: Roma [ˈroːma] (listen)
) is the capital city
and a special comune
(named Comune di Roma Capitale
), as well as the capital of the Lazio region
. The city has been a major human settlement for almost three millennia. With 2,860,009 residents in 1,285 km2
(496.1 sq mi),
it is also the country's most populated comune
. It is the third most populous city
in the European Union
by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome
, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city
Its metropolitan area
is the third-most populous within Italy.
Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula
, within Lazio (Latium
), along the shores of the Tiber
. Vatican City
(the smallest country in the world)
is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city; for this reason Rome has sometimes been defined as the capital of two states.
spans 28 centuries. While Roman mythology
dates the founding of Rome
at around 753 BC, the site has been inhabited for much longer, making it one of the oldest continuously occupied cities
The city's early population originated from a mix of Latins
, and Sabines
. Eventually, the city successively became the capital of the Roman Kingdom
, the Roman Republic
and the Roman Empire
, and is regarded by many as the first ever Imperial city and metropolis
It was first called The Eternal City
: Urbs Aeterna
: La Città Eterna
) by the Roman poet Tibullus
in the 1st century BC, and the expression was also taken up by Ovid
, and Livy
Rome is also called "Caput Mundi
" (Capital of the World). After the fall of the Empire in the west
, which marked the beginning of the Middle Ages
, Rome slowly fell under the political control of the Papacy
, and in the 8th century it became the capital of the Papal States
, which lasted until 1870. Beginning with the Renaissance
, almost all popes since Nicholas V
(1447–1455) pursued a coherent architectural and urban programme over four hundred years, aimed at making the city the artistic and cultural centre of the world.
In this way, Rome became first one of the major centres of the Renaissance
and then the birthplace of both the Baroque
style and Neoclassicism
. Famous artists, painters, sculptors and architects made Rome the centre of their activity, creating masterpieces throughout the city. In 1871, Rome became the capital of the Kingdom of Italy
, which, in 1946, became the Italian Republic
In 2019, Rome was the 11th most visited city in the world with 10.1 million tourists, the third most visited in the European Union
, and the most popular tourist destination in Italy.
Its historic centre is listed by UNESCO
as a World Heritage Site
Host city for the 1960 Summer Olympics
, Rome is also the seat of several specialised agencies of the United Nations
, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization
(FAO), the World Food Programme
(WFP) and the International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD). The city also hosts the Secretariat of the Parliamentary Assembly of the Union for the Mediterranean
(UfM) as well as the headquarters of many international business companies such as Eni
, Leonardo S.p.A.
, and national and international banks such as Unicredit
. Rome's EUR
business district is the home of many companies involved in the oil industry, the pharmaceutical industry, and financial services. The presence of renowned international brands in the city have made Rome an important centre of fashion and design, and the Cinecittà Studios
have been the set of many Academy Award
According to the founding myth
of the city by the Ancient Romans themselves,
the long-held tradition of the origin of the name Roma
is believed to have come from the city's founder and first king
However, it is a possibility that the name Romulus was actually derived from Rome itself.
As early as the 4th century, there have been alternative theories proposed on the origin of the name Roma
. Several hypotheses have been advanced focusing on its linguistic roots which however remain uncertain:
- from Rumon or Rumen, archaic name of the Tiber, which in turn is supposedly related to the Greek verb ῥέω (rhéō) 'to flow, stream' and the Latin verb ruō 'to hurry, rush';[b]
- from the Etruscan word 𐌓𐌖𐌌𐌀 (ruma), whose root is *rum- "teat", with possible reference either to the totem wolf that adopted and suckled the cognately named twins Romulus and Remus, or to the shape of the Palatine and Aventine Hills;
- from the Greek word ῥώμη (rhṓmē), which means strength.[c]
While there have been discoveries of archaeological evidence of human occupation of the Rome area from approximately 14,000 years ago, the dense layer of much younger debris obscures Palaeolithic
Evidence of stone tools, pottery, and stone weapons attest to about 10,000 years of human presence. Several excavations support the view that Rome grew from pastoral
settlements on the Palatine Hill
built above the area of the future Roman Forum
. Between the end of the Bronze Age
and the beginning of the Iron Age
, each hill between the sea and the Capitol was topped by a village (on the Capitol Hill, a village is attested since the end of the 14th century BC).
However, none of them yet had an urban quality.
Nowadays, there is a wide consensus that the city developed gradually through the aggregation ("synoecism
") of several villages around the largest one, placed above the Palatine.
This aggregation was facilitated by the increase of agricultural productivity above the subsistence level
, which also allowed the establishment of secondary
and tertiary activities
. These, in turn, boosted the development of trade with the Greek colonies of southern Italy (mainly Ischia
These developments, which according to archaeological evidence took place during the mid-eighth century BC, can be considered as the "birth" of the city.
Despite recent excavations at the Palatine hill, the view that Rome was founded deliberately in the middle of the eighth century BC, as the legend of Romulus suggests, remains a fringe hypothesis.
Legend of the founding of Rome
Traditional stories handed down by the ancient Romans
themselves explain the earliest history of their city
in terms of legend
. The most familiar of these myths, and perhaps the most famous of all Roman myths
, is the story of Romulus and Remus
, the twins who were suckled by a she-wolf
They decided to build a city, but after an argument, Romulus
killed his brother and the city took his name. According to the Roman annalists
, this happened on 21 April 753 BC.
This legend had to be reconciled with a dual tradition, set earlier in time, that had the Trojan refugee Aeneas
escape to Italy and found the line of Romans through his son Iulus
, the namesake of the Julio-Claudian dynasty
This was accomplished by the Roman poet Virgil
in the first century BC. In addition, Strabo
mentions an older story, that the city was an Arcadian
colony founded by Evander
. Strabo also writes that Lucius Coelius Antipater
believed that Rome was founded by Greeks.
Monarchy and republic
The Ancient-Imperial-Roman palaces of the Palatine, a series of palaces located in the Palatine Hill
, express power and wealth of emperors from Augustus until the 4th century.
In 509 BC, the Romans expelled the last king from their city and established an oligarchicrepublic
. Rome then began a period characterised by internal struggles between patricians
(aristocrats) and plebeians
(small landowners), and by constant warfare against the populations of central Italy: Etruscans, Latins, Volsci
, and Marsi
After becoming master of Latium
, Rome led several wars (against the Gauls
and the Greek colony of Taranto
, allied with Pyrrhus
, king of Epirus
) whose result was the conquest of the Italian peninsula
, from the central area up to Magna Graecia
From the beginning of the 2nd century BC, power was contested between two groups of aristocrats: the optimates
, representing the conservative part of the Senate
, and the populares
, which relied on the help of the plebs
(urban lower class) to gain power. In the same period, the bankruptcy of the small farmers and the establishment of large slave estates caused large-scale migration to the city. The continuous warfare led to the establishment of a professional army, which turned out to be more loyal to its generals than to the republic. Because of this, in the second half of the second century and during the first century BC there were conflicts both abroad and internally: after the failed attempt of social reform of the populares Tiberius
and Gaius Gracchus
and the war against Jugurtha
there was a first civil war
between Gaius Marius
A major slave revolt
and then the establishment of the first Triumvirate
The Imperial fora
belong to a series of monumental fora
(public squares) constructed in Rome by the emperors. Also seen in the image is Trajan's Market
In 27 BC, Octavian became princeps civitatis
and took the title of Augustus
, founding the principate
, a diarchy
between the princeps
and the senate.
During the reign of Nero
, two thirds of the city was ruined after the Great Fire of Rome
, and the persecution of Christians
Rome was established as a de facto
empire, which reached its greatest expansion in the second century under the Emperor Trajan
. Rome was confirmed as caput Mundi
, i.e. the capital of the known world, an expression which had already been used in the Republican period. During its first two centuries, the empire was ruled by emperors of the Julio-Claudian
(who also built an eponymous amphitheatre, known as the Colosseum
This time was also characterised by the spread of the Christian religion, preached by Jesus Christ
in the first half of the first century (under Tiberius
) and popularised by his apostles
through the empire and beyond.
The Antonine age is considered the apogee of the Empire, whose territory ranged from the Atlantic Ocean
to the Euphrates
and from Britain
The Roman Empire at its greatest extent in 117 AD, approximately 6.5 million square kilometres (2.5 million square miles)
of land surface.
The Roman Forum
are the remains of those buildings that during most of Ancient Rome's time represented the political, legal, religious and economic centre of the city and the neuralgic centre of all the Roman civilisation.
After the end of the Severan Dynasty in 235, the Empire entered into a 50-year period known as the Crisis of the Third Century
during which there were numerous putsches by generals, who sought to secure the region of the empire they were entrusted with due to the weakness of central authority in Rome. There was the so-called Gallic Empire from 260 to 274 and the revolts of Zenobia and her father from the mid-260s which sought to fend off Persian incursions. Some regions – Britain, Spain, and North Africa – were hardly affected. Instability caused economic deterioration, and there was a rapid rise in inflation as the government debased the currency in order to meet expenses. The Germanic tribes
along the Rhine and north of the Balkans made serious, uncoordinated incursions from the 250s-280s that were more like giant raiding parties rather than attempts to settle. The Persian Empire
invaded from the east several times during the 230s to 260s but were eventually defeated.
