Royal Jordanian Air Force
Jordan gained independence in 1946, but its first air bases had been set up in 1931 by the Royal Air Force
. By 1948, Jordan began to develop a small air arm which came to be known as the Arab Legion Air Force
(ALAF). The Royal Air Force assisted in training this small air arm and provided equipment. The ALAF's primary fighter was the de Havilland Vampire
and a Vickers VC.1 Viking
was operated as a VIP aircraft for use by the King of Jordan. By 1955 King Hussein
realized the need for Jordan
to have a more modern air force, and on 25 September 1955 the RJAF was established. By 1958 the Royal Air Force
had left Jordan
and the RJAF had taken control of the airfields in the country.
In 1967, in the Six-Day War
, an air battle took place against Israeli air force relentlessly attacked Jordan's Air Force and Air Bases. Jordan lost its entire strength of 28 aircraft and their Air Force was reduced to zero.
Israel was Victorious in all engagements over Israeli territory.
Hunter F.73 of the Royal Jordanian Air Force in 1971
Following peace between Egypt
in 1979, the RJAF began to modernize its fleet once again. The first part of this program was the procurement of the Dassault Mirage F1
which became the RJAF's frontline fighter supported by generous aid from wealthy oil-rich Arab states. The Mirage F1 was selected over the General Dynamics F-16/79
(an F-16A powered by the GE J79 turbojet series as opposed to the Pratt & Whitney F100
, which had 25% more power in afterburn)
while also acquiring the Northrop F-5
to complement the Mirage F1CJ/EJ in the process.
In the 1980s, the RJAF supported Saddam Hussein and the Iraqi regime during the Iran-Iraq War, committing their aircraft for combat training alongside Iraqi aircraft squadrons with one joint aircraft squadron.
It remains unknown whether RJAF pilots took part in combat with Iran, although this seems unlikely. During the 1991 Gulf War
, Jordan declared political support for the Iraqi regime, but the RJAF was never committed to combat in that war. The RJAF provided instruction for Iraqi pilots who also operated the similar Mirage F1
Some six Lockheed C-130H Hercules
entered RJAF service and remain critical in supporting Jordan's peacekeeping efforts. In 1987 the RJAF received CASA C-101s
to replace the T-37
in the training role.
1991 Persian Gulf War and the 1990s
Due to economics ties between Jordan and Iraq, the fallout of Iraq meant that the RJAF was impacted upon but contrary to some reports, it did not lose its operational tempo and was not forced to cannibalize aircraft for shortages of spare parts. Despite this, the RJAF had to rationalise its existing resources due to a temporary downfall in spare parts and supplies. However, economic difficulties forced the RJAF to seek upgrades rather than the purchase of new equipment originally planned.
Modernization schemes continued with seven F-5Es sold to Singapore and some funding used to upgrade most of the remaining others with the AN/APG-67 radar (found on the aborted Northrop F-20 Tigershark
, once an aircraft under evaluation by the RJAF), modern fire control
systems, and within visual range (WVR) AAMs
, thus putting the F-5 on par with more modern aircraft in terms of electronics. Despite this, the F-5s lack a BVR combat
Dassault Mirage F1EJ
Jordanian F-5 Tiger II aircraft
The Jordanian Special Operations Aviation Brigade has been using Sikorsky UH-60L Blackhawk
and MD Helicopters MD-530F
helicopters for special operations and border security. Two squadrons of ex-US Army AH-1F Cobra gunships were delivered in the late 1990s/early 2000s. Some have been sold to Pakistan and AH-1Fs will be replaced by new AH-6I attack helicopters. After signing the MDAP 18 surplus Bell UH-1H helicopters were delivered in 1994, followed by another 18 in 1996. Two C-130B Hercules transport aircraft and 16 UH-1H helicopters have been delivered to the Iraqi Air Force. Three C-130E will be received from the US in exchange. Currently two squadrons of UH-1Hs and one of AS332 Super Pumas support Army operations.
Between November 2015
and 3 March 2016, 8 UH-60A Black Hawks were delivered to Jordan from the United States under a no-cost lease arrangement. The delivery of 8 newly built UH-60M Black Hawks is expected in 2017 as part of a United States grant totaling US$200 million, with Sikorsky being contracted to the U.S. Army
to build them.
