Rummel estimated the total number of people killed by all governments during the 20th century at 212 million, of which 148 million were killed by Communist regimes
from 1917 to 1987.
To give some perspective on these numbers, Rummel pointed out that all domestic and foreign wars during the 20th century killed in combat around 41 million. His figures for Communist regimes have been criticized for his methodology and for being higher than those given by most other scholars.
In his last book, Rummel increased his estimate to over 272 million innocent, non-combatant civilians who were murdered by their own governments during the 20th century.
However, Rummel noted that his 272 million death estimate was his lower, more prudent figure, stating that it "could be over 400,000,000."
He concluded that democracy
is the form of government least likely to kill its citizens and that democracies do not wage war against each other.
This is known as the democratic peace theory
Rummel was the author of twenty-four scholarly books, and published his major results in Understanding Conflict and War
(1975–81). He spent the next fifteen years refining the underlying theory and testing it empirically on new data, against the empirical results of others, and on case studies. He summed up his research in Power Kills
(1997). Other works include Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocides and Mass Murders 1917–1987
(1990), China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900
(1991),Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder
(1992), Death by Government
and Statistics of Democide
Extracts, figures, and tables from the books, including his sources and details regarding the calculations, are available online on his website. Rummel also authored Applied Factor Analysis
and Understanding Correlation
Early life and education
Rummel began his teaching career at Indiana University
. In 1964 he moved to Yale University
, and in 1966 returned to the University of Hawaiʻi. He taught there for the rest of his active career. In 1995 he retired and became Professor Emeritus of Political Science. His research was supported by grants from the National Science Foundation
, and the United States Peace Research Institute.
In addition to his books, Rummel was the author of more than 100 professional articles.
Rummel coined the term democide
, defined as "the murder of any person or people by a government, including genocide
, and mass murder
." He has further stated to "use the civil definition of murder
, where someone can be guilty of murder if they are responsible in a reckless and wanton way for the loss of life, as in incarcerating people in camps where they may soon die of malnutrition
, unattended disease
, and forced labor
, or deporting them into wastelands where they may die rapidly from exposure and disease." In his book Death by Government
, published in 1987, Rummel estimated that 148 million were killed by Communist governments
from 1917 to 1987. The list of Communist countries with more than 1 million estimated victims included China
at 77,277,000 (1949–1987), the Soviet Union
at 61,911,000, Democratic Kampuchea
(1975–1979) at 2,035,000, Vietnam
(1945–1987) at 1,670,000, Poland
(1945–1948) at 1,585,000, North Korea
(1948–1987) at 1,563,000 and Yugoslavia
(1945–1987) at 1,072,000. Those numbers should not be considered factual, as Rummel himself described his figures as "little more than educated guesses."
Rummell's research concluded that the death toll from democide is far greater than the death toll from war. After studying over 8,000 reports of government-caused deaths, he estimated that there have been 262 million victims of democide in the 20th century
and that six times as many people have died at the hands of people working for governments than have died in battle. His later estimates put the death toll of colonialism at 262,000,000. He argued that there is a relation between political power and democide. Political mass murder grows increasingly common as political power becomes unconstrained. At the other end of the scale, where power is diffuse, checked, and balanced, political violence is a rarity. According to Rummel, "[t]he more power a regime has, the more likely people will be killed. This is a major reason for promoting freedom."
Rummel argued that "concentrated political power is the most dangerous thing on earth."
Most estimates of democide are uncertain and scholars often give widely different estimates. His figures for Communist regimes are higher than those given by most other scholars. According to Benjamin Valentino
, the figures range from 60 to 100 million.
Rummel's counts 43 million deaths due to democide during Stalin's regime inside and outside the Soviet Union, a much higher estimate than an often quoted figure of 20 million. Rummel has responded that this is based on a figure from Robert Conquest
's book The Great Terror
from 1968 and that Conquest's qualifier "almost certainly too low" is usually forgotten. According to Rummel, Conquest's calculations excluded camp deaths after 1950, and before 1936; executions 1939–1953; the population transfer in the Soviet Union
, i.e. the forced transfer
of various groups and their deaths in 1939–1953; the deportation within the Soviet Union of minorities in 1941–1944; and their deaths; and those the Soviet Red Army
and secret police
executed throughout Eastern Europe after their conquest during 1944–1945. Moreover, the Holodomor
that killed 5 million in 1932–1934 (according to Rummel) is not included.
Rummel considered communism
to be a significant causative factor in democides.
