"ANO TV-Novosti" redirects here. It is not to be confused with RIA Novosti
RT's first logo from 2005 to 2009
In 2005, RIA Novosti helped establish ANO TV-Novosti (or "Autonomous Non-profit Organization TV-News") to serve as the parent organization for the planned channel. ANO TV-Novosti was registered on 6 April 2005
and Sergey Frolov was appointed its CEO
The channel was launched as Russia Today on 10 December 2005. At its launch, the channel employed 300 journalists, including approximately 70 from outside Russia.
Russia Today appointed Margarita Simonyan
as its editor-in-chief; she recruited foreign journalists as presenters and consultants.
Simonyan stated that the channel's intent was to have a "professional format" akin to the BBC
that would "reflect Russia's opinion of the world" and present a "more balanced picture" of Russia.
Simonyan, only 25 years old at the time of her hiring by the channel, was a former Kremlin
pool reporter who had worked in journalism since she was 18. She told The New York Times
that after the fall of the Soviet Union
, many new young journalists were hired, resulting in a much younger pool of staffers than other news organizations.
Journalist Danny Schechter
(who has appeared as a guest on RT)
stated that, having been part of the launch staff at CNN
, he saw RT as another "channel of young people who are inexperienced, but very enthusiastic about what they are doing".
Shortly after the channel was launched, James Painter wrote that RT and similar news channels such as France 24
saw themselves as "counter-hegemonic", offering a differing vision and news content from that of Western media
and the BBC
Development and expansion
Dmitry Medvedev took part in the launch of RT Documentary
Vladimir Putin during a visit to the new RT broadcasting centre
RT launched several new channels in ensuing years: the Arabic language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum
in 2007, the Spanish language channel RT Actualidad in 2009, RT America – which focuses on the United States – in 2010, and the RT Documentary channel in 2011.
Russia Today drew particular attention worldwide for its coverage of the 2008 South Ossetia war
RT named Georgia
as the aggressor
against the separatist
governments of South Ossetia
, which were protected by Russian troops.
RT saw this as the incident that showcased its newsgathering abilities to the world.
Margarita Simonyan stated: "we were the only ones among the English-language media who were giving the other side of the story – the South Ossetian side of the story".
In 2009, Russia Today was rebranded to "RT", which George Washington University
academics Jack Nassetta and Kimberly Gross described as an "[attempt] to shed state affiliation".
Simonyan said the company had not changed names but the company's corporate logo was changed to attract more viewers: "who is interested in watching news from Russia all day long?"
In early 2010, RT unveiled a highly controversial advertising campaign called "Question More", which was created for the channel by Britain-based McCann Erickson
One of the advertisements featured as part of the campaign showed U.S. President Barack Obama morphing
into Iranian leader Mahmoud Ahmadinejad
and asked: "Who poses the greatest nuclear threat?" The ad was banned in American airports. Another showed a Western soldier "merging" with a Taliban
fighter and asked: "Is terror only inflicted by terrorists?"
One of RT's 2010 billboard advertisements won the British Awards for National Newspaper Advertising "Ad of the Month".
RT is one of several international channels to challenge the U.S. media's global news coverage.
In 2010, Walter Isaacson
, Chairman of the U.S. Government's Broadcasting Board of Governors
, which runs Voice of America
, Radio Free Europe
and Radio Free Asia
, called for more money to invest in the programs because "We can't allow ourselves to be out-communicated by our enemies", specifically mentioning Russia Today, Iran
's Press TV
and China's China Central Television
(CCTV) in the following sentence. He later explained that he actually was referring to "enemies" in Afghanistan
, not the countries he mentioned.
In 2011, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton
stated that the U.S. was "losing the information war" abroad to foreign channels like RT, Al Jazeera
and China Central Television
and that they were supplanting the Voice of America.
On 17 April 2012, RT debuted World Tomorrow
, a news interview programme hosted by WikiLeaks
founder Julian Assange
. The first guest on the program was Hezbollah
leader Hassan Nasrallah
The interview made global headlines as Nasrallah rarely gives interviews to Western media.
Commentators described this as a "coup".
WikiLeaks described the show as "a series of in-depth conversations with key political players, thinkers and revolutionaries from around the world".
It stated that the show is "independently produced and Assange has control"; WikiLeaks offers a "Broadcasters license, only".
Assange said that RT allowed his guests to discuss things that they "could not say on a mainstream TV network".
Assange's production company made the show and Assange had full editorial control. Assange said that, if Wikileaks had published large amounts of compromising data on Russia, his relationship with RT might not have been so comfortable.
In August of that year, RT suffered a denial of service
attack. Some people linked the attack to RT's connection with Assange, and others to an impending court verdict related to Pussy Riot
In May 2013, RT announced that former CNN host Larry King
would host a new talk show on RT. King said in an advertisement on RT: "I would rather ask questions to people in positions of power, instead of speaking on their behalf."
As part of the deal, King would also bring his Hulu
series Larry King Now
to RT. On 13 June 2013, RT aired a preview telecast of King's new Thursday evening program Politicking
, with the episode discussing Edward Snowden
's leaking of the PRISM surveillance program
Vladimir Putin visited the new RT broadcasting centre in June 2013 and stated: "When we designed this project back in 2005 we intended introducing another strong player on the international scene, a player that wouldn't just provide an unbiased coverage of the events in Russia but also try, let me stress, I mean – try to break the Anglo-Saxon monopoly on the global information streams. ... We wanted to bring an absolutely independent news channel to the news arena. Certainly the channel is funded by the government, so it cannot help but reflect the Russian government's official position on the events in our country and in the rest of the world one way or another. But I’d like to underline again that we never intended this channel, RT, as any kind of apologetics for the Russian political line, whether domestic or foreign."
In early October 2014, RT announced the launch of a dedicated news channel, RT UK
, aimed at British audiences. The new channel began operating on 30 October 2014.
In 2018, some of the RT staff started a new media project, Redfish.media, that positioned itself as "grassroots journalism".
The website was criticized by activist Musa Okwonga for deceptively interviewing him and then distributing it across RT channels while hiding its real affiliation.
Another similar RT project is In the NOW
, started in 2018.
On 15 February 2019, Facebook temporarily blocked the In the NOW
page, saying that even though it does not require pages to disclose who funds them, it had suspended the page so viewers would not "be misled about who’s behind them". Anissa Naouai
, CEO of Maffick
, which published the page, described the blocking as "unprecedented discrimination", and said that Facebook did not ask other channels to declare their parent company and financial affiliations. As of February 2019, a majority of Maffick stock was controlled by Ruptly
, an RT subsidiary, with Naouai owning the remaining 49%. Facebook unblocked the page on 25 February 2019; Naouai said the company had agreed to do so once the page was updated to feature information on In the NOW
's funding and management. She added that this requirement has been applied to no other Facebook page. In the NOW
also has an active channel on YouTube
and regularly posts videos from Soapbox
, a Maffick-owned channel.
According to a 2021 study, viewers exposed to RT became more likely to "to support America withdrawing from its role as a cooperative global leader by 10–20 percentage points. This effect is robust across measures, obtains across party lines, and persists even when we disclose that RT is financed by the Russian government. RT has no effect on Americans’ views of domestic politics or the Russian government."