Jordan assist Air forces in the Middle East, training Bahraini
pilots and assisting Iraq
. There is also a close cooperation with the USAF. The current commander of the Royal Jordan Air Force is Major General
Operations in Syria 2014–2015
On the morning of 16 April 2014, Jordanian air force fighter jets destroyed an undetermined number of vehicles trying to enter into Jordan by crossing the border from war-torn Syria during the Syrian Civil War
On 23 September 2014, Jordanian air force aircraft joined in US-led air strikes against terrorist targets in Syria that later became known as Operation Inherent Resolve
On 24 December 2014, an RJAF F-16 crashed near Raqqa, Syria, and its pilot, Flight Lieutenant Moaz Youssef al-Kasasbeh
, was captured by terrorist State militants.
On 30 December 2014, a member of the Jordanian parliament, Rula al-Hroob, told America's National Public Radio that the RJAF had suspended military operations over Syria in order to help secure al-Kasasbeh's release. An attempt by US special operations to rescue al-Kasasbeh from Raqqa on 1 January 2015 failed when their helicopters were driven off by heavy enemy fire.
Following unsuccessful negotiations about a prisoner exchange, on 3 February 2015 it was reported that the terrorist State had murdered al-Kasasbeh by burning him alive, something that was done in early January but not revealed.
On 5 February 2015, the RJAF resumed operations against terrorist State targets. The whole daily target list was handed over to 20 Jordanian F-16s.
In February 2015 the US resupplied Jordan with munitions to be used in airstrikes against ISIS, including JDAM precision bombs. In the summer of 2015 Israel transferred 16 Bell AH-1E/F Cobras (4–6 to be used as spares) to be used by RJAF in the "border patrol" role, this is counter-insurgency role and in operations against terrorist State forces.
On 7 November 2015, The New York Times
claimed that the RJAF had quietly suspended operations against targets in Syria, the last attack being in August, and instead diverted its aircraft to support Saudi-led operations against Houthi rebels in Yemen.
This claim was contested by the Jordanian embassy in Washington, which told the paper that Jordan continued to conduct airstrikes on terrorist State targets.
Protect And Defend Sovereignty And The Integrity Of The Hashemite Kingdom Of Jordan.
The essence lies in the ability to apply selective force against specific targets because the nature and variety of future contingencies demand both precise and reliable use of military power with minimal risk and collateral damage.
The ability of joint force commanders to keep pace with information and incorporate it into a campaign plan is crucial.
Agile Combat Support
Deployment and sustainment are keys to successful operations and cannot be separated. Agile combat support applies to all forces, from those permanently based to contingency buildups to expeditionary forces.
The Air Force bases these core competencies and distinctive capabilities on a shared commitment to three values: Integrity first, Service before self, and Excellence in all we do.
- The Secondary Tasks
- To support Land Forces in any armed conflict with any external power.
- To support security forces in their tasks of maintaining internal security, anti smuggling operations and border security operations.
- Additional Tasks
- Air lift operations.
- Search and rescue.
- Medical evacuation.
- Relief operations.
- Evacuation of citizens from areas of conflict.
Despite the limited funds and resources, Jordan has become actively involved in peace keeping operations, In 1994 the Jordanian Air Force participated in the airlifting operations to support the Jordanian troops serving with the United Nations in maintaining and preserving peace and resolving local disputes.
RJAF achieved more than 200 flying hours in support of the Jordanian Armed Forces participating in peace keeping operations in Four ( 4 ) Continents.
The Royal Jordanian Air Force has a strength of 15,000, including 3,400 air defense personnel.
It contains six major airbases in addition to nineteen air squadrons, fourteen I-Hawk Batteries, and two training schools (a fighter aviation training school and a school of air combat). The Royal Jordanian Air Force Headquarters is at King Abdullah I Airbase in Amman.
- No. 1 Squadron RJAF – the Squadron was formed in 1958 with the Hawker Hunter and later equipped with F5s, the Mirage F1, and now the General Dynamics/Lockheed F-16. It has been based in Amman, Mafraq and now Azraq, with short periods at H5, and Habbaniya (Iraq).
- No. 2 Squadron RJAF – was first formed in 1958 with de Havilland Vampires then with Hunters and later in 1974 with F5As and Bs as an advanced training squadron at King Hussein Air Base, Mafraq. It subsequently flew from Amman and Mafraq as a fighter squadron, then flew again from Mafraq, renamed in 1978 as the King Hussein Air College, with the CASA C-101 as the advanced jet trainer. It is now at MSAB equipped with the F-16.
- No. 3 Squadron RJAF – was formed in 1959 and was a mixture of fixed-wing and helicopter until February 1973 when a helicopter squadron was formed. Its aircraft have included the de Havilland Dove; Heron; Ambassador; C47; C119; Brittan Norman Islander; CASA 212 and 235, with a helicopter flight of Westland Whirlwind; Widgeon; Scout and Alouette III. The Squadron belongs to the Air Lift Wing and is based at KAAB, Amman (Amman Civil Airport). It is now equipped with the Lockheed C-130 Hercules and CASA 295.