According to Rummel, the killings committed by Communist regimes can best be explained as the result of the marriage between absolute power and the absolutist ideology of Marxism
Rummel argued that "communism was like a fanatical religion. It had its revealed text and its chief interpreters. It had its priests and their ritualistic prose with all the answers. It had a heaven, and the proper behavior to reach it. It had its appeal to faith. And it had its crusades against nonbelievers. What made this secular religion so utterly lethal was its seizure of all the state's instruments of force and coercion and their immediate use to destroy or control all independent sources of power, such as the church, the professions, private businesses, schools, and the family."
He wrote that the Communists saw the construction of their utopia as "though a war on poverty, exploitation, imperialism and inequality. And for the greater good, as in a real war, people are killed. And, thus, this war for the communist utopia had its necessary enemy casualties, the clergy, bourgeoisie, capitalists, wreckers, counterrevolutionaries, rightists, tyrants, rich, landlords, and noncombatants that unfortunately got caught in the battle. In a war millions may die, but the cause may be well justified, as in the defeat of Hitler and an utterly racist Nazism. And to many communists, the cause of a communist utopia was such as to justify all the deaths."
According to Klas-Göran Karlsson
, discussion of the number of victims of Communist regimes has been "extremely extensive and ideologically biased."
Any attempt to estimate a total number of killings under Communist regimes depends greatly on definitions,
ranging from a low of 10–20 millions to as high as 110 millions.
The criticism of some of the estimates, especially those of Rummel and The Black Book of Communism
which made use of Rummel's estimates and analysis, are mostly focused on three aspects, namely that the estimates were based on sparse and incomplete data when significant errors are inevitable; that the figures were skewed to higher possible values; and that those dying at war and victims of civil wars, Holodomor and other famines under Communist governments should not be counted.
According to Anton Weiss-Wendt
, any attempts to develop a universally-accepted terminology describing mass killings of non-combatants was a complete failure.
After Dean Babst
, Rummel was one of the early researchers on democratic peace theory
. Rummel found that in the period between 1816 and 2005 there were 205 wars between non-democracies, 166 wars between non-democracies and democracies, and no wars between democracies.
The definition of democracy used is "where those who hold power are elected in competitive elections with a secret ballot and wide franchise (loosely understood as including at least 2/3 of adult males); where there is freedom of speech, religion, and organization; and a constitutional framework of law to which the government is subordinate and that guarantees equal rights." In addition, it should be "well-established", stating that "enough time has passed since its inception for peace-sufficient democratic procedures to become accepted and democratic culture to settle in. Around three years seems to be enough for this."
Regarding war, he adopted the definition of a popular database, namely that war is a conflict causing at least 1,000 battle deaths. The peace is explained thus: "Start with the answer of the philosopher Immanuel Kant
to why universalizing republics (democracy was a bad word for Classical Liberals
in his time) would create a peaceful world. People would not support and vote for wars in which they and their loved ones could die and lose their property. But this is only partly correct, for the people can get aroused against nondemocracies and push their leaders toward war, as in the Spanish–American War
. A deeper explanation is that where people are free, they create an exchange society of overlapping groups and multiple and crosschecking centers of power. In such a society a culture of negotiation, tolerance, and splitting differences develops. Moreover, free people develop an in-group orientation toward other such societies, a feeling of shared norms and ideals that militates against violence toward other free societies."
According to Rummel, democide requires governmental intention, but he was also interested in analyzing the effects of regimes that unintentionally, yet culpably, cause the deaths of their citizens through negligence
, incompetence or sheer indifference. An example is a regime in which corruption
has become so pervasive and destructive of a people's welfare
that it threatens their daily lives and reduces their life expectancy
. Rummel termed deaths of citizens under such regimes as mortacide. He argued that democracies have the fewest of such deaths.
Famine, economic growth, and happiness
Rummel included famine
in democide if he deemed it the result of a deliberate policy, as he has concluded about the Holodomor
. He has noted that there have been no famines in democracies, deliberate or not, an argument first advanced by Amartya Sen
He also argued that democracy is an important factor for economic growth and for raising living standards
He has noted research showing that average happiness in a nation increases with more democracy.
According to Rummel, the continuing increase in the number of democracies worldwide will lead to an end to wars and democide. He believed that goal might be achieved by the mid-21st century.
Rummel was critical of past American foreign policy
such as the Philippine War
, involvement in the 1900 Battle of Peking
, and the strategic bombing
of civilians during World War II
and he also believed that the United States under Woodrow Wilson
was a domestic tyranny.