In his 2021 book on authoritarian tactics to construct a positive image of their regimes, Michael Dukalskis writes that "RT generally does not extoll Russia’s virtues directly and instead focuses on presenting a negative picture of the United States and “the West.” It presents Russia as a “global underdog” to the United States and fosters conspiracy theories about the latter and criticizes US influence abroad."
In 2007, RT established offices in the same building as RIA Novosti, after the Russian Union of Journalists was forced to vacate them.
In 2012, Anna Kachkayeva, Dean of Media Communications at Moscow's Higher School of Economics
, stated that the two organizations "share the same roof" because they are located in the same building, but in "funding, editorial policy, management and staff, they are two independent organisations whose daily operations are not interconnected in any way".
In 2008, Simonyan noted that more than 50 young RT journalists had gone on to take positions in large Western media outlets.
By 2010, RT's staff had grown to 2,000.
RT studios building in Moscow in 2013
In December 2012, RT moved its production studios and headquarters to a new facility in Moscow. The move coincided with RT's upgrade of all of its English-language news programming to high-definition
In 2013, a presidential decree issued by Vladimir Putin dissolved RIA Novosti, replacing it with a new information agency called Rossiya Segodnya
(directly translated as Russia Today
According to a report on the RT website, the new agency would "not be in any way related" to the RT news channel despite the similarity to RT's original name.
On 31 December 2013, Margarita Simonyan, editor-in-chief of the RT news channel, was also appointed editor-in-chief of the new news agency while maintaining her duties for the television network.
When it was established in 2005, ANO TV-Novosti invested $30 million in start-up costs to establish RT,
with a budget of $30 million for its first year of operation. Half of the network's budget came from the Russian government; the other half came from pro-Kremlin commercial banks at the government's request.
Its annual budget increased from approximately $80 million in 2007 to $380 million in 2011, but was reduced to $300 million in 2012.
President Putin prohibited the reduction of funding for RT on 30 October 2012.
About 80 percent of RT's costs are incurred outside Russia, paying partner networks around $260 million for the distribution of its channels in 2014.
In 2014, RT received 11.87 billion rubles
($310 million) in government funding and was expected to receive 15.38 billion rubles ($400 million) in 2015.
(For comparison, the bigger BBC World Service
Group had a $376 million budget in 2014–15.
) At the start of 2015, as the ruble's value plummeted and a ten percent reduction in media subsidies was imposed, it was thought that RT's budget for the year would fall to about $236 million.
Instead, government funding was increased to 20.8 billion rubles (around $300 million) in September.
In 2015, RT was expected to receive 19 billion rubles ($307 million) from the Russian government the following year.
According to RT, the network's feed is carried by 22 satellites and over 230 operators, providing a distribution reach to about 700 million households in more than 100 countries,
and that RT America is available to 85 million households throughout the United States.
In addition to its main English language channel RT International, RT UK
and RT America
, RT also runs Arabic-language channel Rusiya Al-Yaum
, Spanish language] channel Actualidad RT, as well as the RTDoc documentary channel. RT maintains 21 bureaus in 16 countries, including those in Washington, D.C., New York City; London, England; Paris, France; Delhi, India; Cairo, Egypt
and Baghdad, Iraq
. It employs over 2,000 media professionals worldwide.
The sharp decline in the ruble at the end of 2014 forced RT to postpone German- and French-language channels.
In 2015, RT's YouTube news channels were: RT (the main channel), RT America, RT Arabic, RT en Español, RT Deutsch, RT French, RT UK, RT на русском and the newly launched RT Chinese.
In September 2012, RT signed a contract with Israeli-based RRSat
to distribute high-definition feeds of the channel in the United States, Latin America and Asia.
In October 2012, RT's Rusiya Al-Yaum and RT joined the high-definition network Al Yah Satellite Communications
On 12 July 2014, during his visit to Argentina
, Putin announced that Actualidad RT would broadcast free-to-air
in the country, the first foreign television channel to do so there.
According to Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty
, Argentina's State Media Authorities decided to suspend RT on 11 June 2016, along with Venezuelan television channel TeleSur
, which had both been authorized by the previous left-leaning government of Cristina Kirchner
. Officially, Argentina wanted to devote RT's frequency to domestic broadcasts.
RT was made available on the dominant Australian subscription television platform Foxtel
on 17 February 2015.
Reliable figures for RT's worldwide audience are not available.
In the United States, RT typically pays cable and satellite services to carry its channel in subscriber packages.
In 2011, RT was the second most-watched foreign news channel in the United States (after BBC World News
and the number one foreign network in five major U.S. urban areas in 2012.
It also rated well among younger Americans under 35 and in inner city
In the UK, the Broadcasters' Audience Research Board
(BARB) has included RT in the viewer data it publishes since 2012.
According to their data, approximately 2.5 million Britons watched RT during the third quarter of 2012, making it the third most-watched rolling news
channel in Britain, behind BBC News
and Sky News
(not including Sky Sports News
RT was soon overtaken by Al Jazeera English
and viewing figures dropped to about 2.1 million by the end of 2013.
For comparison, it had marginally fewer viewers than S4C
, the state-funded Welsh language
or minor channels such as Zing
According to internal documents submitted for Kremlin review, RT's viewership amounted to less than 0.1 percent of Europe's television audience, except in Britain, where 2013 viewership was estimated at approximately 120,000 persons per day.
According to the leaked documents, RT was ranked 175th out of 278 channels in Great Britain in May 2013, or fifth out of eight cable news channels.
In August 2015, RT's average weekly viewing figure had fallen to around 450,000 (0.8 percent of the total UK audience), 100,000 fewer than in June 2012 and less than half that of Al Jazeera English.
In March 2016, the monthly viewing was figure 0.04%.
Latin America is the second most significant area of influence for internet RT (rt.com). In 2013, RT ascended to the ranks of the 100 most watched websites in seven Latin American countries.
A Pew Research
survey of the most popular news videos on YouTube in 2011–12 found RT to be the top source with 8.5 percent of posts, 68 percent of which consisted of first-person video accounts of dramatic worldwide events, likely acquired by the network rather than created by it.
In 2013, RT became the first television news channel to reach 1 billion views on YouTube.
In 2014, its main (English) channel was reported have 1.4 million subscribers.
In 2015, The Daily Beast
reported that RT hugely exaggerated its global viewership and that its most-watched segments were on apolitical subjects.
Between 2013 and 2015, over 80% of RT's viewership was for videos of accidents, crime, disasters, and natural phenomena, such as the 2013 Chelyabinsk meteor
event, with less than 1% of viewership for political videos.
In late 2015, all of the 20 most-watched videos on its main channel, totaling 300 million views, were described as "disaster/novelty". Of the top 100, only a small number could be categorized as political, with only one covering Ukraine.
The most popular video of Russian president Putin shows him singing "Blueberry Hill
" at a 2010 St. Petersburg charity event.
In 2017, The Washington Post
analysed RT's popularity and concluded that "it’s not very good at its job" as "Moscow’s propaganda arm" due to its relative unpopularity.
RT has disputed both The Daily Beast
and The Washington Post
assessments, saying their analyses used outdated viewership data.
A study by Professor Robert Orttung at George Washington University
stated that RT uses human interest stories without ideological content to attract viewers to its channels. Between January and May 2015, the Russian-language channel had the most viewers, with approximately double the number of the main channel, despite only having around one-third the number of subscribers.
