledge. 2007. pp. 3734–3759. ISBN 978-1-85743-412-5.
- ^ "Se schimbă sistemul de vot. Deputații au adoptat noua Lege Electorală propusă de USL". Antena3.ro. Archived from the original on 31 October 2012. Retrieved 12 October 2012.
- ^ "Presentation". High Court of Cassation and Justice -—Romania. Archived from the original on 10 September 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romanian Legal system". CIA Factbook. 2000. Archived from the original on 25 January 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- ^ "Post-Accession (Anti-)Corruption Record in Romania and Bulgaria". Cairn.Info.
- ^ "Understanding the WTO – members". WTO. Archived from the original on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ a b c d "Foreign Policy Priorities of Romania for 2008" (in Romanian). Romanian Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ "Romania's Schengen Accession in Jeopardy Over Rule of Law". Schengen Visa Info. 14 May 2019.
- ^ "EU". europarlamentti.info.
- ^ "Background Note: Romania – U.S.-Romanian Relations". U.S. Department of State.
- ^ "Bucharest Herald Resources & Information". www.bucharestherald.com. Archived from the original on 12 May 2009.
- ^ Gabriel Andreescu; Valentin Stan; Renate Weber (30 October 1994). "Romania'S Relations with the Republic of Moldova". International Studies. Centre for International Studies. Archived from the original on 23 February 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Ihrig, Stefan. "Rediscovering History, Rediscovering Ultimate Truth" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 October 2008. Retrieved 17 September 2008.
- ^ "Moldova, Romania open new chapter in bilateral relations". People's Daily. 29 April 2010. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 11 August 2011.
- ^ "Press conference" (Press release). Ministry of National Defence of Romania. 21 January 2003. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "MoND Budget as of 2007" (in Romanian). Ziarul Financiar. 30 October 2006. Archived from the original on 22 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Donald, David. "Romania Finally Settles On Portuguese F-16s". Aviation International News. Archived from the original on 6 August 2016.
- ^ "PICTURES: Romania accepts first C-27J Spartans-12/04/2010-London". Flightglobal.com. Archived from the original on 15 April 2010. Retrieved 28 September 2010.
- ^ "Spartan Order". Aviation Week & Space Technology. 11 December 2006.
- ^ "Romania: 2 soldiers killed, 1 injured in Afghanistan". Colorado Springs Gazette. Associated Press. 7 May 2016. Archived from the original on 17 August 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ^ "Joint Press Conference of the President of Romania Klaus Iohannis and US President Donald Trump, Rose Garden, White House – Embassy of Romania to the United States of America". washington.mae.ro.
- ^ "Romania To Send 450 More Troops To Afghanistan". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 21 December 2014. Archived from the original on 19 September 2016. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ^ "Romania ends combat mission in Afghanistan with visit from Prime Minister". Associated Press. 30 June 2014. Archived from the original on 14 October 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2016.
- ^ "Traian Basescu: Romania va trimite fregata Regele Ferdinand cu 205 militari in Mediterana pentru operatiuni de blocare a oricarei nave suspecte ca transporta armament" (in Romanian). HotNews.ro. 22 March 2011. Archived from the original on 25 March 2011. Retrieved 22 March 2011.
- ^ "Romania ratifies US missile shield agreement". SpaceWar. 6 December 2012. Archived from the original on 2 February 2013.
- ^ "Geografia Romaniei" (in Romanian). descopera.net. Archived from the original on 19 February 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- ^ a b "Hierarchical list of the Nomenclature of territorial units for statistics – NUTS and the Statistical regions of Europe". Archived from the original on 18 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "LEGE nr. 151 din 15 iulie 1998" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
- ^ "2011 Regions Population". INSSE. 4 July 2013. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 9 July 2013.
- ^ a b "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.[dead link]
- ^ "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects". Archived from the original on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 21 April 2017., IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2017
- ^ "GDP per capita in PPS". ec.europa.eu/eurostat. Eurostat. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
- ^ "GDP in 2006" (PDF) (in Romanian). Romanian National Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Romania to Get Next Installment of Bailout". 1 November 2010. Archived from the original on 21 July 2016 – via NYTimes.com.