(284) undertook the restoration of the State. He ended the Principate and introduced the Tetrarchy
which sought to increase state power. The most marked feature was the unprecedented intervention of the State down to the city level: whereas the State had submitted a tax demand to a city and allowed it to allocate the charges, from his reign the State did this down to the village level. In a vain attempt to control inflation, he imposed price controls
which did not last. He or Constantine regionalised the administration of the empire which fundamentally changed the way it was governed by creating regional dioceses (the consensus seems to have shifted from 297 to 313/14 as the date of creation due to the argument of Constantin Zuckerman in 2002 "Sur la liste de Verone et la province de grande armenie, Melanges Gilber Dagron). The existence of regional fiscal units from 286 served as the model for this unprecedented innovation. The emperor quickened the process of removing military command from governors. Henceforth, civilian administration and military command would be separate. He gave governors more fiscal duties and placed them in charge of the army logistical support system as an attempt to control it by removing the support system from its control. Diocletian ruled the eastern half, residing in Nicomedia
. In 296, he elevated Maximian
of the western half, where he ruled mostly from Mediolanum
when not on the move.
In 292, he created two 'junior' emperors, the Caesars, one for each Augustus, Constantius for Britain, Gaul, and Spain whose seat of power was in Trier
and Licinius in Sirmium
in the Balkans. The appointment of a Caesar was not unknown: Diocletian tried to turn into a system of non-dynastic succession. Upon abdication in 305, the Caesars succeeded and they, in turn, appointed two colleagues for themselves.
After the abdication of Diocletian and Maximian in 305 and a series of civil wars between rival claimants to imperial power, during the years 306–313, the Tetrarchy was abandoned. Constantine the Great undertook a major reform of the bureaucracy, not by changing the structure but by rationalising the competencies of the several ministries during the years 325–330, after he defeated Licinius, emperor in the East, at the end of 324. The so-called Edict of Milan
of 313, actually a fragment of a letter from Licinius to the governors of the eastern provinces, granted freedom of worship to everyone, including Christians, and ordered the restoration of confiscated church properties upon petition to the newly created vicars of dioceses. He funded the building of several churches and allowed clergy to act as arbitrators in civil suits (a measure that did not outlast him but which was restored in part much later). He transformed the town of Byzantium
into his new residence, which, however, was not officially anything more than an imperial residence like Milan or Trier or Nicomedia until given a city prefect in May 359 by Constantius II; Constantinople
Christianity in the form of the Nicene Creed became the official religion of the empire in 380, via the Edict of Thessalonica
issued in the name of three emperors – Gratian, Valentinian II, and Theodosius I
– with Theodosius clearly the driving force behind it. He was the last emperor of a unified empire: after his death in 395, his sons, Arcadius
divided the empire into a western
and an eastern
part. The seat of government in the Western Roman Empire was transferred to Ravenna
after the Siege of Milan
in 402. During the 5th century, the emperors from the 430s mostly resided in the capital city, Rome.
Rome, which had lost its central role in the administration of the empire, was sacked in 410
by the Visigoths
led by Alaric I
but very little physical damage was done, most of which were repaired. What could not be so easily replaced were portable items such as artwork in precious metals and items for domestic use (loot). The popes embellished the city with large basilicas, such as Santa Maria Maggiore (with the collaboration of the emperors). The population of the city had fallen from 800,000 to 450–500,000 by the time the city was sacked in 455 by Genseric
, king of the Vandals
The weak emperors of the fifth century could not stop the decay, leading to the deposition of Romulus Augustus
on 22 August 476, which marked the end of the Western Roman Empire and, for many historians, the beginning of the Middle Ages
The decline of the city's population was caused by the loss of grain shipments from North Africa, from 440 onward, and the unwillingness of the senatorial class to maintain donations to support a population that was too large for the resources available. Even so, strenuous efforts were made to maintain the monumental centre, the palatine, and the largest baths, which continued to function until the Gothic siege of 537. The large baths of Constantine on the Quirinale were even repaired in 443, and the extent of the damage exaggerated and dramatised.
However, the city gave an appearance overall of shabbiness and decay because of the large abandoned areas due to population decline. The population declined to 500,000 by 452 and 100,000 by 500 AD (perhaps larger, though no certain figure can be known). After the Gothic siege of 537, the population dropped to 30,000 but had risen to 90,000 by the papacy of Gregory the Great
The population decline coincided with the general collapse of urban life in the West in the fifth and sixth centuries, with few exceptions. Subsidized state grain distributions to the poorer members of society continued right through the sixth century and probably prevented the population from falling further.
The figure of 450,000–500,000 is based on the amount of pork, 3,629,000 lbs. distributed to poorer Romans during five winter months at the rate of five Roman lbs per person per month, enough for 145,000 persons or 1/4 or 1/3 of the total population.
Grain distribution to 80,000 ticket holders at the same time suggests 400,000 (Augustus set the number at 200,000 or one-fifth of the population).
The Bishop of Rome, called the Pope
, was important since the early days of Christianity because of the martyrdom of both the apostles Peter
there. The Bishops of Rome were also seen (and still are seen by Catholics) as the successors of Peter, who is considered the first Bishop of Rome. The city thus became of increasing importance as the centre of the Catholic Church
. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire
in 476 AD, Rome was first under the control of Odoacer
and then became part of the Ostrogothic Kingdom
before returning to East Roman
control after the Gothic War
, which devastated the city in 546
. Its population declined from more than a million in 210 AD to 500,000 in 273
to 35,000 after the Gothic War (535–554),
reducing the sprawling city to groups of inhabited buildings interspersed among large areas of ruins, vegetation, vineyards and market gardens.
It is generally thought the population of the city until 300 AD was 1 million (estimates range from 2 million to 750,000) declining to 750–800,000 in 400 AD, 450–500,000 in 450 AD and down to 80–100,000 in 500 AD (though it may have been twice this).
After the Lombard invasion of Italy
, the city remained nominally Byzantine, but in reality, the popes pursued a policy of equilibrium between the Byzantines
, the Franks
, and the Lombards
In 729, the Lombard king Liutprand
donated the north Latium town of Sutri
to the Church, starting its temporal power.
In 756, Pepin the Short
, after having defeated the Lombards, gave the Pope temporal jurisdiction over the Roman Duchy and the Exarchate of Ravenna
, thus creating the Papal States
Since this period, three powers tried to rule the city: the pope, the nobility (together with the chiefs of militias, the judges, the Senate and the populace), and the Frankish king, as king of the Lombards, patricius, and Emperor.
These three parties (theocratic, republican, and imperial) were a characteristic of Roman life during the entire Middle Ages.
On Christmas night of 800, Charlemagne
was crowned in Rome as emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
by Pope Leo III
: on that occasion, the city hosted for the first time the two powers whose struggle for control was to be a constant of the Middle Ages.
In 846, Muslim Arabs unsuccessfully stormed the city's walls
, but managed to loot St. Peter
's and St. Paul's basilica, both outside the city wall.
After the decay of Carolingian power
, Rome fell prey to feudal chaos: several noble families fought against the pope, the emperor, and each other. These were the times of Theodora
and her daughter Marozia
, concubines and mothers of several popes, and of Crescentius
, a powerful feudal lord, who fought against the Emperors Otto II
and Otto III
The scandals of this period forced the papacy to reform itself: the election of the pope was reserved to the cardinals, and reform of the clergy was attempted. The driving force behind this renewal was the monk Ildebrando da Soana
, who once elected pope under the name of Gregory VII
became involved into the Investiture Controversy
against Emperor Henry IV
Subsequently, Rome was sacked and burned
by the Normans
under Robert Guiscard
who had entered the city in support of the Pope, then besieged in Castel Sant'Angelo
During this period, the city was autonomously ruled by a senatore
. In the 12th century, this administration, like other European cities, evolved into the commune
, a new form of social organisation controlled by the new wealthy classes.
Pope Lucius II
fought against the Roman commune, and the struggle was continued by his successor Pope Eugenius III
: by this stage, the commune, allied with the aristocracy, was supported by Arnaldo da Brescia
, a monk who was a religious and social reformer.
After the pope's death, Arnaldo was taken prisoner by Adrianus IV
, which marked the end of the commune's autonomy.
Under Pope Innocent III
, whose reign marked the apogee of the papacy, the commune liquidated the senate, and replaced it with a Senatore
, who was subject to the pope.
In this period, the papacy played a role of secular importance in Western Europe
, often acting as arbitrators between Christian monarchs
and exercising additional political powers.
In 1266, Charles of Anjou
, who was heading south to fight the Hohenstaufen
on behalf of the pope, was appointed Senator. Charles founded the Sapienza
, the university of Rome.