In 2008, Heidi Brown wrote in Forbes
that "the Kremlin is using charm, good photography and a healthy dose of sex appeal to appeal to a diverse, skeptical audience. The result is entertaining – and ineffably Russian." She added that Russia Today has managed to "get foreigners to at least consider the Russian viewpoint – however eccentric it may be..."
Matt Field in Bulletin of Atomic Scientists described RT as "applying high-quality graphics and production values to its stories", often focusing "on polarizing issues that aren’t necessarily top-of-mind for viewers" and sometimes "strikingly at odds with Russian President Vladimir Putin’s own views".
According to Tim Dowling, writing in the Guardian, "Fringe opinion takes center stage" on RT. "Reporting is routinely bolstered by testimony from experts you have never heard of, representing institutions you have never heard of."
The Alyona Show
The Alyona Show
, hosted by Alyona Minkovski
, ran from 2009 to 2012 (when Minkovski left RT to join The Huffington Post
). Daily Beast
writer Tracy Quan
described The Alyona Show
as "one of RT's most popular vehicles". The New Republic
columnist Jesse Zwick wrote that one journalist told him that Minkovski is "probably the best interviewer on cable news".
Benjamin R. Freed wrote in the avant-garde culture magazine SOMA
that "The Alyona Show does political talk with razor-sharp wit." David Weigel
called the show "an in-house attempt at a newsy cult hit" and noted that "her meatiest segments were about government spying, and the Federal Reserve, and America's undeclared wars".
Minkovski had complained about being characterized as if she was "Putin's girl in Washington" or as being "anti-American".
After Minkovski argued that Glenn Beck
was "not on the side of America. And the fact that my channel is more honest with the American people is something you should be ashamed of", Columbia Journalism Review
writer Julia Ioffe
asked: "since when does Russia Today defend the policies of any American president? Or the informational needs of the American public, for that matter?"
Adam vs. the Man
From April to August 2011, RT ran a half-hour primetime show Adam vs. the Man
hosted by former Iraq War
Marine veteran and high-profile anti-war activist Adam Kokesh
. David Weigel writes that Kokesh defended RT's "propaganda" function, saying "We're putting out the truth that no one else wants to say. I mean, if you want to put it in the worst possible abstract, it's the Russian government, which is a competing protection racket against the other governments of the world, going against the United States and calling them on their bullshit."
Reviewing the first episode of Julian Assange's show World Tomorrow
, The Independent
noted that Assange, who was under house arrest
, was "largely deferential" in asking some questions of Hezbollah leader Hassan Nasrallah, who himself was in hiding. However, he also asked tough questions such as why Nasrallah had not supported Arab revolts against Syrian leaders, when he had supported them in Tunisia, Yemen, Egypt, and other countries. The New York Times
journalist Allesandra Stanley wrote that "practically speaking, Mr. Assange is in bed with the Kremlin, but on Tuesday's show he didn't put out" and that he "behaved surprisingly like a standard network interviewer".
Douglas Lucas in Salon
wrote that the RT deal "may just be a profitable way for him to get a gigantic retweet". Glenn Greenwald
, who has been a guest on RT,
wrote that RT presenting the Julian Assange show led to "a predictable wave of snide, smug attacks from American media figures".
Marcin Maczka writes that RT's ample financing has allowed RT to attract experienced journalists and use the latest technology.
RT anchors and correspondents tend to concentrate on controversial world issues such as the financial and banking scandals, corporate impact on the global economy, and western demonstrations. It has also aired views by various conspiracy theorists, including neo-Nazis, White Supremacists, and Holocaust deniers (presented as "human rights activists").
News from Russia is of secondary importance and such reports emphasize Russian modernisation and economic achievements, as well as Russian culture and natural landscapes, while downplaying Russia's social problems or corruption.
Russian Telegraph logo
The #1917Live project had multimedia social plug-ins, such as Periscope live streaming, as well as virtual reality panoramic videos.
RT's feature programs include (with presenters parenthesised):
RT's current on-air staff includes 25 people from RT News, 25 from RT America, and 8 from RT UK.
Notable members of RT's current and former staff include:
- Martyn Andrews – entertainment, cookery and travel (formerly of Wayfarer/Moscow Out/Venice of the North)
- James Brown – Discovering Russia (formerly news presenter and host of Close-Up Russia)
Vladimir Putin with journalists
According to Jesse Zwick, RT persuades "legitimate experts and journalists" to appear as guests by allowing them to speak at length on issues ignored by larger news outlets. It frequently interviews progressive
academics, intellectuals and writers from organisations like The Nation
, Reason magazine
, Human Events
, Center for American Progress
and the Cato Institute
who are critical of United States foreign and civil liberties policies.
RT also features little-known commentators including anarchists, anti-globalists and left-wing activists.
Journalist Danny Schechter
holds that a primary reason for RT's success in the United States is that RT is "a force for diversity" which gives voice to people "who rarely get heard in current mainstream US media".
magazine noted that RT's programming, while sometimes interesting and unobjectionable, and sometimes "hard-edged", also presents "wild conspiracy theories" that can be regarded as "kooky".
In 2010, journalist and blogger Julia Ioffe
described RT as being "provocative just for the sake of being provocative" in its choice of guests and issue topics, featuring a Russian historian who predicted that the United States would soon be dissolved, showing speeches by Venezuelan President Hugo Chávez
, reporting on homelessness
in America, and interviewing the chairman of the New Black Panther Party
. She wrote that in attempting to offer "an alternate point of view, it is forced to talk to marginal, offensive, and often irrelevant figures".
A 2010 Southern Poverty Law Center
report stated that RT extensively covered the "birther
" and the "New World Order
" conspiracy theories and interviewed militia organizer Jim Stachowiak and white nationalist Jared Taylor
An Al Jazeera English
article stated that RT has a penchant "for off-beat stories and conspiracy theories".
The news channel has also been criticized for its lack of objectivity in its coverage of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Miko Peled
, the Israeli peace activist who has called the peace process "a process of apartheid & colonization" is a frequent guest on RT.
RT Editor-in-Chief Margarita Simonyan
told Nikolaus von Twickel of The Moscow Times
that RT started to grow once it became provocative and that controversy was vital to the channel. She said that RT's task was not to polish Moscow's reputation.
has stated that he has appeared on RT "probably 100 times or more".
Assessments and responses
ODNI Statement on Declassified Intelligence Community Assessment of Russian Activities and Intentions in Recent U.S. Elections
Propaganda claims and related issues
Watchdogs and NGOs
Pascal Bonnamour, the head of the European department of Reporters Without Borders
, called the newly announced network "another step of the state to control information".
For much of 2015, graduate students at Columbia School of Journalism
took part in the RT Watch project, monitoring RT's (US) output. Casey Michel, who worked on the project, wrote "RT ignores the inherent traits of journalism—checking sources, relaying facts, attempting honest reportage" and "you’ll find 'experts' lacking in expertise, conspiracy theories without backing, and, from time to time, outright fabrication for the sake of pushing a pro-Kremlin line".