- ^ "GDP per capita, PPP (current international $) – Romania". data.worldbank.org. World Bank. Retrieved 23 January 2020.
- ^ "Net average wage in Romania slows down to real 4.8% annual rise". Romania Insider. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- ^ "Eurostat, HICP – monthly data (12-month average rate of change)". Eurostat. Archived from the original on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 5 March 2017.
- ^ "In January 2017, the seasonally adjusted unemployment rate was estimated at 5.4%"(PDF) (Press release). National Institute of Statistics. 31 January 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2017. Retrieved 9 March 2017.
- ^ Industrial production up by 0.4% in euro area and EU27|Eurostat. Eurostat (12 April 2013). Retrieved on 13 May 2013.
- ^ Chirileasa, Andrei (9 June 2014). "Top 20 companies in Romania by turnover". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "IMF World Economic Outlook Database, April 2011 – Central and Eastern Europe". IMF. April 2011. Archived from the original on 15 October 2011. Retrieved 27 April 2011.
- ^ "Romania". Index of Economic Freedom. heritage.org. Archived from the original on 5 January 2005. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Taxation trends in the EU (PDF) (Report). Eurostat. 26 June 2007. Archived from the original (PDF) on 28 June 2007. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romania - share of economic sectors in the gross domestic product 2018". Statista.
- ^ "Farmers in the EU - statistics - Statistics Explained". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 15 June 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2021.
- ^ a b "FDI stock in Romania approaches EUR 84 bln". 5 September 2019.
- ^ a b "Explore Economies". World Bank.
- ^ "Banca Naţională a României – "The History of the Romanian Leu" Exhibition". www.bnr.ro. Retrieved 1 May 2020.
- ^ "Romania and the euro". ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ "Romania External Debt 2004–2020 Monthly USD mn CEIC Data". ceicdata.com. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ "Length of roads in Romania 2015" (PDF). INSSE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 November 2016. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- ^ "Reteaua feroviara" (in Romanian). cfr.to. Archived from the original on 8 June 2009. Retrieved 6 September 2009.
- ^ "Metrorex ridership" (in Romanian). Financial Week newspaper. 23 April 2007. Archived from the original on 16 May 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Ann. aero database". Archived from the original on 26 March 2017.
- ^ "Country Comparison-Electricity Consumptiom". cia.gov. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ "Planul Naţional de Acţiune în Domeniul Energiei din Surse Regenerabile (PNAER)"(PDF) (in Romanian). 2010. Archived from the original (PDF) on 11 December 2015. Retrieved 9 August 2014.
- ^ "Raport Anual 2015 energie" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2017. Retrieved 20 February 2017.
- ^ Lazar, Cornel and Mirela. "Economic Insights – Trends and Challenges Vol.IV(LXVII) No. 4/2015 37 – 44Romanian Oil Industry Decline" (PDF). upg-bulletin-so.ro. Archived from the original(PDF) on 21 April 2018. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- ^ "World Shale Resource Assessments". eia.gov. Retrieved 26 March 2020.
- ^ Ana Hontz-Ward. "Romania Expects to be Energy Independent Despite Ukraine Crisis". Voanews.com. Archived from the original on 18 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "Contractul pentru unitatile 3 si 4 de la centrala nucleara Cernavoda se va parafa in mai. Chinezii v-or avea 51% din actiuni – Nicolae Moga (PSD) – Energie – HotNews.ro". Economie.hotnews.ro. Archived from the original on 19 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "Numărul conexiunilor la internet a crescut cu 22,8%. Câte milioane de români au acces la internet". Gândul. 4 December 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015. Retrieved 4 April 2015.
- ^ "• Chart: Blistering broadband: Europe's fastest downloaders | Statista". www.statista.com. Archived from the original on 22 February 2017.
- ^ "Top 10: Where to Find the World's Fastest Internet". Bloomberg. 23 January 2013. Archived from the original on 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Romanian city comes out first in the world in Internet download speed ranking". Net Index. 3 July 2013. Archived from the original on 6 July 2013.