However, Rummel strongly supported the War on Terror
and the Iraq War
initiated by the George W. Bush administration
, arguing that "the media [was] biased against freeing Iraqi from tyranny."
Rummel also argued for an intergovernmental organization of all democracies outside of the United Nations
to deal with issues about which the United Nations cannot or will not act, but particularly to further the promotion of peace, human security, human rights, and democracy through what he termed "an Alliance of Democracies [which] can do much better."
Rummel thought that Ted Kennedy
's opposition to the Vietnam War
led to the state killings in Cambodia and Vietnam during the 1970s. Following the death of Kennedy, Rummel condemned the media reaction as too benign and stated "the post-war blood of millions is on Kennedy's hands."
Rummel was critical of Barack Obama
and the Democratic Party
, alleging that they were seeking to establish an authoritarian, one-party state.
He believed that global warming
was "a scam for power" and opposed Obama's carbon-trading scheme.
Rummel thought that Obama killed off a democratic peace that Bill Clinton
and George W. Bush
had been pursuing.
Rummel argued that there was a leftist bias in some parts of the academic world that selectively focused on problems in nations with high political and economic freedom
and ignored much worse problems in other nations. Related to this, he also criticized the tenure
The democratic peace theory is now one of the great controversies in political science
and one of the main challenges to realism in international relations
. More than a hundred different researchers have published multiple articles in this field, according to an incomplete bibliography.
Some critics argue that there have been exceptions to the democratic peace. Rummel discussed some claimed exceptions in his FAQ
and he has referred to books by other scholars such as Never at War
. Criticism of the democratic peace theory
include data, definition, historical periods, limited consequences, methodology, microfoundations, and statistical significance criticism, that peace comes before democracy and that several studies fail to confirm democracies are less likely to wage war than autocracies if wars against non-democracies are included. Jeffrey Pugh
summarized those who dispute the theory often do so on grounds that it conflates correlation with causation and that the academic definitions of democracy
can be manipulated so as to manufacture an artificial trend.
Rummel's first work on democratic peace received little attention. His results were incorporated in a "gigantic philosophical scheme" of 33 propositions in a 5-volume work. It was reviewed in 1992 as having "immoderate pretensions", and demonstrated Rummel's "unrelenting" economic liberalism
and "extreme" views on defense policy. Nils Petter thought these elements may have distracted readers from Rummel's more conventionally acceptable propositions.
Rummel's version of the democratic peace theory has some distinctive features disputed by some other researchers who support the existence and explanatory power of the democratic peace. Rummel's early research found that democracies are less warlike, even against non-democracies. Other researchers hold only that democracies are far less warlike with one another. Rummel held that democracies properly defined never go to war with each other and that this is an "absolute or (point) claim." Other researchers such as Stuart A. Bremer found that it is a chance, or stochastic
In this sense, Rummel was deterministic.
A review by James Lee Ray cited several other studies finding that the increase in the risk of war in democratizing countries happens only if many or most of the surrounding nations are undemocratic. If wars between young democracies are included in the analysis, several studies and reviews still find enough evidence supporting the stronger claim that all democracies, whether young or established, go into war with one another less frequently while some do not.
Rummel did not always apply his definition of democracy to governments under discussion, nor did he always clarify when he did not. The opening paragraphs of an appendix from his book Power Kills
adopt Michael Doyle's lists of liberal democracies for 1776–1800 and 1800–1850. Doyle used a much looser definition, namely the secret ballot that was first adopted by Tasmania
in 1856, while Belgium had barely 10% adult male suffrage before 1894.
Awards and nominations
In 1999, Rummel was awarded the Susan Strange Award
of the International Studies Association
This award recognizes a person "whose singular intellect, assertiveness, and insight most challenge conventional wisdom and intellectual and organizational complacency in the international studies community."
In 2003, Rummel was given The Lifetime Achievement Award from the Conflict Processes Organized Section of the American Political Science Association
for "scholarly contributions that have fundamentally improved the study of conflict processes."
Rummel used to publicly claim that he was a finalist for the Nobel Prize for Peace
, based on an Associated Press
report reprinted in his local paper about an alleged Nobel short list of 117 names. He has retracted the claim, although it still appeared in one of his books.
He was nominated multiple times for the Peace Prize by Per Ahlmark
, but no shortlist has been made public.