The results were compiled in a Tumblr
According to Adam Johnson in The Nation
magazine, "While Russia Today toes the Kremlin’s line on foreign policy, it also provides an outlet to marginalized issues and voices stateside. RT, for example, has covered the recent prison strikes—the largest in American history—twice. So far CNN, MSNBC, NPR, and Rutenberg’s employer, The New York Times
, haven’t covered them at all. RT aggressively covered Occupy Wall Street early on while the rest of corporate US media were marginalizing from afar (for this effort, RT was nominated for an Emmy Award
In a 2005 interview with U.S. government-owned external broadcaster Voice of America, Russian-Israeli blogger Anton Nosik
said the creation of RT "smacks of Soviet-style propaganda
In 2009, Luke Harding
(then Moscow correspondent for The Guardian
) described RT's advertising campaign in the United Kingdom as an "ambitious attempt to create a new post-Soviet global propaganda empire".
RT presents itself as a liberal alternative in the United States, but in Europe appears to have become the flagship of resurgent nationalist
In Russia, Andrey Illarionov
, former advisor to Vladimir Putin, has called the channel "the best Russian propaganda machine targeted at the outside world".
Media analyst Vasily Gatov wrote in a 2014 Moscow Times
article that sharp ethical and reporting skills are not required for Russian media employees, including RT.
– Sanctions against Dmitry Kiselyov
, the head of Russia's state-controlled Rossiya Segodnya
and RT television presenter, have been in place since the 2014 invasion and annexation
of Ukraine's Crimea. The EU Council
cites Kiselyov to be a "central figure of the government propaganda supporting the deployment of Russian forces in Ukraine". Russian state-owned media outlets are not banned and continue to be available in the EU, with the exception of Latvia and Lithuania.
– At the end of June 2020, after new amendments to the Law on Electronic Media were made, seven RT channels were banned in Latvia for being under the control of Dmitry Kiselyov
who had been sanctioned by the European Union since 2014. Chairperson of the National Electronic Mass Media Council Ivars Āboliņš said they will be asking all EU state regulators to follow their example and restrict RT in their territory.
Kiselyov called the decision "an indicator of the level of stupidity and ignorance of the Latvian authorities, blinded by Russophobia".
– Linas Antanas Linkevičius
, Lithuania's Minister of Foreign Affairs, posted on Twitter on 9 March 2014 amid the Crimean crisis
, "Russia Today propaganda machine is no less destructive than military marching in Crimea".
It was banned by the Radio and Television Commission of Lithuania on 8 July 2020.
The decision of both Latvian and Lithuanian authorities was criticised by Reporters Without Borders
as "misuse of the EU sanctions policy".
– The US Department of Justice
compelled RT to file paperwork under the Foreign Agents Registration Act
in the United States in September 2017.
Previously, the United States Secretary of State John Kerry
had referred to RT as a state-sponsored "propaganda bullhorn" and he continued by saying, "Russia Today [sic
] network has deployed to promote president Putin's fantasy about what is playing out on the ground. They almost spend full-time devoted to this effort, to propagandize, and to distort what is happening or not happening in Ukraine."
RT responded that they wanted "an official response from the U.S. Department of State substantiating Mr. Kerry's claims".Richard Stengel
from the U.S. Department of State
Stengel stated in his response, "RT is a distortion machine, not a news organization", concluding that "the network and its editors should not pretend that RT is anything other than another player in Russia's global disinformation campaign against the people of Ukraine and their supporters". However, Stengel supports RT's right to broadcast in the United States.
In April 2017, during his successful run for President of France, Emmanuel Macron
's campaign team
banned both RT and the Sputnik news agency
from campaign events. A Macron spokesperson said the two outlets showed a "systematic desire to issue fake news and false information".
Macron later said during a press conference that RT and Sputnik were "agencies of influence and propaganda, lying propaganda—no more, no less".
RT editor-in-chief Margarita Simonyan characterized Macron's remarks on RT as an attack on freedom of speech.
In November 2017, Alphabet
chairman Eric Schmidt
announced that Google will be "deranking" stories from RT and Sputnik in response to allegations about election meddling by President Putin's government, provoking an accusation of censorship from both outlets.
In March 2018, John McDonnell
, the Shadow Chancellor
of the British Labour Party
, advised fellow Labour MPs to boycott RT and said he would no longer appear on the channel. He said: "We tried to be fair with them and as long as they abide by journalistic standards that are objective that's fine but it looks as if they have gone beyond that line". A party representative said: "We are keeping the issue under review".
In July 2019, the UK Foreign Office
banned both RT and Sputnik from attending the Global Conference for Media Freedom in London for "their active role in spreading disinformation". The Russian Embassy called the decision "direct politically motivated discrimination", while RT responded in a statement: "It takes a particular brand of hypocrisy to advocate for freedom of press while banning inconvenient voices and slandering alternative media
Treatment of Putin and Medvedev
A 2007 article in The Christian Science Monitor
stated that RT reported on the good job Putin was doing in the world and next to nothing on things like the conflict in Chechnya or the murder of government critics.
According to a 2010 report by The Independent
, RT journalists have said that coverage of sensitive issues in Russia is allowed, but direct criticism of Vladimir Putin or President Dmitry Medvedev
Masha Karp wrote in Standpoint
magazine that contemporary Russian issues "such as the suppression of free speech and peaceful demonstrations, or the economic inefficiency and corrupt judiciary, are either ignored or their significance played down".
In 2008, Stephen Heyman wrote in The New York Times
that in RT's Russia, "corruption is not quite a scourge but a symptom of a developing economy".
Speaking after the launch of RT America, Garry Kasparov
said "Russia Today is an extension of the methods and approach of the state-controlled media inside Russia, applied in a bid to influence the American cable audience".
Anti-Americanism and anti-Westernism
The New Republic
writer James Kirchick
accused the network of "often virulent anti-Americanism
, worshipful portrayal of Russian leaders".Edward Lucas
wrote in The Economist
(quoted in Al Jazeera English
) that the core of RT was "anti-Westernism".
Julia Ioffe wrote: "Often, it seemed that Russia Today was just a way to stick it to the U.S. from behind the façade of legitimate newsgathering."
Shaun Walker wrote in The Independent
that RT "has made a name for itself as a strident critic of US policy".
Allesandra Stanley wrote in The New York Times
that RT is "like the Voice of America, only with more money and a zesty anti-American slant". David Weigel
writes that RT goes further than merely creating distrust of the United States government, to saying, in effect: "You can trust the Russians more than you can trust those bastards."
Russian studies professor Stephen F. Cohen
stated in 2012 that RT does a lot of stories that "reflect badly" on the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, and much of Western Europe and that they are "particularly aggrieved by American sermonizing abroad". Citing that RT compares stories about Russia allowing mass protests of the 2011–2012 Russian election protests
with those of U.S. authorities nationwide arresting members of the Occupy movement
. Cohen states that despite the pro-Kremlin slant, "any intelligent viewer can sort this out. I doubt that many idiots find their way to RT".
According to Lithuania's STRATCOM Colonel, "RT rarely takes a single, anti-Western media line on any given story. That would be too obvious. Instead, RT journalists present gaggles of competing and contradicting narratives which together create the impression that the truth is indecipherable".
, co-director of Foreign Policy in Focus
says he appears on RT as well as the U.S.-funded Voice of America and Radio Free Asia
, commented "I’ve been given the opportunity to talk about military expenditures in a way I haven’t been given in U.S. outlets". On the fairness issue, he said: "You're going to find blind spots in the coverage for any news organization".
RT America has described journalists as "Russiagate conspiracy theorists" for covering Special Counsel Robert Mueller's report on Russian interference in the 2016 election.