- ^ "Country/Economy Profiles: Romania, Page 329 Travel&Tourism" (PDF). World Economic Forum. Archived (PDF) from the original on 5 April 2013. Retrieved 16 March 2017.
- ^ "Worldbank Tourism in Romania". worldbank.org. Archived from the original on 25 August 2017. Retrieved 5 May 2017.
- ^ "Tourism attracted in 2005 investments worth €400 million" (in Romanian). Gandul Newspaper. Archived from the original on 9 August 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2008.
- ^ Report from Romanian National Institute of Statistics (PDF) (Report). Archived from the original (PDF) on 16 February 2008. Retrieved 11 January 2008. for the first 9 months of 2007 an increase from the previous year of 8.7% to 16.5 million tourists; of these 94.0% came from European countries and 61.7% from EU
- ^ Criza ne strică vacanța Archived 2 November 2012 at the Wayback Machine, 9 July 2010, jurnalul.ro, accessed on 21 August 2010
- ^ "Tan and fun at the Black Sea". UnseenRomania. Archived from the original on 11 October 2007. Retrieved 10 January 2008.
- ^ "Castelul Bran, marcat de istorie, dar şi de legenda lui Dracula atrage anual sute de mii de turişti". www.digi24.ro. Archived from the original on 22 August 2016. Retrieved 28 June 2016.
- ^ "Turismul renaste la tara" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. 5 July 2008. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ "Bine ati venit pe site-ul de promovare a pensiunilor agroturistice din Romania !!!" (in Romanian). RuralTourism.ro. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ "Turism in Romania". Turism.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Ansamblul sculptural Constantin Brancusi din Targu Jiu". Romaniaturistica.com. 16 March 1957. Archived from the original on 9 September 2012. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "How important is tourism in Romania's economy?". romania-insider.com. Archived from the original on 6 November 2015.
- ^ a b "Over 1.9 million tourists visit Romania, where do they come from – Romania Insider". Archived from the original on 4 February 2015.
- ^ "Traian Vuia in a Century of Aviation". Romanian Academy Library. p. 1. Archived from the original on 10 March 2012. Retrieved 7 August 2012.
- ^ "AUREL VLAICU". www2.rosa.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ "Henri Coandă". www2.rosa.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ "Victor Babeş, savantul român care a descoperit 50 de noi tipuri de microbi şi un vaccin împotriva turbării". adevarul.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ Editor (15 January 2019). "Nicolae Paulescu was a Romanian scientist who claimed to have been the first person to discover insuli, which he called pancreine". Diabetes. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1974". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ Moore, Elaine A. (10 January 2014). The Amphetamine Debate: The Use of Adderall, Ritalin and Related Drugs for Behavior Modification, Neuroenhancement and Anti-Aging Purposes. McFarland. ISBN 978-0-7864-8012-8.
- ^ "Science in post-communist Romania: The future is not inviting" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 May 2011. Retrieved 9 February 2011.
- ^ "R&D expenditure in the EU remained stable in 2016 at just over 2% of GDP" (Press release). Eurostat. 1 December 2017.
- ^ "Romania, last in the EU on R&D expenditure". Romania Insider. 10 January 2019.
- ^ "Romania accedes to ESA Convention" (Press release). European Space Agency. 20 January 2011.
- ^ "CERN welcomes Romania as its twenty-second Member State" (Press release). CERN. 5 September 2016.
- ^ "Romania loses voting right at European Space Agency due to unpaid debts". Romania Insider. 3 October 2018.
- ^ Abbott, Alison (12 January 2011). "Romania's high hopes for science". Nature. doi:10.1038/news.2011.8.
- ^ Abbott, Alison (12 January 2011). "Science fortunes of Balkan neighbours diverge". Nature. 469 (7329): 142–143. Bibcode:2011Natur.469..142A. doi:10.1038/469142a. PMID 21228844.