Rummel wrote the Never Again Series
of alternative-history novels. According to the series' website, Never Again
is "a what-if, alternative history... [in which] two lovers are sent back in time to 1906 with modern weapons and 38 billion 1906 dollars" in order to prevent the rise of totalitarianism and the outbreak of world war. Rummel wrote:
What if there were a solution to war and genocide? What if a secret society sent back to 1906 two lovers, Joy Phim, a gorgeous warrior, and John Banks, a pacifist professor of history, and gave them the incredible wealth and weapons necessary to create a peaceful alternative universe—one that never experienced the horrors of world war, the Holocaust, and the other atrocities of the twentieth century? And what if, at great personal cost, they succeed too well and create a peaceful world of complacent democracies? In Book 2, the clock is turned back to their arrival in 1906. They receive a message from the future of the universe they will create – Islamic fundamentalists have attacked the unarmed democracies with nuclear weapons and enslaved them. It is now up to these lovers to prevent this horrible future.
Most books and articles by Rummel are available for free download at Rummel's website, including those not listed here.
- Dimensions of Nations, Sage Publications, 1972
- Wilkenfeld, J., ed. Conflict Behavior & Linkage Politics (contributor), David McKay, 1973
- Peace Endangered: Reality Of Détente, Sage Publications, 1976
- Understanding Conflict and War, John Wiley & Sons, 1976
- Conflict in Perspective (Understanding Conflict and War), Sage Publications, 1977
- Field Theory Evolving, Sage Publications, 1977
- Der gefährdete Frieden. Die militärische Überlegenheit der UdSSR ("Endangered Peace. The Military Superiority of the USSR"), München, 1977
- with Rhee, Omen & Sybinsky. National Attitudes and Behaviors, Sage Publications, 1979
- In the Minds of Men. Principles Toward Understanding and Waging Peace, Sogang University Press, 1984
- Applied Factor Analysis, Northwestern University Press, 1988
- Lethal Politics: Soviet Genocide and Mass Murder since 1917, Transaction Publishers, 1990
- China's Bloody Century: Genocide and Mass Murder Since 1900, Transaction Publishers, 1991
- The Conflict Helix: Principles & Practices of Interpersonal, Social & International Conflict & Cooperation, Transaction Publishers, 1991
- Democide: Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder, Transaction Publishers, 1992
- Death by Government, Transaction Publishers, 1997
- Statistics of Democide: Genocide and Mass Murder since 1900, Lit Verlag, 1999
- Power Kills: Democracy as a Method of Nonviolence, Transaction Publishers, 2002
- Never Again (series)
- War and Democide, Llumina Press, 2004
- Nuclear Holocaust, Llumina Press, 2004
- Reset, Llumina Press, 2004
- Red Terror, Llumina Press, 2004
- Genocide, Llumina Press, 2005
- Never Again?, Llumina Press, 2005
The Blue Book of Freedom: Ending Famine, Poverty, Democide, and War, Cumberland House Publishing, 2007
Rummel had approximately 100 publications in peer-reviewed journals, including:
- International Journal on World Peace, October–December 1986 (Vol. III, No. 4), contributor
- Journal of International Relations, Vol. 3 No 1, Spring, 1978, contributor
- REASON magazine; July 1977; Volume 9, Number 3. "The Problem of Defense", contributor
- ^ Star-Advertiser, Honolulu. "Rudolph Joseph Rummel « Honolulu Hawaii Obituaries - Hawaii Newspaper Obituaries".
- ^ "Democratic Peace: Reevaluating China's Democide to be 73,000,000". Archived from the original on November 1, 2007. Retrieved 2006-03-03.
- ^ R. J. Rommel, The Blue Book of Freedom: Ending Famine, Poverty, Democide, and War, Nashville, Tennessee, Cumberland House Publishing, 2007, p. 99
- ^ a b c Harff, Barbara (1996). "Death by Government by R. J. Rummel". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 27 (1): 117–119. doi:10.2307/206491. JSTOR 206491.
- ^ R.J. Rummel, The Blue Book of Freedom: Ending Famine, Poverty, Democide, and War, Nashville, Tennessee: Cumberland House Publishing, 2007, p. 11
- ^ R.J. Rummel, The Blue Book of Freedom: Ending Famine, Poverty, Democide, and War, Nashville, TN: Cumberland House Publishing, 2007, p. 75
- ^ a b About R.J. Rummel – Freedom, Democide, War
- ^ "USSR--Genocide and Mass Murder".
- ^ "China's Bloody Century".
- ^ "Nazi Genocide and Mass Murder".