Airing conspiracy theories
A 2013 article in Der Spiegel
said that RT "uses a chaotic mixture of conspiracy theories and crude propaganda", pointing to a program that "mutated" the Boston Marathon bombing
into a U.S. government conspiracy.
The launch of RT UK was the subject of much comment in the British press. In The Observer
, Nick Cohen
accused the channel of spreading conspiracy theories and being a "prostitution of journalism" and in The Times
, Oliver Kamm
called on broadcast regulator Ofcom
to act against this "den of deceivers".
Russia Today has broadcast stories about microchips being implanted into office workers in EU to make them more "submissive"; about "majority" of Europeans supporting Russian annexation of Crimea
; EU preparing "a form of genocide" against Russians; in Germany it falsely reported about a kidnapping of a Russian girl
; that "NATO planned to store nuclear weapons in Eastern Europe"; that Hillary Clinton fell ill; it has also on many occasions misrepresented or invented statements from European leaders.
A report by RAND
called the RT strategy "a firehose of falsehood
", where fake stories are distributed in "high-volume and multichanneel, rapid, continuous, and repetitive" with no regard to consistency, where the high volume makes them difficult to counter.
In response to accusations of spreading fake news RT started its own FakeCheck project. The Poynter Institute
conducted a content analysis of FakeCheck and concluded it "mixes some legitimate debunks with other scantily sourced or dubiously framed 'fact checks.'"
Israeli–Palestinian conflict Other responses to RT's news coverage
During the 2008 South Ossetia War
, RT correspondent William Dunbar resigned after the network refused to let him report on Russian airstrikes of civilian targets, stating, "any issue where there is a Kremlin line, RT is sure to toe it".
According to Variety
, sources at RT confirmed that Dunbar had resigned, saying that it was not over bias. One senior RT journalist told the magazine, "the Russian coverage I have seen has been much better than much of the Western coverage... Russian news coverage is largely pro-Russia, but that is to be expected."
Shaun Walker, the Moscow correspondent for The Independent
, said that RT had "instructed reporters not to report from Georgian villages within South Ossetia
that had been ethnically cleansed
Julia Ioffe wrote that an RT journalist whose reporting deviated from "the Kremlin line that Georgians were slaughtering unarmed Ossetians" was reprimanded.Human Rights Watch
said that RT's claim of 2,000 South Ossetian casualties was exaggerated.
In 2012, Jesse Zwick of The New Republic
criticized RT, stating it held that "civilian casualties in Syria are minimal, foreign intervention would be disastrous, and any humanitarian appeals from Western nations are a thin veil for a NATO-backed move to isolate Iran, China, and Russia". He wrote that RT wants to "make the United States look out of line for lecturing Russia".
Zwick also wrote that RT provided a "disproportionate amount of time" to covering libertarian
Republican Ron Paul
during his 2012 presidential campaign
. Writing after her 2014 on-air resignation, Liz Wahl
suggested the reason for this "wasn't his message of freedom and liberty but his non-interventionist stance and consistent criticism of U.S. foreign policy. His message fit RT's narrative that the United States is a huge bully."
In a June 2011 broadcast of Adam vs. the Man
, host Adam Kokesh
endorsed fundraising for Paul, leading to a complaint to the Federal Election Commission
charging a political contribution had been made by a foreign corporation. Kokesh said his cancellation in August was related to Paul's aide Jesse Benton
rather than the complaint.
In September 2012, UK broadcast regulator Ofcom
found that two Libyan dispatches broadcast by RT's Lizzie Phelan
in a year earlier were in breach of its code on accuracy and impartiality. The following November, RT was again found in breach of impartiality rules in relation to its coverage of the Syrian conflict.
An August 2013 story concerning unverified reports of the killing of 450 Kurdish
civilians near the Turkey-Syria border was also found to have breached Ofcom's rules.
That December, Ofcom found RT in breach of its standards in relation to the impartiality of a documentary entitled "Syrian Diary" broadcast the previous March.
Speaking in 2014 former RT reporter Sara Firth said that there had previously been examples of senior editorial interference, and that she had been pulled out of Syria after some "very heated discussions" about the channel's coverage.
On 4 March 2014, Breaking The Set
host Abby Martin
, speaking directly to her viewing audience during the show's closing statement, said that even though she works for RT, she is against Russia's intervention in Ukraine. She said that "what Russia did is wrong", as she is against intervention by any nation into other countries' affairs.
Later, Martin asserted that RT still supports her despite her differences of opinion with the Russian government.
RTs press office suggested that Martin would be sent to Crimea
and responded to accusations of propaganda, stating "the charges of propaganda tend to pop up every time a news outlet, particularly RT, dares to show the side of events that does not fit the mainstream narrative, regardless of the realities on the ground. This happened in Georgia
, this is happening in Ukraine
Glenn Greenwald said that American media elites love to mock Russian media, especially RT, as being a source of shameless pro-Putin propaganda, where free expression is strictly barred. Agreeing the "network has a strong pro-Russian bias", he suggested that Martin's action "remarkably demonstrated what 'journalistic independence' means".
On 5 March 2014, RT Washington, D.C. bureau anchor Liz Wahl resigned on air, blaming RT for propaganda. Wahl stated that what "broke" her was that RT censored a question from her interview with Ron Paul about "Russia's intervention
in Ukraine". In response, RT released a statement: "When a journalist disagrees with the editorial position of his or her organization, the usual course of action is to address those grievances with the editor, and, if they cannot be resolved, to quit like a professional. But when someone makes a big public show of a personal decision, it is nothing more than a self-promotional stunt. We wish Liz the best of luck on her chosen path".
In a March 2014 Politico
article, Wahl stated: "For about two and a half years. I’d looked the other way as the network smeared America for the sake of making the Kremlin look better by comparison, while it sugarcoated atrocities by one brutal dictator after another."
RT America broadcast with former anchor Liz Wahl
They get these extreme voices on that have this kind of hostile toward the West viewpoints towards the world, very extremist. These are the people that they have on. And when I was on the anchor desk, they would instruct you to egg on these guests and try to get them, you know, rallied up, to really fire off their anti-American talking points. Listen, I'm all about exposing government corruption. I'm all about being critical of the government. But this is different. This is promoting the foreign policy of somebody that has just invaded a country, has invaded the country and is then lying about it, is using the media as a tool to fulfill his foreign policy interests. And RT is part of Putin's propaganda network and it's very, very troubling in the wake of what is going on in Ukraine today.
The New York Times op-ed
columnist Nicholas Kristof
commented on CNN's Piers Morgan Live
about Wahl's and Martin's initial actions, "admire their outspokenness but, you know, at the end of the day, RT is a Russian propaganda arm, and I don't think it's going to matter very much to the geopolitical consequences here".
Former RT Moscow anchor Stacy Bivens, and other former RT journalists speaking under anonymity according to BuzzFeed
, said they regretted working for the network, citing their dislike of the network's use of propaganda. Bivens, for example, was explicitly asked to go to Germany and procure a story proving that "Germany is a failed state
". When she rejected, other reporters were sent instead.
Steve Bloomfield, the foreign editor of Monocle
wrote that RT's "coverage of Ukraine could not have been kinder to Moscow if Vladimir Putin had chosen the running order himself. While Putin kept up the pretence that there were no Russian troops in Crimea, so too did RT. The storming of government buildings across eastern Ukraine has been portrayed as the understandable actions of peace-loving protesters who fear "chaos" in Kiev".