In that period the pope died, and the cardinals, summoned in Viterbo
, could not agree on his successor. This angered the people of the city, who then unroofed the building where they met and imprisoned them until they had nominated the new pope; this marked the birth of the conclave
In this period the city was also shattered by continuous fights between the aristocratic families: Annibaldi
, nested in their fortresses built above ancient Roman edifices, fought each other to control the papacy.
Pope Boniface VIII
, born Caetani, was the last pope to fight for the church's universal domain
; he proclaimed a crusade against the Colonna family
and, in 1300, called for the first Jubilee of Christianity
, which brought millions of pilgrims
However, his hopes were crushed by the French king Philip the Fair
, who took him prisoner and killed him in Anagni
Afterwards, a new pope faithful to the French was elected, and the papacy was briefly relocated
During this period Rome was neglected, until a plebeian man, Cola di Rienzo
, came to power.
An idealist and a lover of ancient Rome, Cola dreamed about a rebirth of the Roman Empire: after assuming power with the title of Tribuno
, his reforms were rejected by the populace.
Forced to flee, Cola returned as part of the entourage of Cardinal Albornoz
, who was charged with restoring the Church's power in Italy.
Back in power for a short time, Cola was soon lynched by the populace, and Albornoz took possession of the city. In 1377, Rome became the seat of the papacy again under Gregory XI
The return of the pope to Rome in that year unleashed the Western Schism
(1377–1418), and for the next forty years, the city was affected by the divisions which rocked the Church.
Early modern history
Almost 500 years old, this map of Rome by Mario Cartaro
shows the city's primary monuments.
or Hadrian's Mausoleum, is a Roman monument radically altered in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance built in 134 AD and crowned with 16th and 17th-century statues.
In 1418, the Council of Constance
settled the Western Schism
, and a Roman pope, Martin V
, was elected.
This brought to Rome a century of internal peace, which marked the beginning of the Renaissance
The ruling popes until the first half of the 16th century, from Nicholas V
, founder of the Vatican Library
, to Pius II
, humanist and literate, from Sixtus IV
, a warrior pope, to Alexander VI
, immoral and nepotist
, from Julius II
, soldier and patron, to Leo X
, who gave his name to this period ("the century of Leo X"), all devoted their energy to the greatness and the beauty of the Eternal City and to the patronage of the arts.
During those years, the centre of the Italian Renaissance
moved to Rome from Florence. Majestic works, as the new Saint Peter's Basilica
, the Sistine Chapel
and Ponte Sisto
(the first bridge to be built across the Tiber
since antiquity, although on Roman foundations) were created. To accomplish that, the Popes engaged the best artists of the time, including Michelangelo
, Luca Signorelli
, and Cosimo Rosselli
The period was also infamous for papal corruption, with many Popes fathering children, and engaging in nepotism
. The corruption of the Popes and the huge expenses for their building projects led, in part, to the Reformation
and, in turn, the Counter-Reformation
. Under extravagant and rich popes, Rome was transformed into a centre of art, poetry, music, literature, education and culture. Rome became able to compete with other major European cities of the time in terms of wealth, grandeur, the arts, learning and architecture.
In this twenty-year period, Rome became one of the greatest centres of art in the world. The old St. Peter's Basilica built by Emperor Constantine the Great
(which by then was in a dilapidated state) was demolished and a new one begun. The city hosted artists like Ghirlandaio
, who built the temple of San Pietro in Montorio
and planned a great project to renovate the Vatican
. Raphael, who in Rome became one of the most famous painters of Italy, created frescoes in the Villa Farnesina
, the Raphael's Rooms
, plus many other famous paintings. Michelangelo started the decoration of the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel and executed the famous statue of the Moses
for the tomb of Julius II.
Its economy was rich, with the presence of several Tuscan bankers, including Agostino Chigi
, who was a friend of Raphael and a patron of arts. Before his early death, Raphael also promoted for the first time the preservation of the ancient ruins. The War of the League of Cognac
caused the first plunder of the city in more than five hundred years since the previous sack
; in 1527, the Landsknechts
of Emperor Charles Vsacked the city
, bringing an abrupt end to the golden age of the Renaissance in Rome.
Beginning with the Council of Trent
in 1545, the Church began the Counter-Reformation in response to the Reformation, a large-scale questioning of the Church's authority on spiritual matters and governmental affairs. This loss of confidence led to major shifts of power away from the Church.
Under the popes from Pius IV
to Sixtus V
, Rome became the centre of a reformed Catholicism and saw the building of new monuments which celebrated the papacy.
The popes and cardinals of the 17th and early 18th centuries continued the movement by having the city's landscape enriched with baroque buildings.
This was another nepotistic age; the new aristocratic families (Barberini
) were protected by their respective popes, who built huge baroque buildings for their relatives.
During the Age of Enlightenment
, new ideas reached the Eternal City, where the papacy supported archaeological studies and improved the people's welfare.
But not everything went well for the Church during the Counter-Reformation. There were setbacks in the attempts to assert the Church's power, a notable example being in 1773 when Pope Clement XIV was forced by secular powers to have the Jesuit order suppressed
Late modern and contemporary
Rome then became the focus of hopes of Italian reunification after the rest of Italy was united as the Kingdom of Italy
in 1861 with the temporary capital in Florence
. That year Rome was declared the capital of Italy even though it was still under the Pope's control. During the 1860s, the last vestiges of the Papal States were under French protection thanks to the foreign policy of Napoleon III
. French troops were stationed in the region under Papal control. in 1870 the French troops were withdrawn due to the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War
. Italian troops were able to capture Rome
entering the city through a breach near Porta Pia
. Pope Pius IX
declared himself a prisoner in the Vatican
. In 1871 the capital of Italy was moved from Florence to Rome.
In 1870 the population of the city was 212,000, all of whom lived with the area circumscribed by the ancient city, and in 1920, the population was 660,000. A significant portion lived outside the walls in the north and across the Tiber in the Vatican area.
Bombardment of Rome by Allied
Soon after World War I in late 1922 Rome witnessed the rise of Italian Fascism
led by Benito Mussolini
, who led a march on the city
. He did away with democracy by 1926, eventually declaring a new Italian Empire
and allying Italy with Nazi Germany
in 1938. Mussolini demolished fairly large parts of the city centre in order to build wide avenues and squares which were supposed to celebrate the fascist regime and the resurgence and glorification of classical Rome.
The interwar period saw a rapid growth in the city's population which surpassed one million inhabitants soon after 1930. During World War II, due to the art treasuries and the presence of the Vatican, Rome largely escaped the tragic destiny of other European cities. However, on 19 July 1943, the San Lorenzo district
was bombed by Anglo-American forces
, resulting in about 3,000 immediate deaths and 11,000 wounded of whom another 1,500 died. Mussolini was arrested on 25 July 1943
. On the date of the Italian Armistice
8 September 1943 the city was occupied by the Germans. The Pope declared Rome an open city
. It was liberated on 4 June 1944.
Rome developed greatly after the war as part of the "Italian economic miracle
" of post-war reconstruction and modernisation in the 1950s and early 1960s. During this period, the years of la dolce vita
("the sweet life"), Rome became a fashionable city, with popular classic films such as Ben Hur
, Quo Vadis
, Roman Holiday
and La Dolce Vita
filmed in the city's iconic Cinecittà Studios
. The rising trend in population growth continued until the mid-1980s when the comune
had more than 2.8 million residents. After this, the population declined slowly as people began to move to nearby suburbs.
Rome constitutes a comune speciale
, named "Roma Capitale"
and is the largest both in terms of land area and population among the 8,101 comuni
of Italy. It is governed by a mayor and a city council. The seat of the comune
is the Palazzo Senatorio
on the Capitoline Hill
, the historic seat of the city government. The local administration in Rome is commonly referred to as "Campidoglio"
, the Italian name of the hill.
Administrative and historical subdivisions
The municipi of Rome
Since 1972, the city has been divided into administrative areas, called municipi
) (until 2001 named circoscrizioni
They were created for administrative reasons to increase decentralisation in the city. Each municipio
is governed by a president and a council of twenty-five members who are elected by its residents every five years. The municipi
frequently cross the boundaries of the traditional, non-administrative divisions of the city. The municipi were originally 20, then 19,
and in 2013, their number was reduced to 15.
A new subdivision of the city under Napoleon
was ephemeral, and there were no serious changes in the organisation of the city until 1870 when Rome became the third capital of Italy. The needs of the new capital led to an explosion both in the urbanisation and in the population within and outside the Aurelian walls
. In 1874, a fifteenth rione, Esquilino
, was created on the newly urbanised zone of Monti
. At the beginning of the 20th century other rioni were created (the last one was Prati – the only one outside the Walls of Pope Urban VIII
– in 1921). Afterwards, for the new administrative subdivisions of the city, the term "quartiere" was used. Today all the rioni are part of the first Municipio, which therefore coincides completely with the historical city
Metropolitan and regional government
Rome is the principal town of the Metropolitan City of Rome
, operative since 1 January 2015. The Metropolitan City replaced the old provincia di Roma
, which included the city's metropolitan area and extends further north until Civitavecchia
. The Metropolitan City of Rome is the largest by area in Italy. At 5,352 square kilometres (2,066 sq mi), its dimensions are comparable to the region of Liguria
. Moreover, the city is also the capital of the Lazio
Although the city centre is about 24 kilometres (15 mi) inland from the Tyrrhenian Sea
, the city territory extends to the shore, where the south-western district of Ostia
is located. The altitude of the central part of Rome ranges from 13 metres (43 ft) above sea level
(at the base of the Pantheon
) to 139 metres (456 ft) above sea level
(the peak of Monte Mario
of Rome covers an overall area of about 1,285 square kilometres (496 sq mi), including many green areas.