- ^ "DEATH BY GOVERNMENT: GENOCIDE AND MASS MURDER".
- ^ "Statistics of Democide".
- ^ "FACTOR ANALYSIS".
- ^ "THE CORRELATION COEFFICIENT".
- ^ "National Advisory Council". Victims of Communism Memorial Foundation. Archived from the original on 2011-06-10. Retrieved 2011-05-20.
- ^ 20th Century Democide, Hawaii.edu
- ^ Totten, Samuel (2013). Pioneers of Genocide Studies. Transaction Publishers. p. 170.
- ^ Valentino, Benjamin A. Valentino (2004). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the twentieth Century. Cornell University Press. p. 275. ISBN 978-0801439650.
- ^ "How Many Did Stalin Really Murder?"
- ^ a b Jacobs, Steven L.; Totten, Samuel (2002). Pioneers of Genocide Studies. Transaction Publishers. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7658-0151-7.
- ^ Jacobs, Steven L.; Totten, Samuel (2002). Pioneers of Genocide Studies. Transaction Publishers. p. 169. ISBN 978-0-7658-0151-7.
- ^ Karlsson, Klas-Göran; Schoenhals, Michael (2008). Crimes Against Humanity under Communist Regimes. Forum for Living History. ISBN 9789197748728.
- ^ Dallin, Alexander (2000). "Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Jonathan Murphy and Mark Kramer". Slavic Review. 59 (4): 882‒883. doi:10.2307/2697429. JSTOR 2697429.
- ^ Valentino, Benjamin (2005). Final Solutions: Mass Killing and Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Cornell University Press. pp. 75, 91, 275. ISBN 9780801472732.
- ^ Kuromiya, Hiroaki (2001). "Review Article: Communism and Terror. Reviewed Work(s): The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, and Repression by Stephane Courtois; Reflections on a Ravaged Century by Robert Conquest". Journal of Contemporary History. 36 (1): 191–201. doi:10.1177/002200940103600110. JSTOR 261138. S2CID 49573923.
- ^ Paczkowski, Andrzej (2001). "The Storm Over the Black Book". The Wilson Quarterly. 25 (2): 28–34. JSTOR 40260182.
- ^ Weiner, Amir (2002). "Review. Reviewed Work: The Black Book of Communism: Crimes, Terror, Repression by Stéphane Courtois, Nicolas Werth, Jean-Louis Panné, Andrzej Paczkowski, Karel Bartošek, Jean-Louis Margolin, Jonathan Murphy, Mark Kramer". The Journal of Interdisciplinary History. 32 (3): 450–452. doi:10.1162/002219502753364263. JSTOR 3656222. S2CID 142217169.
- ^ Dulić, Tomislav (2004). "Tito's Slaughterhouse: A Critical Analysis of Rummel's Work on Democide". Journal of Peace Research. 41 (1): 85–102. doi:10.1177/0022343304040051. JSTOR 4149657. S2CID 145120734.
- ^ Harff, Barbara (2017), "The Comparative Analysis of Mass Atrocities and Genocide". In Gleditsch, N. P., ed. R.J. Rummel: An Assessment of His Many Contributions. 37. SpringerBriefs on Pioneers in Science and Practice. pp. 111–129. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-54463-2_12. ISBN 9783319544632.
- ^ Weiss-Wendt, Anton (2008). "Problems in Comparative Genocide Scholarship". In Stone, Dan (eds). The Historiography of Genocide. London: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 42. doi:10.1057/9780230297. ISBN 978-0-230-29778-4. "There is barely any other field of study that enjoys so little consensus on defining principles such as definition of genocide, typology, application of a comparative method, and timeframe. Considering that scholars have always put stress on prevention of genocide, comparative genocide studies have been a failure. Paradoxically, nobody has attempted so far to assess the field of comparative genocide studies as a whole. This is one of the reasons why those who define themselves as genocide scholars have not been able to detect the situation of crisis."
- ^ DOES DEMOCRACY CAUSE PEACE?Archived 2008-02-17 at the Wayback Machine James Lee Ray -Annu. Rev. Polit. Sci. 1998. 1:27–46.
- ^ POWER KILLS Appendix 1.1 – Q And A On The Fact That Democracies Do Not Make War On Each Other – By R.J. Rummel – Q AND A ON DEMOCRACY AND WAR – Freedom, Democide, War
- ^ Democratic Peace Q&A
- ^ "Defining Mortacracies".
- ^ Democratic Peace Q&A Version 2.0 – Freedom, Democide, War
- ^ "FREEDOM PROMOTES WEALTH AND PROSPERITY".