After the July 2014 crash of Malaysia Airlines Flight 17
, RT rushed to blame others for the plane's shoot-down in Ukraine amid accusations by Ukrainian fighters of Russian involvement in the crash.
Speaking of RT's coverage, Sarah Oates, professor of journalism at the University of Maryland
said: "But if you’re going to engage in propaganda, you have to do it well. They have completely embarrassed themselves."
Sara Firth, a London-based correspondent with RT resigned in protest over the network's coverage of the MH17 disaster. Shortly before resigning, she tweeted
, "RT style guide Rule 1: It is ALWAYS * Ukraine's fault (* add name as applicable)". She told the Guardian: "I walked into the newsroom and there was an eyewitness account making allegations [against Ukraine] and analysis, if you can call it, from our correspondent in the studio. It was just appalling, in a situation like that where there are families waiting to be informed and a devastating loss of life." She also noted that "There is bias against Russia but you don’t counter wrong by doing even more wrong" and stated "I have always said it's better to have RT than to not have that perspective, but actually with a story like this and the way they misreport it, it's quite dangerous, I don’t want to be party to it."
In follow-up interview she said: "In Ukraine, you’re taking a very small part of a much wider story, totally omitted the context of the story, and so what you wind up with on air is outright misinformation." Calling RT "mass information manipulation" Firth said: "they have a very clear idea in their mind of what they’re trying to prove". She also stated that "The worst-kept secret is that RT is blatant propaganda. I’m one in a very long line of people who have left for the same reason."
The following November, RT was again found in breach of Ofcom's impartiality rules. This time in relation to its coverage of the Ukraine crisis, specifically events leading up to the annexation by Russia of Crimea.
For repeated breaches of its due impartially
rules, Ofcom put RT management "on notice that any future breaches of the due impartiality rules may result in further regulatory action, including consideration of a statutory sanction
In January 2015, Ofcom found RT (and the BBC) not in breach of rules on generally accepted standards following a complaint about the use of graphic imagery of bodies at the MH17 crash site.
President Putin with Margarita Simonyan in front of RT's "Question more" slogan (2015)
Following the March 2015 European Council
summit which concluded that action was needed to "challenge Russia's ongoing disinformation campaigns", the European External Action Service
was tasked to respond. European Parliament
briefing notes on the situation called RT "Russia's main international media weapon".
The counter-propaganda strategy subsequently developed by the EastStratCom Task Force, a small group of eight officials, included launching the EU vs Disinformation
website with a headline of "don't be deceived, question even more".
In September 2015, Ofcom found RT in breach of the impartiality rules in its coverage of the events in Ukraine and Syria
. It also upheld the complaint by the BBC
that allegations made in an episode of The Truthseeker
that a BBC Panorama
film, Saving Syria's Children
, had faked a parts of a report on a chemical weapon attack in Syria were "materially misleading".
In an episode of The Truthseeker
, named Genocide of Eastern Ukraine
, they stated that the Ukrainian government was deliberately bombing civilians, had murdered and tortured journalists, as well as crucifying babies
. Ukrainian army forces were accused of "ethnic cleansing" and were compared to the Nazis in World War Two. The only response to the allegations in the broadcast was in the form of a caption saying "Kiev claims it is not committing genocide, denies casualty reports", which appeared on screen for six seconds. According to Ofcom the broadcast had "little or no counterbalance or objectivity".
A spokesperson for the media regulator said: "Ofcom found that RT broadcast content that was either materially misleading or not duly impartial. These are significant failings and we are therefore requiring RT to broadcast two clear statements on our decision which correct these failures."
A report released by the US think-tank the RAND Corporation
in 2016 called RT part of "a wider Russian propaganda operation" named the "Firehose of Falsehood". The paper called "Russian faux-news propaganda channels, such as RT" insidious and that "they look like news programs, and the persons appearing on them are represented as journalists and experts, making audience members much more likely to ascribe credibility to the misinformation these sources are disseminating".
In July 2016, Ofcom again found RT in breach of its impartiality rules, this time over coverage of the Turkish government's treatment of Kurdish people
. Two episodes of Going Underground
originally broadcast in March, included claims of attacks, atrocities and genocide
against the Kurds, and that "Turkey supports ISIS" without offering adequate counterbalance. RT's representatives stated the network "finds it especially difficult to obtain pro-Turkey views for its programming" because of "political tensions between Russia and Turkey following the downing of a Russian military aircraft by Turkish warplanes in November 2015".
In November 2016, after the US Presidential Election
, The Washington Post
reported that RT and Sputnik
were "state-funded Russian information services that mimic the style and tone of independent news organizations yet sometimes include false and misleading stories in their reports" and also that "RT, Sputnik and other Russian sites used social-media accounts to amplify misleading stories already circulating online".
The Post was criticized by The Intercept
, and Rolling Stone
for relying in part on an analysis by PropOrNot
, an anonymous organization with no reputation for fact-checking.
In December 2016, Ofcom found RT in breach of its impartiality rules for the 10th time since the English-language channel launched. A Crosstalk
episode broadcast the previous July, contained a debate
about the NATO 2016 Warsaw summit
in which all members of the panel expressed critical views. RT's representatives again stated that they couldn't find anybody with alternative opinions willing to take part, and that captions with pro-NATO comments should have been added before broadcast, but the wrong text was accidentally used.
On 12 January 2017, RT was accidentally broadcast for around 10 minutes on a web stream of U.S. public affairs service C-SPAN
. RT stated that while it was testing its systems in preparation for the inauguration of Donald Trump
, its signal was "mistakenly routed onto the primary encoder feeding C-SPAN1's signal to the internet, rather than to an unused backup".
On 19 January 2017, RT stated that it had been temporarily restricted from posting media on its Facebook page until 21 January, after the service said that RT had infringed on the copyrights of Radio Liberty
's Current Now TV when broadcasting a live stream of Barack Obama
's final press conference as president of the United States. Current Time TV said that it had not sent any specific complaints to Facebook, and both RT and Current Now TV stated that they had obtained their feed from the Associated Press
. The restriction was removed after about 20 hours, and Facebook did not say officially if this was because of a technical error or a policy issue.
On 13 November 2017, RT America officially registered as a "foreign agent" in the United States with the Department of Justice
under the Foreign Agents Registration Act
. Under the act, RT will be required to disclose financial information.
This move was criticized by the committee to Protect Journalists: "We're uncomfortable with governments deciding what constitutes journalism or propaganda"
In December 2018, the British media regulator Ofcom
ruled that seven programmes broadcast by RT between 17 March and 26 April of that year, in the wake of the Salisbury nerve agent attacks
, had breached the UK's impartiality rules; the BBC reported that RT was "extremely disappointed by Ofcom's conclusions".
RT was fined £200,000 but kept its licence to broadcast in the UK.
RT described Ofcom's actions against it as "inappropriate and disproportionate per Ofcom’s own track record".
German journalist Daniel Lange employed by RT Deutsch left the station in protest against its operation to spy on Alexey Navalny
while he was undergoing treatment in a hospital in Germany after being poisoned by FSB
. According to Lange, the assignment had nothing to do with journalism as he was instructed in the first place to test the security of the hospital, describe number of internal checkpoints and his RT leadership clearly indicated collected information will not be used for publication. Lange also described reporting bias in the RT where he was instructed by the editor to specifically select footage showing "all the dirt in the Germany".