Satellite image of Rome
Aerial view of part of Rome's Centro Storico
Throughout the history of Rome, the urban limits of the city were considered to be the area within the city's walls. Originally, these consisted of the Servian Wall
, which was built twelve years after the Gaulish
sack of the city in 390 BC. This contained most of the Esquiline and Caelian hills, as well as the whole of the other five. Rome outgrew the Servian Wall, but no more walls were constructed until almost 700 years later, when, in 270 AD, Emperor Aurelian
began building the Aurelian Walls
. These were almost 19 kilometres (12 mi) long, and were still the walls the troops of the Kingdom of Italy
had to breach to enter the city in 1870. The city's urban area is cut in two by its ring-road, the Grande Raccordo Anulare
("GRA"), finished in 1962, which circles the city centre at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi). Although when the ring was completed most parts of the inhabited area lay inside it (one of the few exceptions was the former village of Ostia
, which lies along the Tyrrhenian coast), in the meantime quarters have been built which extend up to 20 km (12 mi) beyond it.
covers an area roughly three times the total area within the Raccordo
and is comparable in area to the entire metropolitan cities of Milan
, and to an area six times the size of the territory of these cities. It also includes considerable areas of abandoned marshland which is suitable neither for agriculture nor for urban development.
As a consequence, the density of the comune
is not that high, its territory being divided between highly urbanised areas and areas designated as parks, nature reserves
, and for agricultural use.
Its average annual temperature is above 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 9 °C (48 °F) at night. In the coldest month, January, the average temperature is 12.6 °C (54.7 °F) during the day and 2.1 °C (35.8 °F) at night. In the warmest month, August, the average temperature is 31.7 °C (89.1 °F) during the day and 17.3 °C (63.1 °F) at night.
December, January and February are the coldest months, with a daily mean temperature of approximately 8 °C (46 °F). Temperatures during these months generally vary between 10 and 15 °C (50 and 59 °F) during the day and between 3 and 5 °C (37 and 41 °F) at night, with colder or warmer spells occurring frequently. Snowfall is rare but not unheard of, with light snow or flurries occurring on some winters, generally without accumulation, and major snowfalls on a very rare occurrence (the most recent ones were in 2018, 2012 and 1986).
The average relative humidity
is 75%, varying from 72% in July to 77% in November. Sea temperatures vary from a low of 13.9 °C (57.0 °F) in February to a high of 25.0 °C (77.0 °F) in August.
In 550 BC, Rome was the second largest city in Italy, with Tarentum
being the largest.
It had an area of about 285 hectares (700 acres) and an estimated population of 35,000. Other sources suggest the population was just under 100,000 from 600 to 500 BC.
When the Republic was founded in 509 BC the census recorded a population of 130,000. The republic included the city itself and the immediate surroundings. Other sources suggest a population of 150,000 in 500 BC. It surpassed 300,000 in 150 BC.
The size of the city at the time of the Emperor Augustus
is a matter of speculation, with estimates based on grain distribution, grain imports, aqueduct capacity, city limits, population density, census reports, and assumptions about the number of unreported women, children and slaves providing a very wide range. Glenn Storey estimates 450,000 people, Whitney Oates estimates 1.2 million, Neville Morely provides a rough estimate of 800,000 and excludes earlier suggestions of 2 million.
Estimates of the city's population vary. A.H.M. Jones estimated the population at 650,000 in the mid-fifth century. The damage caused by the sackings may have been overestimated. The population had already started to decline from the late fourth century onward, although around the middle of the fifth century it seems that Rome continued to be the most populous city of the two parts of the Empire.
According to Krautheimer it was still close to 800,000 in 400 AD; had declined to 500,000 by 452, and dwindled to perhaps 100,000 in 500 AD. After the Gothic Wars, 535–552, the population may have dwindled temporarily to 30,000. During the pontificate of Pope Gregory I
(590–604), it may have reached 90,000, augmented by refugees.
Lancon estimates 500,000 based on the number of 'incisi' enrolled as eligible to receive bread, oil and wine rations; the number fell to 120,000 in the reform of 419
Neil Christie, citing free rations for the poorest, estimated 500,000 in the mid-fifth century and still a quarter of a million at the end of the century.
Novel 36 of Emperor Valentinian III
records 3.629 million pounds of pork to be distributed to the needy at 5 lbs. per month for the five winter months, sufficient for 145,000 recipients. This has been used to suggest a population of just under 500,000. Supplies of grain remained steady until the seizure of the remaining provinces of North Africa in 439 by the Vandals
, and may have continued to some degree afterwards for a while. The city's population declined to less than 50,000 people in the Early Middle Ages
from 700 AD onward. It continued to stagnate or shrink until the Renaissance
When the Kingdom of Italy
annexed Rome in 1870, the city had a population of about 225,000. Less than half the city within the walls was built up in 1881 when the population recorded was 275,000. This increased to 600,000 by the eve of World War I. The Fascist
regime of Mussolini tried to block an excessive demographic rise of the city but failed to prevent it from reaching one million people by the early 1930s.[clarification needed]
Population growth continued after the Second World War, helped by a post-war economic boom. A construction boom also created many suburbs during the 1950s and 1960s.
In mid-2010, there were 2,754,440 residents in the city proper, while some 4.2 million people lived in the greater Rome area (which can be approximately identified with its administrative metropolitan city, with a population density of about 800 inhabitants/km2
stretching over more than 5,000 km2
(1,900 sq mi)). Minors (children ages 18 and younger) totalled 17.00% of the population compared to pensioners who number 20.76%. This compares with the Italian average of 18.06% (minors) and 19.94% (pensioners). The average age of a Roman resident is 43 compared to the Italian average of 42. In the five years between 2002 and 2007, the population of Rome grew by 6.54%, while Italy as a whole grew by 3.56%.
birth rate of Rome is 9.10 births per 1,000 inhabitants compared to the Italian average of 9.45 births.
According to the latest statistics conducted by ISTAT,
approximately 9.5% of the population consists of non-Italians. About half of the immigrant population consists of those of various other European origins (chiefly Romanian, Polish, Ukrainian, and Albanian) numbering a combined total of 131,118 or 4.7% of the population. The remaining 4.8% are those with non-European origins, chiefly Filipinos (26,933), Bangladeshis (12,154), and Chinese (10,283).
The Esquilino rione
, off Termini Railway Station
, has evolved into a largely immigrant neighbourhood. It is perceived as Rome's Chinatown. Immigrants from more than a hundred different countries reside there. A commercial district, Esquilino contains restaurants featuring many kinds of international cuisine. There are wholesale clothes shops. Of the 1,300 or so commercial premises operating in the district 800 are Chinese-owned; around 300 are run by immigrants from other countries around the world; 200 are owned by Italians.
Much like the rest of Italy, Rome is predominantly Christian
, and the city has been an important centre of religion and pilgrimage
for centuries, the base of the ancient Roman religion with the pontifex maximus
and later the seat of the Vatican
and the pope. Before the arrival of the Christians in Rome, the Religio Romana
(literally, the "Roman Religion") was the major religion of the city in classical antiquity. The first gods held sacred by the Romans were Jupiter
, the Most High, and Mars
, the god of war, and father of Rome's twin founders, Romulus and Remus
, according to tradition. Other deities such as Vesta
were honoured. Rome was also the base of several mystery cults, such as Mithraism
. Later, after St Peter
and St Paul
were martyred in the city, and the first Christians began to arrive, Rome became Christian, and the Old St. Peter's Basilica
was constructed in 313 AD. Despite some interruptions (such as the Avignon papacy
), Rome has for centuries been the home of the Roman Catholic Church
and the Bishop of Rome
, otherwise known as the Pope.
Despite the fact that Rome is home to the Vatican City
and St. Peter's Basilica, Rome's cathedral is the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran
, in the south-east of the city centre. There are around 900 churches in Rome in total. Aside from the cathedral itself, some others of note include the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
, the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
, the Basilica di San Clemente
, San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
and the Church of the Gesù
. There are also the ancient Catacombs of Rome
underneath the city. Numerous highly important religious educational institutions are also in Rome, such as the Pontifical Lateran University
, Pontifical Biblical Institute
, Pontifical Gregorian University
, and Pontifical Oriental Institute
The territory of Vatican City is part of the Mons Vaticanus
), and of the adjacent former Vatican Fields, where St. Peter's Basilica
, the Apostolic Palace
, the Sistine Chapel
, and museums were built, along with various other buildings. The area was part of the Roman rione
until 1929. Being separated from the city on the west bank of the Tiber
, the area was a suburb that was protected by being included within the walls of Leo IV
, later expanded by the current fortification walls of Paul III
, Pius IV
, and Urban VIII
When the Lateran Treaty
of 1929 that created the Vatican state was being prepared, the boundaries of the proposed territory were influenced by the fact that much of it was all but enclosed by this loop. For some parts of the border, there was no wall, but the line of certain buildings supplied part of the boundary, and for a small part a new wall was constructed.