Royal Jordanian Air Defence
- Royal Jordanian air defense is part of the Royal Jordanian Air Force is equipped with Surface-to-Air missiles and Anti-Aircraft guns and Radar stations, as well as modern Electronic Warfare center and electronic countermeasure which is linked to command and control (C2) centers.
- Jordan provided with an integrated, real-time air picture across multiple command centers and many remote sites to better protect the country's airspace. The system, known as Omnyx™, will combine sensor, voice and data communications to provide interoperability throughout the Royal Jordanian Air Force and other elements of Jordan's armed forces. With input from radars and other data links, the system will assist in detecting incoming air traffic and also provide the capabilities needed for airspace management, air sovereignty and air defense missions.
- RJAF C2 and EW Capability
- Omnyx™ System enabling Jordanian Air Force to track and identify aircraft, evaluate any threats, initiate or monitor airborne engagements and enhance situational awareness of Jordanian airspace at all times.
- Jordan have a C4ISR subsystem capable of serving multiple internal services and agencies within Jordan and An Air Defense subsystem capable of early warning of air attack and real-time Command and Control (C2) of national air defense forces.
- RADIANT C4I National EW network, connecting regional control centers, ground radars and AD assets.
- Jordan has the ability to detect cruise missiles, aircraft and unmanned drones at long distances through the project linking five U.S. 3D radars (1 FPS-117, 4 TPS-77), QAIA Radar and Gap-filler radars with ADSI (Air Defence System Integrator), Airbases and all Fire Units to build air defence umbrella (IADS).
- Air Surveillance Radars
- 1 AN/FPS-117 3D Radar 
- 4 AN/TPS-77 3D Radar
- 5 AN/TPS-63 Tactical 2D Radar
- 5 Marconi S711 Radar (Upgraded by AMS UK in 2005)
- Gap-filler & Border Surveillance radars
- AA Gun System
- Short-Range Tactical SAM System
- Medium & Long Range Air Defence
- 10 MIM-23 Hawk PIP III with MIM-23E Missiles (upgraded in 2016)
In the period from 2004 to 2012 the components of 8 Hawk Phase III batteries were acquired gradually and some old Hawk batteries were modernized to Phase III,
Jordan received more than 400 MEI-23E missiles in 2014 and 2016. Many units are phased out and only 10 modernized units remain in service as of 2020.
- 3 MIM-104 Patriot unknown type Batteries (12 launchers)
Jordan plans to deploy further four Patriot air defense batteries
US General Martin E. Dempsey
(left) with Major General Malek Al-Habashneh, the chief of the RJAF in 2013.
The Royal Jordanian Air Force is headed by the Commander. The chiefs of the RJAF are as follows:
- 1956–1962 Major (Colonel) Ibrahim Osman
- 1962 Major Jereis Musharbash
- 1962 Major Sahal Hamzeh
- 1962–1970 Major (Major-General) Saleh El Kurdi
- 1971–1973 Brigadier Walid Sharafuddin
- 1973–1976 Brigadier Abboud Salem Hassan
- 1976–1980 unknown
- 1980–1982 Brigadier (Major-General) Tayseer Zarour
- 1983–1993 Brigadier (Lieutenant-General) Ihsan Shurdom
- 1993–1994 Brigadier (Major-General) Awni Bilal
- 1994–1995 Brigadier (Major-General) Mohammed El Qudah
- 1995–1999 Brigadier (Major-General) Mohammed Khair Ababneh
- 1999–2002 Brigadier (Major-General) So'oud Nuseirat
- 2002–2004 Brigadier (Major-General) His Royal Highness Prince Faisal bin Hussein
- 2004–2006 Brigadier (Major-General) Hussein Al Biss
- 2006–2010 Brigadier (Major-General) Hussein Shodash
- 2010–2013 Brigadier (Major-General) Malek Al-Habashneh
- 2013–2016 Brigadier (Major-General) Mansour Al-Jbour
- 2016–2019 Brigadier (Major-General) Yousef Huneiti
- 2019–present Brigadier (Major-General) Zaid Naqrash
- ^ a b "Jordanian military gets new chief". Janes. 30 July 2019. Retrieved 21 September 2019.
- ^ Yitzhak, Ronen (2004). "The Formation and Development of the Jordanian Air Force: 1948–1967". Middle Eastern Studies. 40 (5): 158–174. doi:10.1080/0026320042000265701.
