The Salafi movement
, also called the Salafist movement
, is a modernization of traditional pure Sunni Islam
movement within Sunni Islam
The name derives from advocating a return to the traditions of the "ancestors" (salaf
), the first three generations of Muslims said to know the unadulterated, pure form of Islam. Those generations include the Islamic prophetMuhammad
and his companions (the Sahabah
), their successors (the Tabi‘un
) and the successors of the successors (the Taba Tabi‘in
). Practically, Salafis maintain that Muslims ought to rely on the Quran
, the Sunnah
and the consensus of the salafs
, giving them precedence over the later Islamic hermeneutic teachings.
The movement developed across various regions of the Islamic World in the late 19th century as a response to Western European imperialism
It was also influenced by the various Islamic 18th-century reform movements such as the Wahhabi movement
in the Arabian Peninsula 
reform movements spearheaded by Shah Waliullah Dehlawi
, Shah Ismail Dehlawi
and Sayyid Ahmad Shaheed
as well as the Yemeni islah
movement led by Al-San'aani and Al-Shawkani
The Salafist doctrine is based on looking back to the early years of the religion to understand how the contemporary Muslims should practise their faith.
They reject religious innovation or bid'ah
and support the implementation of sharia
The movement is sometimes divided into three categories: the largest group being the purists (or quietists
), who avoid politics; the second largest group being the activists
, who maintain regular involvement in politics; and the third group being the jihadists
, who form a minority and advocate armed struggle to restore the early Islamic movement.
In legal matters, the Salafi are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad
), reject strict adherence (taqlid
) to the four Sunni schools of law (madhahib
) and others who remain faithful to these, especially to Hanbali
Madhab, the parent school of Salafi
By the 21st century
, Salafi teachings and ideas have become so mainstream that many modern Muslims, even those who do not self-identify as Salafi, have adopted various aspects of Salafism.
At times, Salafism has been deemed a hybrid of Wahhabism
and other post-1960s movements.
Academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" across the Islamic World and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization".
Starting from the French scholar Louis Massignon
, Western scholarship for much of the 20th-century considered the Islamic Modernist
movement of 19th-century figures Muhammad Abduh
and Jamal al-Din al-Afghani
(who were Ash'ari
rationalists) to be part of the wider Salafiyya
However, contemporary Salafis follow a Scripturalist approach with a "heavy reliance on hadith", looking upto Ibn Taymiyyah
and his disciples like Ibn Kathir
, Ibn Qayyim
, etc whom they regard as important classical scholarly authorities.
Major figures in the movement include Muhammad Rasheed Rida
, Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
, Rabee al-Madkhali
, Abdul Azeez Ibn Baaz
, Muqbil bin Hadi al-Wadi'i
, Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
and Saleh Al-Fawzan
Salafis consider the hadith
that quotes Muhammad saying, "The best of my community are my generation, the ones who follow them and the ones who follow them."
as a call to Muslims to follow the example of those first three generations, known collectively as the salaf,
or "pious Predecessors" (السلف الصالح
). The salaf are believed to include Muhammad himself,
the "Companions" (Sahabah
), the "Followers" (Tabi‘un
), and the "Followers of the Followers" (Tabi‘ al-Tabi‘in
According to Bernard Haykel
, "temporal proximity to the Prophet Muhammad is associated with the truest form of Islam" among many Sunni Muslims.
Salafis are first and foremost religious and social reformers who are engaged in creating and reproducing particular forms of authority and identity, both personal and communal. They define [their] reformist project first and foremost through creedal tenets (i.e., a theology). Also important in its Manhaj
(Ar:منهج i.e. Methodology) are certain legal teachings as well as forms of sociability and politics.
The Salafi da'wa
is a methodology, but it is not a madh'hab
(jurisprudence) as is commonly misunderstood. Salafis may be influenced by the Maliki
or the Hanafi
schools of Sunni fiqh. But for practical reasons, Salafis carry all the attributes of Hanbali
Salafis place great emphasis on practicing actions in accordance with the known sunnah,
not only in prayer but in every activity in daily life. For instance, many are careful always to use three fingers when eating, to drink water in three pauses, and to hold it with the right hand while sitting.
Views on Taqlid
(adherence to legal precedent)
In legal matters, Salafis are divided between those who, in the name of independent legal judgement (ijtihad
), reject strict adherence (taqlid
) to the four schools of law (madhahib
) and others who remain faithful to these.
Salafi scholars from Saudi Arabia are generally bound by Hanbali fiqh
and advocate following an Imam
rather than having individuals try to interpret and understand scripture alone.
Other Salafi scholars, however, believe that taqlid
is unlawful. From their perspective, Muslims who follow a madhab
without searching personally for direct evidence may be led astray.
The latter group of preachers include Nasir al-Din al-Albani.