Rome has been a major Christian pilgrimage
site since the Middle Ages
. People from all over the Christian world
visit Vatican City, within the city of Rome, the seat of the papacy. The city became a major pilgrimage
site during the Middle Ages. Apart from brief periods as an independent city during the Middle Ages
, Rome kept its status as Papal capital and holy city for centuries, even when the Papacy briefly relocated
(1309–1377). Catholics believe that the Vatican is the last resting place of St. Peter.
Pilgrimages to Rome can involve visits to many sites, both within Vatican City and in Italian territory. A popular stopping point is the Pilate's stairs
: these are, according to the Christian tradition, the steps that led up to the praetorium
of Pontius Pilate
, which Jesus Christ
stood on during his Passion
on his way to trial.
The stairs were, reputedly, brought to Rome by Helena of Constantinople
in the fourth century. For centuries, the Scala Santa
has attracted Christian pilgrims who wished to honour the Passion of Jesus. Other objects of pilgrimage include several catacombs built in imperial times, in which Christians prayed, buried their dead and performed worship during periods of persecution, and various national churches (among them San Luigi dei francesi
and Santa Maria dell'Anima
), or churches associated with individual religious orders, such as the Jesuit
Churches of Jesus and Sant'Ignazio.
, built as a temple dedicated to "all the gods of the past, present and future"
is still today the largest amphitheater
in the world.
It was used for gladiator
shows and other public events (hunting shows, recreations of famous battles and dramas based on classical mythology).
One of the symbols of Rome is the Colosseum
(70–80 AD), the largest amphitheatre
ever built in the Roman Empire. Originally capable of seating 60,000 spectators, it was used for gladiatorial
combat. Important monuments and sites of ancient Rome include the Roman Forum
, the Domus Aurea
, the Pantheon
, Trajan's Column
, Trajan's Market
, the Catacombs
, the Circus Maximus
, the Baths of Caracalla
, Castel Sant'Angelo
, the Mausoleum of Augustus
, the Ara Pacis
, the Arch of Constantine
, the Pyramid of Cestius
, and the Bocca della Verità
Renaissance and Baroque
Rome was a major world centre of the Renaissance
, second only to Florence, and was profoundly affected by the movement. Among others, a masterpiece of Renaissance architecture
in Rome is the Piazza del Campidoglio
. During this period, the great aristocratic families of Rome used to build opulent dwellings as the Palazzo del Quirinale
(now seat of the President of the Italian Republic
), the Palazzo Venezia
, the Palazzo Farnese
, the Palazzo Barberini
, the Palazzo Chigi
(now seat of the Italian Prime Minister
), the Palazzo Spada
, the Palazzo della Cancelleria
, and the Villa Farnesina
Many of the famous city's squares – some huge, majestic and often adorned with obelisks
, some small and picturesque – took their present shape during the Renaissance and Baroque periods. The principal ones are Piazza Navona
, the Spanish Steps
, Campo de' Fiori
, Piazza Venezia
, Piazza Farnese
, Piazza della Rotonda
and Piazza della Minerva
. One of the most emblematic examples of Baroque art is the Trevi Fountain
by Nicola Salvi
. Other notable 17th-century baroque palaces
are the Palazzo Madama
, now the seat of the Italian Senate
, and the Palazzo Montecitorio
, now the seat of the Chamber of Deputies of Italy
In 1870, Rome became the capital city of the new Kingdom of Italy
. During this time, neoclassicism
, a building style influenced by the architecture of antiquity
, became the predominant influence in Roman architecture. During this period, many great palaces in neoclassical styles were built to host ministries, embassies, and other government agencies. One of the best-known symbols of Roman neoclassicism is the Monument to Vittorio Emanuele II
or "Altar of the Fatherland", where the Grave of the Unknown Soldier
, who represents the 650,000 Italian soldiers who died in World War I, is located.
The Fascist regime that ruled in Italy between 1922 and 1943 had its showcase in Rome. Mussolini ordered the construction of new roads and piazzas, resulting in the destruction of older roads, houses, churches and palaces erected during papal rule. The main activities during his government were: the "isolation" of the Capitoline Hill
; Via dei Monti, later renamed Via del'Impero, and finally Via dei Fori Imperiali
; Via del Mare, later renamed Via del Teatro di Marcello
; the "isolation" of the Mausoleum of Augustus
, with the erection of Piazza Augusto Imperatore; and Via della Conciliazione
Architecturally, Italian Fascism favoured the most modern movements, such as Rationalism
. Parallel to this, in the 1920s another style emerged, named "Stile Novecento", characterised by its links with ancient Roman architecture. Two important complexes in the latter style are the Foro Mussolini, now Foro Italico
, by Enrico Del Debbio
, and the Città universitaria
("University city"), by Marcello Piacentini
, also author of the controversial destruction of part of the Borgo rione to open Via della Conciliazione.
The most important Fascist site in Rome is the EUR
district, designed in 1938 by Piacentini. This new quarter emerged as a compromise between Rationalist and Novecento architects, the former being led by Giuseppe Pagano
. The EUR was originally conceived for the 1942 world exhibition
, and was called "E.42" ("Esposizione 42"
). The most representative buildings of EUR are the Palazzo della Civiltà Italiana
(1938–1943), and the Palazzo dei Congressi
, examples of the Rationalist style. The world exhibition never took place, because Italy entered the Second World War in 1940, and the buildings were partly destroyed in 1943 in fighting between the Italian and German armies and later abandoned. The quarter was restored in the 1950s when the Roman authorities found that they already had the seed of an off-centre business district of the type that other capitals were still planning (London Docklands
and La Défense
in Paris). Also, the Palazzo della Farnesina
, the current seat of the Italian Ministry of Foreign Affairs
, was designed in 1935 in pure Fascist style.
Parks and gardens
Public parks and nature reserves cover a large area in Rome, and the city has one of the largest areas of green space among European capitals.
The most notable part of this green space is represented by the large number of villas and landscaped gardens created by the Italian aristocracy. While most of the parks surrounding the villas were destroyed during the building boom of the late 19th century, some of them remain. The most notable of these are the Villa Borghese
, Villa Ada
, and Villa Doria Pamphili
. Villa Doria Pamphili is west of the Gianicolo hill, comprising some 1.8 square kilometres (0.7 sq mi
). The Villa Sciarra
is on the hill, with playgrounds for children and shaded walking areas. In the nearby area of Trastevere, the Orto Botanico
(Botanical Garden) is a cool and shady green space. The old Roman hippodrome (Circus Maximus) is another large green space: it has few trees but is overlooked by the Palatine and the Rose Garden ('roseto comunale'). Nearby is the lush Villa Celimontana
, close to the gardens surrounding the Baths of Caracalla. The Villa Borghese garden is the best known large green space in Rome, with famous art galleries among its shaded walks. Overlooking Piazza del Popolo
and the Spanish Steps are the gardens of Pincio
and Villa Medici
. There is also a notable pine wood at Castelfusano
, near Ostia. Rome also has a number of regional parks of much more recent origin, including the Pineto Regional Park
and the Appian Way Regional Park. There are also nature reserves at Marcigliana and at Tenuta di Castelporziano.
Fountains and aqueducts
Rome is a city famous for its numerous fountains, built-in all different styles, from Classical and Medieval, to Baroque and Neoclassical. The city has had fountains
for more than two thousand years, and they have provided drinking water and decorated the piazzas
of Rome. During the Roman Empire
, in 98 AD, according to Sextus Julius Frontinus
, the Roman consul who was named curator aquarum
or guardian of the water of the city, Rome had nine aqueducts
which fed 39 monumental fountains and 591 public basins, not counting the water supplied to the Imperial household, baths, and owners of private villas. Each of the major fountains was connected to two different aqueducts, in case one was shut down for service.
During the 17th and 18th century, the Roman popes reconstructed other ruined Roman aqueducts and built new display fountains to mark their termini, launching the golden age of the Roman fountain. The fountains of Rome, like the paintings of Rubens
, were expressions of the new style of Baroque art. They were crowded with allegorical figures and filled with emotion and movement. In these fountains, sculpture became the principal element, and the water was used simply to animate and decorate the sculptures. They, like baroque gardens, were "a visual representation of confidence and power".