- ^ "ELI-NP | Extreme Light Infrastructure – Nuclear Physics". Eli-np.ro. Archived from the original on 6 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "VIDEO Romania's first satellite Goliat successfully launch from Kourou base in French Guyana – Top News". HotNews.ro. Archived from the original on 6 April 2014. Retrieved 4 April 2014.
- ^ "Romania will own a part of the International Space Station and will contribute to the development of the latest European rocket, Ariane 6". Romanian Space Agency. 3 December 2014. Archived from the original on 8 December 2014.
- ^ "European effort spotlights plight of the Roma". usatoday. 10 February 2005. Archived from the original on 23 January 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Roma dream of discrimination-free Romania ahead of Pope visit". France 24. 2 June 2019.
- ^ a b Official site of the results of the 2002 Census (Report) (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 5 February 2012. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "German Population of Romania, 1930–1948". hungarian-history.hu. Archived from the original on 17 August 2007. Retrieved 7 September 2009.
- ^ a b c "World Factbook EUROPE : Romania", The World Factbook, 12 July 2018 This article incorporates text from this source, which is in the public domain.
- ^ Max Roser (2014), "Total Fertility Rate around the world over the last centuries", Our World In Data, Gapminder Foundation, archived from the original on 9 February 2019, retrieved 8 May 2019
- ^ "Eurostat – Tables, Graphs and Maps Interface (TGM) table". ec.europa.eu. Archived from the original on 27 May 2016.
- ^ Villeret, Graeme. "Roumanie". PopulationData.net. Archived from the original on 15 March 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Romania demographics profile (2011)". Indexmundi.com. 12 July 2011. Archived from the original on 8 November 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Europe :: Romania — The World Factbook – Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov.
- ^ "Romania". Germany: focus-migration.de. Archived from the original on 7 February 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ "Focus-Migration: Romania". focus-migration.hwwi.de (in German). Archived from the original on 20 July 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- ^ MIGRATION AND ASYLUM IN CENTRAL AND EASTERN EUROPE Archived 16 September 2015 at the Wayback Machine European Parliament
- ^ a b "Romanian Translation | Romanian, Italian, English & French translations". Parolando. Retrieved 27 April 2020.
- ^ "Iarna Ucraineană – Află care sunt localitățile din Maramureș în care se prăznuiesc sărbătorile de iarnă după rit vechi" [Ukrainian winter: find out in which communes of Maramureș are the Winter holidays celebrated by the old calendar], Infomm.ro, archived from the original on 18 May 2015, retrieved 5 May 2015
- ^ "2011 census results by native language"(xls). www.recensamantromania.ro, website of the Romanian Institute of Statistics. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- ^ "Constitutia României". Cdep.ro. Archived from the original on 7 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Two-thirds of working age adults in the EU28 in 2011 state they know a foreign language"(PDF). Eurostat. 26 September 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2013. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- ^ "Roumanie – Organisation internationale de la Francophonie". francophonie.org. Archived from the original on 14 March 2017. Retrieved 2 November 2014.
- ^ "EUROPEANS AND THEIR LANGUAGES, REPORT" (PDF). Eurostat. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 January 2016. Retrieved 21 August 2014.
- ^ "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". pewforum.org. 8 November 2017. Retrieved 25 March 2020.
- ^ Profiles of the Eastern Churches Archived 29 December 2016 at the Wayback Machine at cnewa.org
- ^ "European Court of Human Rights – Case of Metropolitan Church of Bessarabia" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 30 December 2016.
- ^ "Religious Belief and National Belonging in Central and Eastern Europe". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 May 2017.
- ^ "Orthodox Christianity in the 21st Century". Pew Research Center's Religion & Public Life Project. 10 November 2017.
- ^ "Urbanization of Romania: how urban population increased from 3.7 million in 1948 to 12 million in 1989". Businessday.ro. Archived from the original on 22 April 2014. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- ^ "Urban Audit". Urban Audit. Archived from the original on 31 May 2013. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Proiect – Zona metropolitana Bucuresti". Zmb.ro. Archived from the original on 2 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest will be ready in 10 years" (in Romanian). Romania Libera. Archived from the original on 3 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Official site of Metropolitan Zone of Bucharest Project" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on 2 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Population at 20 October 2011" (in Romanian). INSSE. 5 July 2013. Retrieved 5 July 2013.