- ^ a b c Spencer C. Tucker, ed. (2014). Persian Gulf War Encyclopedia: A Political, Social, and Military History: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 195. ISBN 9781610694162.
- ^ Spencer C. Tucker (2010). The Encyclopedia of Middle East Wars: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts [5 volumes]: The United States in the Persian Gulf, Afghanistan, and Iraq Conflicts. ABC-CLIO. p. 663. ISBN 978-1-85109-948-1.
- ^ Simon Dunstan (2012). The Six Day War 1967: Sinai. Osprey Publishing Limited. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-78200-241-3.
- ^ Zimmermann, Anne Mariel (2016). US Assistance, Development, and Hierarchy in the Middle East: Aid for Allies. Springer. p. 132. ISBN 9781349950003.
- ^ Peterson, J. E. (2013). Oman's Insurgencies: The Sultanate's Struggle for Supremacy. Saqi. p. 376. ISBN 978-0863567025.
- ^ "F-16 Versions – F-16/79 :: F-16.net". Archived from the original on 21 July 2009. Retrieved 26 July 2009.
- ^ a b David Donald (12 May 2016). "Black Hawk remains firm favourite [SOFEX16D3] | IHS Jane's 360". Janes.com. Archived from the original on 13 May 2016.
- ^ Malkawi, Khetam (4 March 2016). "Jordan receives eight Blackhawks from US". The Jordan Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- ^ "Jordanian air force destroys vehicles entering from Syria". Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- ^ "Jordan pilot ejected over Syria after 'technical failure'". Yahoo News. 31 December 2014. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 15 January 2017.
- ^ Botelho, Greg; Ford, Dana. "Jordan executes prisoners after ISIS hostage burned alive". CNN World News. Archived from the original on 3 February 2015. Retrieved 4 February 2015.
- ^ "Jordan F-16s strike ISIS targets and honor dead pilot's family". f-16.net. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- ^ "Jordan launches new air strikes against ISIL". aljazeera.com. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.
- ^ "Royal Jordanian Air Force". Airheadsfly.com. Archived from the original on 2 May 2016. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ Eric Schmitt; Michael R. Gordon (7 November 2015). "As U.S. Escalates Air War on ISIS, Allies Slip Away". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 4 March 2017. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
- ^ https://www.rjaf.mil.jo/en/page-1.html
- ^ Jane's Sentinel Security Assessment – Eastern Mediterranean (Report). IHS Jane's. 9 May 2016. p. 90.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Armed Forces Overviews". Scramble. Archived from the original on 23 January 2016. Retrieved 9 December 2015.
- ^ RJAF official site
- ^ rjaf.mil.jo
- ^ "RJAF". RJAF. Archived from the original on 17 October 2008. Retrieved 10 June 2016.
- ^ a b "Lockheed Martin • Lockheed Martin Receives $26 Million Contract to Help Royal Jordanian Air Force Control and Defend Its Airspace". Archived from the original on 28 January 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- ^ "Jordan: Air Force interoperability and modernization". Middle East Confidential. Archived from the original on 8 October 2013. Retrieved 1 March 2013.
- ^ "Jordan – Command, Control, Communications, Computers, Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance System" (PDF) (Press release). Defense Security Cooperation Agency. 28 September 2006. Archived from the original(PDF) on 1 December 2011.
- ^ "FMS: Jordan Seeks Integrated C4ISR System". Archived from the original on 23 September 2015. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ "Jordan to Establish C4ISR Network – Tags: ARMS transfers MILITARY art & science". Archived from the original on 14 December 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2013.
- ^ Jordan seeks C4ISR upgrade | Defense News | defensenews.com
- ^ شركة Ultra ELECTRONICS تعرض نظم إمرة وتحكم لمنظومات الدفاع الجوي
- ^ 
- ^ results
- ^ Jordan To Receive 3 US Patriot Anti-missile Batteries On Feb 6 - Diplomats
- ^ "Report: Jordan to deploy Patriot batteries on Syria border". ynet. Retrieved 13 November 2014.
- ^ http://www.silobreaker.com/report-jordan-to-deploy-patriot-batteries-on-syria-border-5_2265503569341841545
- ^ "RJAF Commanders". www,rjaf.mil.jo. Royal Jordanian Air Force. Archived from the original on 1 June 2016. Retrieved 4 October 2016.
Griffin, David J., 60 Years of the Hawker Hunter, 1951 to 2011
Last edited on 26 March 2021, at 18:58
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