Rome is well known for its statues but, in particular, the talking statues of Rome
. These are usually ancient statues which have become popular soapboxes for political and social discussion, and places for people to (often satirically) voice their opinions. There are two main talking statues: the Pasquino
and the Marforio
, yet there are four other noted ones: il Babuino
, Madama Lucrezia
, il Facchino
and Abbot Luigi
. Most of these statues are ancient Roman or classical, and most of them also depict mythical gods, ancient people or legendary figures; il Pasquino represents Menelaus
, Abbot Luigi is an unknown Roman magistrate, il Babuino is supposed to be Silenus
, Madama Lucrezia is a bust of Isis
, and il Facchino
is the only non-Roman statue, created in 1580, and not representing anyone in particular. They are often, due to their status, covered with placards or graffiti
expressing political ideas and points of view. Other statues in the city, which are not related to the talking statues, include those of the Ponte Sant'Angelo, or several monuments scattered across the city, such as that to Giordano Bruno
in the Campo de'Fiori.
Obelisks and columns
The city hosts eight ancient Egyptian
and five ancient Roman obelisks
, together with a number of more modern obelisks; there was also formerly (until 2005) an ancient Ethiopian
obelisk in Rome.
The city contains some of obelisks in piazzas
, such as in Piazza Navona
, St Peter's Square
, Piazza Montecitorio
, and Piazza del Popolo
, and others in villas
parks and gardens, such as in Villa Celimontana
, the Baths of Diocletian
, and the Pincian Hill
. Moreover, the centre of Rome hosts also Trajan
's and Antonine Column
, two ancient Roman columns with spiral relief. The Column of Marcus Aurelius is located in Piazza Colonna
and it was built around 180 AD by Commodus
in memory of his parents. The Column of Marcus Aurelius
was inspired by Trajan's Column
at Trajan's Forum
, which is part of the Imperial Fora
The city of Rome contains numerous famous bridges which cross the Tiber
. The only bridge to remain unaltered until today from the classical age is Ponte dei Quattro Capi
, which connects the Isola Tiberina
with the left bank. The other surviving – albeit modified – ancient Roman bridges crossing the Tiber are Ponte Cestio
, Ponte Sant'Angelo
and Ponte Milvio
. Considering Ponte Nomentano
, also built during ancient Rome, which crosses the Aniene
, currently there are five ancient Roman bridges still remaining in the city.
Other noteworthy bridges are Ponte Sisto
, the first bridge built in the Renaissance above Roman foundations; Ponte Rotto
, actually the only remaining arch of the ancient Pons Aemilius
, collapsed during the flood of 1598 and demolished at the end of the 19th century; and Ponte Vittorio Emanuele II
, a modern bridge connecting Corso Vittorio Emanuele and Borgo. Most of the city's public bridges were built in Classical or Renaissance style, but also in Baroque, Neoclassical and Modern styles. According to the Encyclopædia Britannica
, the finest ancient bridge remaining in Rome is the Ponte Sant'Angelo
, which was completed in 135 AD, and was decorated with ten statues of the angels, designed by Bernini
Rome has an extensive amount of ancient catacombs, or underground burial places under or near the city, of which there are at least forty, some discovered only in recent decades. Though most famous for Christian burials, they include pagan
and Jewish burials, either in separate catacombs or mixed together. The first large-scale catacombs were excavated from the 2nd century onwards. Originally they were carved through tuff
, a soft volcanic rock
, outside the boundaries of the city, because Roman law
forbade burial places within city limits. Currently, maintenance of the catacombs is in the hands of the Papacy
which has invested in the Salesians of Don Bosco
the supervision of the Catacombs of St. Callixtus on the outskirts of Rome.
As the capital of Italy, Rome hosts all the principal institutions of the nation, including the Presidency of the Republic, the government (and its single Ministeri
), the Parliament, the main judicial Courts, and the diplomatic representatives of all the countries for the states of Italy and Vatican City. Many international institutions are located in Rome, notably cultural and scientific ones, such as the American Institute, the British School, the French Academy, the Scandinavian Institutes, and the German Archaeological Institute. There are also specialised agencies of the United Nations, such as the FAO
. Rome also hosts major international and worldwide political and cultural organisations, such as the International Fund for Agricultural Development
(IFAD), World Food Programme
(WFP), the NATO Defense College
and the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property
Panoramic view of the EUR
According to the GaWC study
of world cities
, Rome is a "Beta +" city.
The city was ranked in 2014 as 32nd in the Global Cities Index, the highest in Italy.
With a 2005 GDP of €94.376 billion (US$121.5 billion),[needs update]
the city produces 6.7% of the national GDP (more than any other single city in Italy), and its unemployment rate, lowered from 11.1% to 6.5% between 2001 and 2005, is now one of the lowest rates of all the European Union capital cities.
Rome's economy grows at around 4.4% annually and continues to grow at a higher rate in comparison to any other city in the rest of the country.
This means that were Rome a country, it would be the world's 52nd richest country by GDP, near to the size to that of Egypt. Rome also had a 2003 GDP per capita of €29,153 (US$37,412), which was second in Italy, (after Milan), and is more than 134.1% of the EU average GDP per capita.[needs update]
Rome, on the whole, has the highest total earnings in Italy, reaching €47,076,890,463 in 2008,[needs update]
yet, in terms of average workers' incomes, the city places itself 9th in Italy, with €24,509.
On a global level, Rome's workers receive the 30th highest wages in 2009, coming three places higher than in 2008, in which the city ranked 33rd.[needs update]
The Rome area had a GDP amounting to $167.8 billion
, and $38,765 per capita.
Although the economy of Rome is characterised by the absence of heavy industry and it is largely dominated by services
, high-technology companies (IT, aerospace, defence, telecommunications), research, construction and commercial activities (especially banking), and the huge development of tourism are very dynamic and extremely important to its economy. Rome's international airport, Fiumicino
, is the largest in Italy, and the city hosts the head offices of the vast majority of the major Italian companies, as well as the headquarters of three of the world's 100 largest companies: Enel
, and Telecom Italia
Universities, national radio and television and the movie industry in Rome are also important parts of the economy: Rome is also the hub of the Italian film industry
, thanks to the Cinecittà studios, working since the 1930s. The city is also a centre for banking and insurance as well as electronics, energy, transport, and aerospace industries. Numerous international companies and agencies headquarters, government ministries, conference centres, sports venues, and museums are located in Rome's principal business districts: the Esposizione Universale Roma
(EUR); the Torrino
(further south from the EUR); the Magliana
; the Parco de' Medici-Laurentina
and the so-called Tiburtina-valley
along the ancient Via Tiburtina
Rome is a nationwide and major international centre for higher education, containing numerous academies, colleges and universities. It boasts a large variety of academies and colleges, and has always been a major worldwide intellectual and educational centre, especially during Ancient Rome
and the Renaissance
, along with Florence.
According to the City Brands Index, Rome is considered the world's second most historically, educationally and culturally interesting and beautiful city.
Rome has many universities and colleges. Its first university, La Sapienza
(founded in 1303), is one of the largest in the world, with more than 140,000 students attending; in 2005 it ranked as Europe's 33rd best university
and in 2013 the Sapienza University of Rome ranked as the 62nd in the world and the top in Italy in its World University Rankings
and has been ranked among Europe's 50 and the world's 150 best colleges.
In order to decrease the overcrowding of La Sapienza, two new public universities were founded during the last decades: Tor Vergata
in 1982, and Roma Tre
in 1992. Rome hosts also the LUISS School of Government,
Italy's most important graduate university in the areas of international affairs and European studies as well as LUISS Business School
, Italy's most important business school. Rome ISIA
was founded in 1973 by Giulio Carlo Argan
and is Italy's oldest institution in the field of industrial design
Rome contains many pontifical universities
and other institutes, including the British School at Rome
, the French School in Rome
, the Pontifical Gregorian University
(the oldest Jesuit
university in the world, founded in 1551), Istituto Europeo di Design
, the Scuola Lorenzo de' Medici
, the Link Campus of Malta
, and the Università Campus Bio-Medico
. Rome is also the location of two American Universities; The American University of Rome
and John Cabot University
as well as St. John's University
branch campus, John Felice Rome Center
, a campus of Loyola University Chicago
and Temple University Rome, a campus of Temple University
The Roman Colleges
are several seminaries
for students from foreign countries studying for the priesthood
at the Pontifical Universities.