- ^ "Galerie foto: Cum arată noul spital Colţea, după o investiţie de 90 de milioane de dolari" (in Romanian). România Liberă. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- ^ The Romanian Educational Policy in Transition (Report). UNESCO. Archived from the original on 2 October 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romanian Institute of Statistics Yearbook – Chapter 8" (PDF) (in Romanian). Archived(PDF) from the original on 27 August 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Romania Literacy" (in Romanian). indexmundi.com. Retrieved 22 January 2019.
- ^ "14 ani de școală obligatoriu începând din toamnă! Reguli pentru înscrierea la clasa pregătitoare". BitTV.Info (in Romanian). 4 July 2020. Archived from the original on 12 October 2020.
- ^ "Ministrul Educației: Grupa mare la grădiniță devine obligatorie. Altminteri nu mai poți fi înscris la pregătitoare". EduPedu (in Romanian). 10 May 2020. Archived from the original on 28 September 2020.
- ^ "Limited relevants. What feminists can learn from the eastern experience" (PDF). genderomania.ro. Archived from the original(PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 25 August 2008.
- ^ "QS World University Rankings 2013". topuniversities.com. October 2013. Archived from the original on 21 October 2016. All four universities are ranked at 700+ which means they are ranked among the 701–800 places.
- ^ "IMO team record". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 5 March 2008.
- ^ "Romania's brains rank first in Europe, 10th in the world after Math Olympiad" (in Romanian). romania-insider.com. 16 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 July 2012.
- ^ "Romanian students win four medals, two gold, at the European Girls Mathematical Olympiad". business-review.eu. 16 April 2014. Archived from the original on 9 April 2015.
- ^ "Romanian students win 32 medals at SEEMOUS International Mathematical Olympiad". AGERPRES. 11 March 2014. Archived from the original on 8 April 2015.
- ^ "Ritli: Ministry of Health budget for 2012 can provide the assistance at least at the level of previous year" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Mediafax.ro
- ^ "Romania, 4th in Europe in TB" Archived 24 February 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
- ^ "Our patients vs. theirs: How many hospitals has Romania compared to other EU countries", Wall-Street.ro
- ^ "Fewer hospital beds for sick Romanians"Archived 5 November 2013 at the Wayback Machine, România Liberă
- ^ "Personalul medico-sanitar pe categorii, forme de proprietate, sexe, macroregiuni, regiuni de dezvoltare și județe" Archived 23 June 2007 at the Wayback Machine, Institutul Național de Statistică
- ^ ""De profesie: medic în România". Cum încearcă ministrul Nicolăescu să-i țină pe doctori în țară" Archived 1 July 2013 at the Wayback Machine, Adevărul, 2 April 2013
- ^ "Cultural aspects". National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 7 March 2008. Retrieved 28 August 2008.
- ^ "Mihai Eminescu" (in Romanian). National Institute for Research & Development in Informatics, Romania. Archived from the original on 31 December 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- ^ Tom Sandqvist, DADA EAST: The Romanians of Cabaret Voltaire, London MIT Press, 2006.
- ^ Ștefănescu, Alex. (1999). Nichita Stănescu, The Angel with a Book in His Hands (in Romanian). Mașina de scris. p. 8. ISBN 978-973-99297-4-5.
- ^ "Brancusi's 'Bird in Space' Sets World Auction Record for Sculpture at $27,456,000". Antiques and the Arts Online. Archived from the original on 13 February 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- ^ "November 9, The price record for a Brancusi masterpiece was set up in 2005 when "Bird in Space" was sold for USD 27.5 M". Romanian Information Center in Brussels. Archived from the original on 14 May 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- ^ "The Nobel Prize in Literature 2009". NobelPrize.org. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ "George Enescu, the composer". International Enescu Society. Archived from the original on 19 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- ^ "Sounds Like Canada feat. Gheorghe Zamfir". CBC Radio. 17 January 2006. Archived from the original on 28 April 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Gheorghe Zamfir, master of the pan pipe". Gheorghe Zamfir, Official Homepage. Archived from the original on 30 October 2007. Retrieved 20 January 2008.