- ^ "Democratic Peace: Global Corruption and Democracy 2006". Archived from the original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved 2006-03-23.
- ^ "Democratic Peace: Happiness – This Utilitarian Argument For Freedom Is True". Archived from the original on November 2, 2006. Retrieved 2006-02-13.
- ^ "DEMOCRATIC PEACE CLOCK".
- ^ "R..J. Rummel—A Multi-faceted Scholar".
- ^ "Rudolph Rummel Talks About the Miracle of Liberty and Peace".
- ^ Cook on Stannard, p. 12. Rummel's quote and estimate from his website, about midway down the page, after footnote 82. "Even if these figures are remotely true, then this still make this subjugation of the Americas one of the bloodier, centuries long, democides in world history."
- ^ Democratic Peace Q&A Version 2.0 – In the Fostering Democracy section, Rummel writes, "I am opposed to invading a country to democratize it." – Freedom, Democide, War.
- ^ Rummel, R. J. (2016-07-01). "Libertarianism and International Violence". Journal of Conflict Resolution. 27: 27–71. doi:10.1177/0022002783027001002. S2CID 145801545.
- ^ Rummel, R. J. (1984). "Libertarianism, Violence within States, and the Polarity Principle". Comparative Politics. 16 (4): 443–462. doi:10.2307/421949. ISSN 0010-4159. JSTOR 421949.
- ^ STATISTICS OF DEMOCIDE Chapter 13 Death By American Bombing And Other Democide * By R.J. Rummel
- ^ Rummel, R. j (18 July 2009). "A Freedomist View: So What If A Lie?--It Is The Politics of Power".
- ^ "Censor Media".
- ^ Eliminating Democide and War Through An Alliance of Democracies* By R.J. Rummel.
- ^ "Kennedy Love Dysfunction".
- ^ "Death of American Democracy".
- ^ "Authoritarianism on Way".
- ^ "Global Warming is Scam for Power".
- ^ "Was Democratic Peace Killed? Part VI".
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on August 6, 2007. Retrieved 2005-05-14.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 19, 2007. Retrieved 2006-03-02.
- ^ "Democratic Peace Bibliography".
- ^ Democratic Peace Q&A
- ^ Pugh, Jeffrey (April 2005). "Democratic Peace Theory: A Review and Evaluation". CEMPROC Working Paper Series. Archived from the original on February 15, 2018. Retrieved 2017-06-14.
- ^ a b Gleditsch, Nils Petter (1992). "Democracy and Peace". Journal of Peace Research. 29 (4): 369–376. doi:10.1177/0022343392029004001. ISSN 0022-3433. JSTOR 425538. S2CID 110790206. Quotations are from Nils Petter Gleditsch's Democracy and Peace (1995), a paper that warmly defends the existence of democratic peace, and asserts that it, and the difficulty distant states have in waging war against each other, fully account for the phenomena.
- ^ Bremer, Stuart A. (June 1992). "Dangerous Dyads: Conditions Affecting the Likelihood of Interstate War, 1816–1965". The Journal of Conflict Resolution. 36 (2): 309–341. doi:10.1177/0022002792036002005. JSTOR 174478. S2CID 144107474.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-02-17. Retrieved 2008-02-26.
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2006-06-25. Retrieved 2005-08-29.
- ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2005-12-21. Retrieved 2005-12-12.
- ^ http://www.isanet.org/noarchive/wayman.html
- ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2005-02-13. Retrieved 2005-08-28.
- ^ "Q AND A ON DEMOCRACY AND WAR".
- ^ Doyle, Michael W. (1983). "Kant, Liberal Legacies, and Foreign Affairs". Philosophy & Public Affairs. 12 (3): 205–235. ISSN 1088-4963. JSTOR 2265298.
- ^ AWARD RECIPIENTS Archived 2013-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ Susan Strange Award Archived 2013-02-08 at the Wayback Machine
- ^ "Conflict Processes Organized Section Lifetime Achievement Award Recipients". American Political Science Association (APSA). Archived from the original on 2013-05-10.
- ^ "Praise for books by Nobel Peace Prize finalist R. J. Rummel".
- ^ "A necessary footnote"
- ^ a b "Freedom, Democide, War: An Alternative History Series".
- ^ a b LIst of Documents, University of Hawaiʻi, retrieved 2018-10-25
- ^ a b Thematic List of Documents, University of Hawaiʻi, retrieved 2018-10-25
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