Examples include the Venerable English College
, the Pontifical North American College
, the Scots College
, and the Pontifical Croatian College of St. Jerome
Rome's major libraries include: the Biblioteca Angelica
, opened in 1604, making it Italy's first public library; the Biblioteca Vallicelliana
, established in 1565; the Biblioteca Casanatense
, opened in 1701; the National Central Library
, one of the two national libraries in Italy, which contains 4,126,002 volumes; The Biblioteca del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, specialised in diplomacy, foreign affairs and modern history; the Biblioteca dell'Istituto dell'Enciclopedia Italiana; the Biblioteca Don Bosco, one of the largest and most modern of all Salesian libraries; the Biblioteca e Museo teatrale del Burcardo, a museum-library specialised in history of drama and theatre; the Biblioteca della Società Geografica Italiana
, which is based in the Villa Celimontana
and is the most important geographical library in Italy, and one of Europe's most important;
and the Vatican Library
, one of the oldest and most important libraries in the world, which was formally established in 1475, though in fact much older and has 75,000 codices
, as well as 1.1 million printed books, which include some 8,500 incunabula
. There are also many specialist libraries attached to various foreign cultural institutes in Rome, among them that of the American Academy in Rome
, the French Academy in Rome
and the Bibliotheca Hertziana – Max Planck Institute of Art History
, a German library, often noted for excellence in the arts and sciences;
Entertainment and performing arts
Rome has also had a major impact on music history. The Roman School
was a group of composers of predominantly church music, which were active in the city during the 16th and 17th centuries, therefore spanning the late Renaissance
and early Baroque
eras. The term also refers to the music they produced. Many of the composers had a direct connection to the Vatican
and the papal chapel
, though they worked at several churches; stylistically they are often contrasted with the Venetian School
of composers, a concurrent movement which was much more progressive. By far the most famous composer of the Roman School is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina
, whose name has been associated for four hundred years with smooth, clear, polyphonic
perfection. However, there were other composers working in Rome, and in a variety of styles and forms.
Between 1960 and 1970 Rome was considered to be as a “new Hollywood” because of the many actors and directors who worked there; Via Vittorio Veneto had transformed into a glamour place where you could meet famous people.
Rome today is one of the most important tourist destinations of the world, due to the incalculable immensity of its archaeological and artistic treasures, as well as for the charm of its unique traditions, the beauty of its panoramic views, and the majesty of its magnificent "villas" (parks). Among the most significant resources are the many museums – Musei Capitolini, the Vatican Museums and the Galleria Borghese and others dedicated to modern and contemporary art – aqueducts
, churches, palaces
, historical buildings, the monuments
and ruins of the Roman Forum
, and the Catacombs
. Rome is the third most visited city in the EU, after London and Paris, and receives an average of 7–10 million tourists a year, which sometimes doubles on holy years. The Colosseum (4 million tourists) and the Vatican Museums
(4.2 million tourists) are the 39th and 37th (respectively) most visited places in the world, according to a recent study.
Rome is a major archaeological hub, and one of the world's main centres of archaeological research
. There are numerous cultural and research institutes located in the city, such as the American Academy in Rome
and The Swedish Institute at Rome.
Rome contains numerous ancient sites
, including the Forum Romanum
, Trajan's Market
, Trajan's Forum
, and the Pantheon
, to name but a few. The Colosseum
, arguably one of Rome's most iconic archaeological sites, is regarded as a wonder of the world
Rome contains a vast and impressive collection of art, sculpture, fountains
, and paintings, from all different periods. Rome first became a major artistic centre during ancient Rome, with forms of important Roman art
such as architecture
, painting, sculpture and mosaic
, coin die
and gem engraving, ivory carvings
, figurine glass, pottery
, and book illustrations are considered to be 'minor' forms of Roman artwork.
Rome later became a major centre of Renaissance
art, since the popes spent vast sums of money for the constructions of grandiose basilicas
and public buildings in general. Rome became one of Europe's major centres of Renaissance artwork, second only to Florence
, and able to compare to other major cities and cultural centres, such as Paris and Venice
. The city was affected greatly by the baroque
, and Rome became the home of numerous artists and architects, such as Bernini
In the late 18th century and early 19th century, the city was one of the centres of the Grand Tour
when wealthy, young English and other European aristocrats visited the city to learn about ancient Roman culture
, art, philosophy, and architecture. Rome hosted a great number of neoclassical and rococo artists, such as Pannini
and Bernardo Bellotto
. Today, the city is a major artistic centre, with numerous art institutes
Internal view of the Colosseum
Rome has a growing stock of contemporary and modern art and architecture. The National Gallery of Modern Art has works by Balla, Morandi, Pirandello, Carrà, De Chirico, De Pisis, Guttuso, Fontana, Burri, Mastroianni, Turcato, Kandisky, and Cézanne on permanent exhibition. 2010 saw the opening of Rome's newest arts foundation, a contemporary art and architecture gallery designed by acclaimed Iraqi architect Zaha Hadid. Known as MAXXI – National Museum of the 21st Century Arts
it restores a dilapidated area with striking modern architecture. Maxxi
features a campus dedicated to culture, experimental research laboratories, international exchange and study and research. It is one of Rome's most ambitious modern architecture projects alongside Renzo Piano
's Auditorium Parco della Musica
and Massimiliano Fuksas
' Rome Convention Center, Centro Congressi Italia EUR, in the EUR district, due to open in 2016.
The convention centre features a huge translucent container inside which is suspended a steel and teflon structure resembling a cloud and which contains meeting rooms and an auditorium with two piazzas open to the neighbourhood on either side.
Rome is also widely recognised as a world fashion capital
. Although not as important as Milan, Rome is the fourth most important centre for fashion in the world, according to the 2009 Global Language Monitor
, New York, and Paris, and beating London.
Major luxury fashion houses and jewellery chains, such as Valentino
, and Renato Balestra
, are headquartered or were founded in the city. Also, other major labels, such as Gucci
, Dolce & Gabbana
, and Versace
have luxury boutiques in Rome, primarily along its prestigious and upscale Via dei Condotti
Rome's cuisine has evolved through centuries and periods of social, cultural, and political changes. Rome became a major gastronomical centre during the ancient Age
. Ancient Roman cuisine
was highly influenced by Ancient Greek culture, and after, the empire's enormous expansion exposed Romans to many new, provincial culinary habits and cooking techniques.
Later, during the Renaissance
, Rome became well known as a centre of high-cuisine, since some of the best chefs of the time worked for the popes. An example of this was Bartolomeo Scappi
, who was a chef working for Pius IV
in the Vatican kitchen, and he acquired fame in 1570 when his cookbook Opera dell'arte del cucinare
was published. In the book he lists approximately 1000 recipes of the Renaissance cuisine
and describes cooking techniques and tools, giving the first known picture of a fork
Concia di zucchine, an example of Roman-Jewish cuisine
The Testaccio rione
, Rome's trade and slaughterhouse area, was often known as the "belly" or "slaughterhouse" of Rome, and was inhabited by butchers, or vaccinari
The most common or ancient Roman cuisine included the "fifth quarter".
The old-fashioned coda alla vaccinara
(oxtail cooked in the way of butchers)
is still one of the city's most popular meals and is part of most of Rome's restaurants' menus. Lamb is also a very popular part of Roman cuisine, and is often roasted with spices and herbs.
In the modern age, the city developed its own peculiar cuisine, based on products of the nearby Campagna
, as lamb and vegetables (globe artichokes
In parallel, Roman Jews – present in the city since the 1st century BC – developed their own cuisine, the cucina giudaico-romanesca
. Examples of Roman dishes include "Saltimbocca alla Romana
" – a veal cutlet, Roman-style; topped with raw ham and sage and simmered with white wine and butter; "Carciofi alla romana
" – artichokes Roman-style; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Carciofi alla giudia
" – artichokes fried in olive oil, typical of Roman Jewish cooking; outer leaves removed, stuffed with mint, garlic, breadcrumbs and braised; "Spaghetti alla carbonara
" – spaghetti
, and "Gnocchi di semolino alla romana
" – semolina
dumpling, Roman-style, to name but a few.
Rome hosts the Cinecittà Studios
the largest film and television production facility in continental Europe and the centre of the Italian cinema
, where many of today's biggest box office hits are filmed. The 99-acre (40 ha) studio complex is 9.0 kilometres (5.6 mi) from the centre of Rome and is part of one of the biggest production communities in the world, second only to Hollywood
, with well over 5,000 professionals – from period costume makers to visual effects specialists. More than 3,000 productions have been made on its lot, from recent features like The Passion of the Christ
, Gangs of New York
, HBO's Rome
, The Life Aquatic
and Dino De Laurentiis
, to such cinema classics as Ben-Hur
, and the films of Federico Fellini
Founded in 1937 by Benito Mussolini
, the studios were bombed by the Western Allies
during the Second World War. In the 1950s, Cinecittà was the filming location for several large American film productions, and subsequently became the studio most closely associated with Federico Fellini
. Today, Cinecittà is the only studio in the world with pre-production, production, and full post-production facilities on one lot, allowing directors and producers to walk in with their script and "walkout" with a completed film.