- ^ "Inna Biography". BBC. Archived from the original on 5 June 2013. Retrieved 26 October 2013.
- ^ "10 One-Hit Wonders to Be or Not to Be?". vh1.i. 7 March 2014. Archived from the original on 13 March 2014.
- ^ Arsenie, Dan. "Paula Seling despre rezultatul la Eurovision 2010: "Mai bine de atât nu se putea!"". EVZ.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Moartea Domnului Lazarescu". Festival de Cannes. Association Française du Festival International du Film. Retrieved 28 November 2018.
- ^ "Cannes 2007 Winners". Alternative Film Guide. Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ Mike Collett-White (16 February 2013). "Romanian film "Child's Pose" wins Berlin Golden Bear". Reuters. Archived from the original on 24 September 2015.
- ^ "World Heritage Site – Romania". UNESCO. Archived from the original on 31 October 2004. Retrieved 31 January 2008.
- ^ "Report on the Nominations from Luxembourg and Romania for the European Capital of Culture 2007" (PDF). The Selection Panel for the European Capital of Culture (ECOC) 2007. 5 April 2004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 4 September 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2008.
- ^ "Muzeul National Peles | Site-ul oficial al castelelor Peles si Pelisor". Peles.ro. Archived from the original on 28 August 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Castelul Bran". Viaromania.eu. Archived from the original on 8 October 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Public holidays enacted by labour code"Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Labor code, 22 March 2017
- ^ Improve It Grup S.R.L. "Traditii si obiceiuri romanesti. Artizanat traditional romanesc. Arta populara". Traditii.ro. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ Insider, Romania (21 December 2012). "Winter holidays and Christmas traditions in Romania: the Bear dance, the Masked carolers and the Goat". Romania-Insider.com. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "ROMANIA – Traditions and Folklore – Official Travel and Tourism Information". Romaniatourism.com. Archived from the original on 23 July 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "Ministrul Agriculturii: UE accepta ca mieii de Pasti si porcii de Craciun sa fie sacrificati in mod traditional – Actualitate". HotNews.ro. 11 August 2014. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans (29 June 2014). "Martisor, a Spring celebration for Eastern Europeans". Foreigners In Uk. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ "Christina Bradatan, Cuisine and Cultural Identity in Balkans". Scholarworks.iu.edu. Archived from the original on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 15 August 2014.
- ^ Recipes, Gourmet European. "Romanian Recipes – like mom used to make". www.gourmet-european-recipes.com-gb. Archived from the original on 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- ^ "28 Romanian Foods The Whole World Should Know – oneJive". onejive.com-US. Archived from the original on 12 August 2017. Retrieved 2 May 2017.
- ^ "Retete traditionale Moldova: retete peste sau cu carne de porc". Bucataras.ro. 15 December 2008. Archived from the original on 5 January 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Bucatarie romaneasca – Cultura si retete – Articole". Gastronomie.ele.ro. Archived from the original on 30 April 2007. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Țuica production consumed 75% of Romanian plums in 2003". Regard-est.com. Archived from the original on 29 September 2011. Retrieved 29 August 2011.
- ^ "Study in Romania". Educations.com. 5 February 2008. Archived from the original on 28 December 2010. Retrieved 14 March 2011.
- ^ "Beer consumption per capita in 2008". kirinholdings.co.jp. Retrieved 17 March 2017.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "Football's impact in the Romanian economy reaches EUR 740 million annually, FRF estimates show". 28 August 2018.
- ^ "The FIFA/Coca-Cola World Ranking – Associations – Romania – Men's". FIFA.com.
- ^ Scragg, Steven (24 August 2017). "Gheorghe Hagi: the Maradona of the Carpathians". Archived from the original on 5 November 2019. Retrieved 22 July 2019.