Martyn Andrews reporting from Siberia in 2007
- September 2006 – The 10th "Golden Tambourine" International Festival for Television programmes and films awarded RT's documentary People of the Bering Strait in the Ethnography and Travel category
- June 2007 – The 11th "Save and Preserve" International Environmental Television Festival awarded its Grand Prix to RT's Meeting with Nature series.
- September 2007 – Eurasian Academy of Television and Radio awarded RT with the Prize for Professional Skilfulness
- November 2007 – RT's report on the anniversary of the Chernobyl catastrophe received a special prize from the international 2007 AIB Media Excellence Awards
- April 2008 – RT's daily studio show Entertainment Today hosted by Martyn Andrews and Anya Fedorova receives a special diploma from the board of the Russian Entertainment Awards
- September 2008 – Russia's TEFI to Kevin Owen in Best News Anchor category
- November 2008 – Special Jury Award in the Best Creative Feature category for a Russian Glamour feature story at Media Excellence Awards in London
- January 2009 – Silver World Medal from the New York Festivals, for Best News Documentary "A city of desolate mothers"
- August 2010 – First nomination for an International Emmy Award in News category for its coverage of president Barack Obama's trip to Russia.
- August 2012 – Second nomination for an International Emmy Award for its coverage of the international Occupy Wall Street movement.
- August 2014 – Third nomination for an International Emmy Award for its coverage of the Guantanamo Bay hunger strikes.
- August 2016 – Fourth nomination for an International Emmy Award for its coverage of the 70th anniversary session of the United Nations General Assembly.
Stephen Heyman estimated that more than $100 million had been spent on the station as of May 2008.
- ^ a b :4:2
- ^ a b :2
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- ^ a b "Russia Uses State Television to Sway Opinion at Home and Abroad". Der Spiegel. 30 May 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2021.
- ^ a b "В Минске задержаны двое стрингеров видеоагентства Ruptly" [Two stringers of video agency Ruptly detained in Minsk]. Interfax (in Russian). 9 August 2020. Retrieved 22 March 2021. Двух стрингеров видеоагентства Ruptly задержали в Минске, сообщил владелец сервиса, телеканал RT. [Two stringers of the Ruptly video agency were detained in Minsk, the owner of the service, RT TV channel, said.]
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- ^ a b c Moore, Matthew (10 February 2018). "Company behind Grenfell YouTube film has links to Kremlin". The Times. Retrieved 25 January 2021.
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- ^ a b c File:ANO TV-Novosti (Federal Tax Service of Russia, Unified State Register of Legal Entities).pdf
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- ^ a b Golovchenko, Yevgeniy; Hartmann, Mareike; Adler-Nissen, Rebecca (1 September 2018). "State, media and civil society in the information warfare over Ukraine: citizen curators of digital disinformation". International Affairs. Oxford University Press. 94 (5): 975–994. doi:10.1093/ia/iiy148. ISSN 0020-5850. Retrieved 20 March 2021. Particularly in the wake of the crisis in Ukraine that erupted in 2013–2014, the Kremlin has been accused of orchestrating disinformation campaigns against the Ukrainian government and western countries by using online trolls and state-controlled online outlets such as RT (formerly known as Russia Today), Sputnik and Life News.
- ^ a b Hellman, Maria; Wagnsson, Charlotte (3 April 2017). "How can European states respond to Russian information warfare? An analytical framework" (PDF). European Security. Taylor & Francis. 26 (2): 153–170. doi:10.1080/09662839.2017.1294162. Retrieved 20 March 2021 – via Charles University.
- ^ a b Al-Rawi, Ahmed (12 February 2021). "How did Russian and Iranian trolls' disinformation toward Canadian issues diverge and converge?". Digital War. Palgrave Macmillan. doi:10.1057/s42984-020-00029-4. ISSN 2662-1983. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Springer.
- ^ a b Fisher, Max (13 June 2013). "In case you weren't clear on Russia Today's relationship to Moscow, Putin clears it up". The Washington Post. Retrieved 31 July 2016.
- ^ a b Nimmo, Ben. "Question That: RT's Military Mission". Atlantic Council-Digital Forensic Research Lab. medium.com. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
- ^ Valery Kodachigov. Вести с эфирного фронта [News from the air front] (in Russian). Com News.ru.
- ^ "Archive of the official site of the 2008–2012 Prime Minister of the Russian Federation Vladimir Putin". Government of Russia.
- ^ Перечень системообразующих организаций, утвержденный Правительственной комиссией по повышению устойчивости развития российской экономики [List of systemically important institutions approved by the Government Commission on Sustainable Development of the Russian Economy] (in Russian). government.ru. Archived from the original (DOC) on 27 December 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2015.
- ^ Правительство РФ приняло перечень системообразующих организаций [The Russian government has adopted a list of backbone organizations]. RBK Group (in Russian). Archived from the original on 26 August 2011. Retrieved 24 October 2014.
- ^ a b c d e f von Twickel, Nikolaus (23 March 2010). "Russia Today courts viewers with controversy". Russia Beyond. Rossiyskaya Gazeta. Retrieved 12 December 2020.
- ^ Langdon, Kate C.; Tismaneanu, Vladimir (9 July 2019). "Russian Foreign Policy: Freedom for Whom, to Do What?". Putin's Totalitarian Democracy: Ideology, Myth, and Violence in the Twenty-First Century. Springer International. pp. 189–224. ISBN 978-3-030-20579-9. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Google Books. Soviet-born British journalist Peter Pomerantsev documented the typical newsroom antics in one of Russia's largest propaganda outlets, RT News (formerly known as Russia Today). When his acquaintance composed a piece that referenced the Soviet Union’s occupation of Estonia in 1945, the writer was chewed out by his boss, who maintained the belief that Russians saved Estonia. Any other descriptions of the events of 1945 were unacceptable assaults on Russia's integrity, apparently, so the boss demanded that he amend his text.
- ^ Reire, Gunda (2015). "Euro-Atlantic values and Russia's propaganda in the Euro-Atlantic space" (PDF). Rocznik Instytutu Europy Środkowo-Wschodniej. 13 (4). Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Center for International Studies. Nowadays, Russia attacks the Western value of rationality and uses the argument of "the second opinion" or plurality of opinions. The phrase "the second opinion" has even become the slogan of RT. For instance, this propaganda channel used the public opinion's contention as to the nature of the Iraq war, to sell itself as an impartial, objective media outlet in the USA. Overall, Russian propaganda involves a clash of political systems, which is more dangerous than the old-school Soviet propaganda.
- ^ Benkler, Yochai; Faris, Rob; Roberts, Hal (October 2018). "Epistemic Crisis". Network Propaganda: Manipulation, Disinformation and Radicalization in American Politics. Oxford University Press. p. 358. doi:10.1093/oso/9780190923624.001.0001. ISBN 978-0-19-092362-4. OCLC 1045162158. Retrieved 21 March 2021. The emphasis on disorientation appears in the literature on modern Russian propaganda, both in inward-focused applications and in its international propaganda outlets, Sputnik and RT (formerly, Russia Today). Here, the purpose is not to convince the audience of any particular truth but instead to make it impossible for people in the society subject to the propagandist’s intervention to tell truth from non-truth.