Although associated today only with Latin, ancient Rome was in fact multilingual. In the highest antiquity, Sabine
tribes shared the area of what is today Rome with Latin tribes. The Sabine language was one of the Italic
group of ancient Italian languages, along with Etruscan, which would have been the main language of the last three kings who ruled the city till the founding of the Republic in 509 BC. Urganilla, or Plautia Urgulanilla
, wife of Emperor Claudius, is thought to have been a speaker of Etruscan many centuries after this date, according to Suetonius' entry on Claudius. However Latin, in various evolving forms, was the main language of classical Rome, but as the city had immigrants, slaves, residents, ambassadors from many parts of the world it was also multilingual. Many educated Romans also spoke Greek, and there was a large Greek, Syriac and Jewish population in parts of Rome from well before the Empire.
evolved during the Middle Ages into a new language, the "volgare
". The latter emerged as the confluence of various regional dialects, among which the Tuscan dialect
predominated, but the population of Rome also developed its own dialect, the Romanesco
. The Romanesco
spoken during the Middle Ages was more like a southern Italian dialect, very close to the Neapolitan language
. The influence of the Florentine
culture during the renaissance
, and above all, the immigration to Rome of many Florentines following the two Medici
Popes (Leo X
and Clement VII
), caused a major shift in the dialect, which began to resemble more the Tuscan varieties. This remained largely confined to Rome until the 19th century, but then expanded to other zones of Lazio
and others), from the beginning of the 20th century, thanks to the rising population of Rome and to improving transportation systems. As a consequence of education and media like radio and television, Romanesco became more similar to standard Italian but does not represent standard italian. Dialectal literature in the traditional form of Romanesco includes the works of such authors as Giuseppe Gioachino Belli
(one of the most important Italian poets altogether), Trilussa
and Cesare Pascarella
. It is worth remembering though that Romanesco was a "lingua vernacola
" (vernacular language), meaning that for centuries, it did not have a written form but it was only spoken by the population.
Rome's historic contribution to language in a worldwide sense is much more extensive, however. Through the process of Romanization
, the peoples of Italy, Gallia
, the Iberian Peninsula
developed languages which derive directly from Latin and were adopted in large areas of the world, all through cultural influence, colonisation and migration. Moreover, also modern English, because of the Norman Conquest
, borrowed a large percentage of its vocabulary from the Latin language. The Roman or Latin alphabet
is the most widely used writing system in the world used by the greatest number of languages.
Rome has long hosted artistic communities, foreign resident communities and many foreign religious students or pilgrims
and so has always been a multilingual city. Today because of mass tourism, many languages are used in servicing tourism, especially English which is widely known in tourist areas, and the city hosts large numbers of immigrants and so has many multilingual immigrant areas.
Rome hosted the 1960 Summer Olympics
, with great success, using many ancient sites such as the Villa Borghese
and the Thermae of Caracalla
as venues. For the Olympic Games many new facilities were built, notably the new large Olympic Stadium (which was then enlarged and renewed to host several matches and the final of the 1990 FIFA World Cup
), the Stadio Flaminio
, the Villaggio Olimpico (Olympic Village, created to host the athletes and redeveloped after the games as a residential district), ecc. Rome made a bid
to host the 2020 Summer Olympics
but it was withdrawn before the deadline for applicant files.
Every May, Rome hosts the ATP Masters Series
tennis tournament on the clay courts of the Foro Italico
. Cycling was popular in the post-World War II period, although its popularity has faded. Rome has hosted the final portion of the Giro d'Italia
three times, in 1911, 1950, and 2009. Rome is also home to other sports teams, including volleyball (M. Roma Volley
Rome is at the centre of the radial network of roads that roughly follow the lines of the ancient Roman roads which began at the Capitoline Hill
and connected Rome with its empire. Today Rome is circled, at a distance of about 10 km (6 mi) from the Capitol, by the ring-road (the Grande Raccordo Anulare
Due to its location in the centre of the Italian peninsula, Rome is the principal railway node for central Italy. Rome's main railway station, Termini
, is one of the largest railway stations in Europe and the most heavily used in Italy, with around 400 thousand travellers passing through every day. The second-largest station in the city, Roma Tiburtina
, has been redeveloped as a high-speed rail
As well as frequent high-speed day trains to all major Italian cities, Rome is linked nightly by 'boat train' sleeper services to Sicily, and internationally by overnight sleeper services to Munich and Vienna by ÖBB Austrian railways.
Rome is served by three airports. The intercontinental Leonardo da Vinci International Airport
, Italy's chief airport is located within the nearby Fiumicino
, south-west of Rome. The older Rome Ciampino Airport
is a joint civilian and military airport. It is commonly referred to as "Ciampino Airport", as it is located beside Ciampino
, south-east of Rome. A third airport, the Roma-Urbe
Airport, is a small, low-traffic airport located about 6 km (4 mi) north of the city centre, which handles most helicopter and private flights.
Although the city has its own quarter on the Mediterranean Sea (Lido di Ostia
), this has only a marina and a small channel-harbour for fishing boats. The main harbour which serves Rome is Port of Civitavecchia
, located about 62 kilometres (39 miles) northwest of the city.
The city suffers from traffic problems largely due to this radial street pattern, making it difficult for Romans to move easily from the vicinity of one of the radial roads to another without going into the historic centre or using the ring-road. These problems are not helped by the limited size of Rome's metro system when compared to other cities of similar size. In addition, Rome has only 21 taxis for every 10,000 inhabitants, far below other major European cities.
Chronic congestion caused by cars during the 1970s and 1980s led to restrictions being placed on vehicle access to the inner city-centre during the hours of daylight. Areas, where these restrictions apply, are known as Limited Traffic Zones (Zona a Traffico Limitato
(ZTL) in Italian). More recently, heavy night-time traffic in Trastevere
and San Lorenzo
has led to the creation of night-time ZTLs in those districts.
Roma Metrorail and Underground map, 2016
A 3-line metro system called the Metropolitana
operates in Rome. Construction on the first branch started in the 1930s.
The line had been planned to quickly connect the main railway station
with the newly planned E42 area in the southern suburbs, where 1942 the World Fair
was supposed to be held. The event never took place because of war, but the area was later partly redesigned and renamed EUR
(Esposizione Universale di Roma: Rome Universal Exhibition) in the 1950s to serve as a modern business district. The line was finally opened in 1955, and it is now the south part of the B Line.
The A line opened in 1980 from Ottaviano to Anagnina stations, later extended in stages (1999–2000) to Battistini. In the 1990s, an extension of the B line was opened from Termini to Rebibbia. This underground network is generally reliable (although it may become very congested at peak times and during events, especially the A line) as it is relatively short.
The A and B lines intersect at Roma Termini station. A new branch of the B line (B1) opened on 13 June 2012 after an estimated building cost of €500 million. B1 connects to line B at Piazza Bologna and has four stations over a distance of 3.9 km (2 mi).
A third line, the C line, is under construction with an estimated cost of €3 billion and will have 30 stations over a distance of 25.5 km (16 mi). It will partly replace the existing Termini
-Pantano rail line. It will feature full automated, driverless trains.
The first section with 15 stations connecting Pantano with the quarter of Centocelle in the eastern part of the city, opened on 9 November 2014.
The end of the work was scheduled in 2015, but archaeological findings often delay underground construction work.
A fourth line, D line, is also planned. It will have 22 stations over a distance of 20 km (12 mi). The first section was projected to open in 2015 and the final sections before 2035, but due to the city's financial crisis, the project has been put on hold.
Above-ground public transport in Rome is made up of a bus, tram and urban train network (FR lines). The bus, tram, metro and urban railways network is run by Atac S.p.A.
(which originally stood for the Municipal Bus and Tramways Company, Azienda Tramvie e Autobus del Comune
in Italian). The bus network has in excess of 350 bus lines and over eight thousand bus stops, whereas the more-limited tram system has 39 km (24 mi) of track and 192 stops.
There is also one trolleybus
line, opened in 2005, and additional trolleybus lines are planned.
International entities, organisations and involvement FAO
headquarters in Rome, Circo Massimo
The city hosts also other important international entities such as the IDLO
(International Development Law Organisation), the ICCROM
(International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property) and the UNIDROIT
(International Institute for the Unification of Private Law).
Twin towns and sister cities
Sculpture dedicated to Rome in the square Paul Painlevé in Paris
Since 9 April 1956, Rome is exclusively and reciprocally twinned
Solo Parigi è degna di Roma; solo Roma è degna di Parigi.
(in Italian)Seule Paris est digne de Rome; seule Rome est digne de Paris.
"Only Paris is worthy of Rome; only Rome is worthy of Paris."
Rome's other partner cities are:
- Achacachi, Bolivia
- Algiers, Algeria
- Beijing, China
- Belgrade, Serbia
- Brasília, Brazil
- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Cairo, Egypt
- Cincinnati, United States
- Kyiv, Ukraine
- Kobanî, Syria
- Kraków, Poland
- Madrid, Spain
- Multan, Pakistan
- New Delhi, India
- New York City, United States
- Plovdiv, Bulgaria
- Seoul, South Korea
- Sydney, Australia
- Tirana, Albania
- Tehran, Iran
- Tokyo, Japan
- Tongeren, Belgium
- Tunis, Tunisia
- Washington, D.C., United States
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- ^ This hypothesis originates from the Roman Grammarian Maurus Servius Honoratus. However, the Greek verb descends from the Proto-Indo-European root *srew- (compare Ancient Greek ῥεῦμα (rheûma) 'a stream, flow, current', the Thracian river name Στρυμών (Strumṓn) and Proto-Germanic *strauma- 'stream'; if it was related, however, the Latin river name would be expected to begin with **Frum-, like Latin frīgeō 'to freeze' from the root *sreyHg-) and the Latin verb from *h₃rew-.
- ^ This hypothesis originates from Plutarch.
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