- ^ "Nicolae Dobrin: Romania's true greatest ever player". The Versed. 1 August 2017.
- ^ "Romania mourns Ilie Balaci". UEFA.com.
- ^ a b "European Footballer of the Year ("Ballon d'Or") 1970". www.rsssf.com.
- ^ "Adio, Mihai Mocanu! | Liga 2". liga2.prosport.ro.
- ^ a b c "Echipa de vis all-time a Romaniei". Ziare.com.
- ^ "Video Un Rio Formidabil: Mircea Lucescu, atacant dreapta în echipa de vis". Stiriletvr.ro. Archived from the original on 23 August 2019. Retrieved 18 August 2019.
- ^ "Former Romania captain Costica Stefanescu dies aged 62". Associated Press. 21 August 2013 – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ "Concluzia dura a unei legende de la Steaua: Totul e un dezastru! – Interviu". Ziare.com.
- ^ "EXCLUSIV | "Angelo Niculescu mi-a zis că nu mă bagă pentru că sunt maghiar şi Partidul crede că vând meciul. Sper să nu prind ziua când ne vor bate iar"". Telekomsport.ro.
- ^ "Ne-a părăsit Ştefan Sameş, fostul mare fundaş al Stelei". jurnalul.antena3.ro.
- ^ "L'Equipe: Nicolae Dobrin, cel mai valoros jucător român din istorie. Cine sunt următorii în Top 5". www.digi24.ro.
- ^ "La multi ani Anghel Iordanescu!". www.revistavip.net.
- ^ Wilson, Jonathan (17 May 2011). "Miodrag Belodedici: the fugitive libero who conquered Europe twice | Jonathan Wilson" – via www.theguardian.com.
- ^ House, Future Publishing Limited Quay; Ambury, The; Engl, Bath BA1 1UA All rights reserved; number 2008885, Wales company registration (19 February 2019). "What happened to Helmuth Duckadam? "I saved four penalties to win the European Cup... but it was my last ever game"". FourFourTwo.
- ^ "Victor Piţurcă. Amintiri târzii cu 'Gerd Muller al României' – Fanatik.ro". 8 May 2018.
- ^ "Barca ex-captain Popescu turns 51". Tribuna.com.
- ^ "Florin Răducioiu returns to AC Milan". 24 December 2018. Archived from the original on 30 September 2020.
- ^ "Kicker: "Nemuritorul" Dorinel Munteanu | Romania Libera". romanialibera.ro.
- ^ "Petrescu set to reject Crystal Palace". fourfourtwo.com. 19 November 2013.
- ^ a b c "Roménia na máxima força". UEFA.com.
- ^ [Champions League: Once feared across Europe, Chelsea opponents Steaua Bucharest went the way of the Wall]
- ^ "Middlesbrough seek UEFA Cup cure – UEFA.com". www.uefa.com. 24 April 2006.
- ^ "Cum putea Dinamo domina Europa, în viziunea lui Lucescu! Ce strategie ar trebui să aplice!". ProSport. 10 March 2011.
- ^ "Bucharest back to 1980s best". UEFA.com.
- ^ Ciprian, Boitiu (17 April 2019). "Arad: "Bătrâna Doamnă", UTA Arad, împlinește, joi, 74 de ani. Lansare de carte și o inedită expoziție. Care este povestea "Campioanei Provinciei"".[permanent dead link]
- ^ "Video Istoria unei legende". Stiriletvr.ro.
- ^ "FC Petrolul – UTA Arad/Duelul celor zece titluri! – FC Petrolul Ploiești". fcpetrolul.ro.
- ^ "Man Utd 0-1 CFR Cluj". BBC Sport. 5 December 2012.
- ^ "EL: Roma and Astra Giurgiu celebrate | Football Italia". www.football-italia.net.
- ^ "Viitorul confirmed as Romanian champions after row over rules". Eurosport. 13 July 2017.