- ^ Oates, Sarah; Steiner, Sean (17 December 2018). "Projecting Power: Understanding Russian Strategic Narrative". Russia's Public Foreign Policy Narratives (PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. 229. 17. University of Bremen: Research Centre for East European Studies. pp. 2–5. doi:10.3929/ethz-b-000311091. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via ETH Zurich. The analysis of Russian strategic narrative allows us to understand more clearly the logic in Russian propaganda found on English-language outlets such as RT and more effectively deter Russian information aggression.
- ^ a b c d e Orttung, Robert; Nelson, Elizabeth; Livshen, Anthony (8 December 2015). "Measuring RT's impact on YouTube". Information Warfare(PDF). Russian Analytical Digest. 177. University of Bremen: Research Centre for East European Studies. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via ETH Zurich.
- ^ Ajir, Media; Vailliant, Bethany (Fall 2018). "Russian Information Warfare: Implications for Deterrence Theory". Strategic Studies Quarterly. 12 (3): 70–89. ISSN 1936-1815. JSTOR 26481910. Retrieved 21 March 2021. The real-world repercussions of these objectives are identified through several forms of attack. The first is through disseminating official Russian state propaganda abroad via foreign language news channels as well as Western media. Most notable is the creation of the very successful government-financed international TV news channel, Russia Today (RT).
- ^ Bicknell, Bob (11 December 2005). "Russian News, English Accent". CBS News. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- ^ a b c d e f Julia Ioffe (September–October 2010). "What Is Russia Today?". Columbia Journalism Review.
- ^ a b c Benjamin Bidder (13 August 2013). "Putin's Weapon in the War of Images". Der Spiegel. Retrieved 14 August 2013.
- ^ a b c Luke Harding (18 December 2009). "Russia Today launches first UK ad blitz". The Guardian. London.
- ^ a b Kramer, Andrew E (22 August 2010). "Russian Cable Station Plays to U.S." The New York Times.
- ^ "Ukraine hits back at Russian TV onslaught". BBC. 2014.
- ^ a b MacFarquhar, Neil (28 August 2016). "A Powerful Russian Weapon: The Spread of False Stories". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 August 2016.
- ^ Golovchenko, Yevgeniy (11 December 2020). "Measuring the scope of pro-Kremlin disinformation on Twitter". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. Springer Nature. 7 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00659-9. ISSN 2662-9992. Retrieved 20 March 2021. The impact of Russian state-controlled news outlets—which are frequent sources of pro-Kremlin disinformation—is concentrated in one, highly popular news outlet, RT. [...] When it comes to overt reach, the Russian government openly funds English-speaking outlets, such as Sputnik News and RT. These outlets serve as a frequent source of pro-Kremlin disinformation both according to scholars, fact-checkers and Western authorities (BBC, 2019; Elliot, 2019; Thornton, 2015).
- ^ a b Nassetta, Jack; Gross, Kimberly (30 October 2020). "State media warning labels can counteract the effects of foreign misinformation". Harvard Kennedy School Misinformation Review. Harvard University: Harvard Kennedy School. doi:10.37016/mr-2020-45. Retrieved 21 March 2021. Most often channels like Russia's RT and Iran's PressTV do not technically violate a platform's terms of service and so cannot be removed. However, they still play a vital role in the disinformation ecosystem. Not only do they put out disinformation through their websites and social media channels, they are key nodes in coordinated campaigns, as well. For instance, the content originally posted on RT will be reposted down a chain of websites until it appears to be an organic article on an American outlet (Nimmo, 2017).
- ^ Walker, Christopher (2016). "The Hijacking of "Soft Power"" (PDF). Journal of Democracy. Johns Hopkins University Press. 27 (1): 49–63. doi:10.1353/jod.2016.0007. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via National Endowment for Democracy. State or state-friendly media in Russia—Life News, NTV, Channel One Russia, and Russia 24—disseminate not just the Kremlin's narratives but also outright fakery to domestic audiences and those in the Russian-speaking space. These outlets spread the same stories via social media as well. RT, meanwhile, pushes this manipulated content out to international audiences.
- ^ LoGiurato, Brett (30 April 2014). "Russia's Propaganda Channel Just Got A Journalism Lesson From The US State Department". Business Insider. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- ^ Crowley, Michael (1 May 2014). "Tit-for-Tat: Putin's Maddening Propaganda Trick". Time. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- ^ a b c Plunkett, John (18 July 2014). "Russia Today reporter resigns in protest at MH17 coverage". The Guardian. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
- ^ a b Brian Stelter (24 March 2014). "Putin TV in Chaos". CNN.
- ^ :4:11
- ^ Yablokov, Ilya (November 2015). "Conspiracy Theories as a Russian Public Diplomacy Tool: The Case of Russia Today (RT)" (PDF). Politics. SAGE. 35 (3–4): 301–315. doi:10.1111/1467-9256.12097. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via University of Montenegro. Among the conspiratorial ideas that feature in RT's broadcasts, two types are of particular interest: the first includes genuinely American conspiracy theories; and the second includes ideas of conspiracy in relations between the US and Russia. The analysis of these two types of conspiracy theories offers an opportunity to explore how they are employed to undermine US domestic and foreign policies.
- ^ Elswah, Mona; Howard, Philip N (1 October 2020). ""Anything that Causes Chaos": The Organizational Behavior of Russia Today (RT)". Journal of Communication. Oxford University Press. 70 (5): 623–645. doi:10.1093/joc/jqaa027. Retrieved 21 March 2021. Across our interviews, our respondents agreed that the goals of the channel since 2008 have been and still are as follows. First, to push the idea that Western countries have as many problems as Russia. Second, to encourage conspiracy theories about media institutions in the West in order to discredit and delegitimize them. This is clearly adherent to the channel's "Questions More" slogan. Third, to create controversy and to make people criticize the channel, because it suggests that the channel is important, an approach that would particularly help RT managers get more funding from the government.
- ^ Byford, Jovan (2011). "Introduction". Conspiracy Theories: A Critical Introduction. Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 9–10. doi:10.1057/9780230349216. Retrieved 21 March 2021 – via Google Books. The channel has provided the likes of Alex Jones, Webster Tarpley, David Ray Griffin and Jim Marrs with the opportunity to promote, to an international audience, their ideas about the New World Order, 9/11, the Bilderberg group or the climate change conspiracy, all while being treated with absolute deference by the channel's journalists. Embedded video clips of appearances on Russia Today have become a regular feature on the websites of American conspiracy theorists, where they are brandished as a sign of credibility and mainstream recognition.
- ^ a b Dukalskis, Alexander (2021). Making the World Safe for Dictatorship. Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-752014-7.
- ^ Gray, Rosie (13 March 2014). "How The Truth Is Made At Russia Today". BuzzFeed News. Retrieved 11 March 2021.
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- ^ William Turvill (15 November 2012). "Ofcom rules against Russia Today over Syria conflict report". Press Gazette. Progressive Media International. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
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- ^ a b John Plunkett (10 November 2014). "Russia Today threatened with Ofcom sanctions due to bias". The Guardian. Retrieved 23 January 2016.
- ^ Alevtina Kuzmenkova (18 October 2016). "British Bank Closes Russian Broadcaster RT Accounts". Transitions Online. Archived from the original on 20 October 2016. OFCOM, the British broadcast regulator, has repeatedly singled out RT for its lack of impartiality
- ^ Waterson, Jim (16 July 2018). "Alex Salmond's RT show breached Ofcom broadcasting rules". The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2021.
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Last edited on 6 May 2021, at 02:27
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