- ^ a b c d e "Studiu IRES: Fotbalul, cel mai iubit sport in Romania; Simona Halep, locul patru in clasamentul celor mai mari sportivi romani ai tuturor timpurilor – Fotbal – HotNews.ro". sport.hotnews.ro. 13 June 2014.
- ^ "Davis Cup – Teams". www.daviscup.com.
- ^ "Horia Tecau", atptour.com, retrieved 20 July 2019
- ^ "Handball World Mourns the Loss of Icon, Friend & Teacher". archive.ihf.info. Retrieved 9 July 2020.
- ^ "Neagu and Hansen named 2018 World Players of the Year | IHF". www.ihf.info. Archived from the original on 28 August 2019.
- ^ "Women's handball: CSM Bucharest wins Champions League trophy!".
- ^ "Jo Jo Dan le poate calca pe urme lui Leu, Doroftei, Bute si Diaconu saptamana viitoare: "Sunt crescut in Rahova, asta spune tot"". Sport.ro.
- ^ "Ghita vs. Verhoeven: Kickboxing's top heavyweights go to war on Twitter". Bloodyelbow.com. 20 May 2014.
- ^ "Adegbuyi: 'I'll show Wilnis why I'm ranked #1 at Heavyweight'". Fight Site.
- ^ "Romanian Results and Medals in the Olympic Games". www.olympiandatabase.com.
- ^ "Tokyo 2020 >> Romaniangymnastics.ro". www.romaniangymnastics.ro. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- ^ Armour, Nancy. "40 years after perfect 10, gymnast Nadia Comaneci remains an Olympic icon". USA Today.
- ^ "Romania at the Olympic Games". www.topendsports.com.
- ^ "Analysis. What to expect from Romania at Rio 2016 Olympic Games". Business Review (in Romanian). 26 July 2016. Retrieved 15 April 2020.
- Bóna, István (1994). "From Dacia to Transylvania: The Period of the Great Migrations (271–895); The Hungarian–Slav Period (895–1172)". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 62–177. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
- Curta, Florin (2006). Southeastern Europe in the Middle Ages, 500–1250. Cambridge University Press.
- Georgescu, Vlad (1991). The Romanians: A History. Ohio State University Press. ISBN 978-0-8142-0511-2.
- Heather, Peter (2010). Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-973560-0.
- Hitchins, Keith (2014). A Concise History of Romania. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-69413-1.
- Köpeczi, Béla (1994). "Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 663–692. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
- Opreanu, Coriolan Horațiu (2005). "The North-Danube Regions from the Roman Province of Dacia to the Emergence of the Romanian Language (2nd–8th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 59–132. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Pohl, Walter (2013). "National origin narratives in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy". In Geary, Patrick J.; Klaniczay, Gábor (eds.). Manufacturing Middle Ages: Entangled History of Medievalism in Nineteenth-Century Europe. BRILL. pp. 13–50. ISBN 978-90-04-24487-0.
- Pop, Ioan-Aurel (1999). Romanians and Romania: A Brief History. Boulder. ISBN 978-0-88033-440-2.
- Price, T. Douglas (2013). Europe Before Rome: A Site-by-Site Tour of the Stone, Bronze, and Iron Ages. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-991470-8.
- Rustoiu, Aurel (2005). "Dacia before the Romans". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 31–58. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Sălăgean, Tudor (2005). "Romanian Society in the Early Middle Ages (9th–14th Centuries AD)". In Pop, Ioan-Aurel; Bolovan, Ioan (eds.). History of Romania: Compendium. Romanian Cultural Institute (Center for Transylvanian Studies). pp. 133–207. ISBN 978-973-7784-12-4.
- Trócsányi, Zsolt; Miskolczy, Ambrus (1994). "Transylvania under the Habsburg Empire". In Köpeczi, Béla; Barta, Gábor; Bóna, István; Makkai, László; Szász, Zoltán; Borus, Judit (eds.). History of Transylvania. Akadémiai Kiadó. pp. 413–523. ISBN 963-05-6703-2.
Culture and history links
Last edited on 11 May 2021, at 18:54
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.