At the far end of the spectrum of belief, some Salafis hold that adhering to taqlid
is an act of polytheism.
notes that due to the peculiarity of its methodology, Salafis enjoy a relatively less rigid scholarly hierarchy of authorities.(ulema
) Most Salafis unlike other traditional and pre-modern Muslims do not subscribe to a hierarchy that rigorously "constrains and regulates... the output of opinions". As an interpretive community, Salafi tradition, "in contrast to other Muslim traditions of learning", is "relatively open, even democratic".
Differences from Classical Sunnism
Modern-day proponents of the Athari
school of theology largely come from the Salafi
) movement; they uphold the athari
works of Ibn Taymiyyah
Ibn Taimiyya himself, a disputed and partly rejected scholar during his lifetime, became a major scholar among followers of the Salafi movement credited with the title Shaikh al-Islam
. Other important scholars include scholars important in Islamic history, such as Ahmad ibn Hanbal. But non-Salafi Sunnis accuse Salafis of altering his actual teachings.
Followers of the Salafi movement regard the primary sources Quran and Sunnah as self-explanatory, disregarding the use of interpretation and human reasoning. Salafis favor practical implementation as opposed to disputes with regards to meanings, meaning may be considered either clear or something beyond human understanding.
They believe that to engage in speculative theology (kalam
), even if one arrives at the truth, is absolutely forbidden.
Atharis engage in an amodal reading of the Qur'an, as opposed to one engaged in Ta'wil
(metaphorical interpretation). They do not attempt to conceptualize the meanings of the Qur'an rationally, and believe that the meaning should be consigned to God alone (tafwid
Following the Salafi hermeneutic approach, Salafis differ from that of non-Salafis in some regards of permissibility.
Many Muslim practises related to the spiritual world are considered shirk
by followers of Salafism. Followers of the Salafi movement regard a number of practises related to jinn
. The wide range of beliefs about spirits and angels
commonly accepted in Classical Islam is reduced to a limited scope of quotes from Quran and hadith, without further exegetical material and missing any reference to anecdotal experiences.
Historians and academics date the emergence of Salafism to late 19th-century in Egypt.
Salafis believe that the label "Salafiyya" existed from the first few generations of Islam and that it is not a modern movement.
To justify this view, Salafis rely on a handful of quotes from medieval times where the term Salafi is used.
One of the quotes used as evidence and widely posted on Salafi websites is from the genealogical dictionary of al-Sam'ani
(d. 1166), who wrote a short entry about the surname "al-Salafi" (the Salafi): "According to what I heard, this [surname indicates one's] ascription to the pious ancestors and [one's] adoption of their doctrine [madhhabihim]."
The scholar Henri Lauzière from Northwestern University
comments that, "al-Sam'ani could only list two individuals—a father and his son—who were known by it. Plus, the entry contains blank spaces in lieu of their full names, presumably because al-Sam'ani had forgotten them or did not know them."
Further, he states that "al-Sam'ani's dictionary suggests that the surname was marginal at best, and the lone quotation taken from al-Dhahabi, who wrote 200 years later, does little to prove Salafi claims."
In the modern era, however, many Salafis adopt the surname "al-Salafi" and refer to the label "Salafiyya" in various circumstances to evoke a specific understanding of Islam that is supposed to differ from that of other Sunnis in terms of creed, law, morals, and behavior.
Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab
Modern Salafists consider the 18th-century scholar Muhammed bin 'Abd al-Wahhab and many of his students to have been Salafis.
He started a reform movement in the remote, sparsely populated region of Najd
He advocated purging practices such as shrine and tomb visitation, which were widespread among Muslims
. 'Abd al-Wahhab considered this practice to be idolatry
, representative of impurities and inappropriate innovations in Islam
He is also known, amongst the contemporary Salafi movement, as one of the most knowledgeable scholars of Islam for his exhaustive invitation to Tawhid
), which is the first and foremost condition to be considered a Muslim.
Trends within Salafism
Some who have observed trends in the Salafist movement have divided Salafis into three groups – purists, activists, and jihadis.
Purists focus on education and missionary work to solidify the tawhid
; activists focus on political reform and re-establishing a caliphate through the means of evolution, but not violence (sometimes called Salafist activism); and jihadists share similar political goals as the politicians, but engage in violent Jihad (sometimes called Salafi jihadism and/or Qutbism
"Purists" are Salafists who focus on non-violent da'wah
(preaching of Islam), education, and "purification of religious beliefs and practices". They dismiss politics as "a diversion or even innovation that leads people away from Islam".
They never oppose rulers. Madkhalism
, as an example, is a strain of Salafists viewed as supportive of authoritarian regimes
in the Middle East.
Taking its name from the controversial Saudi Arabian cleric Rabee al-Madkhali
, the movement lost its support in Saudi Arabia proper when several members of the Permanent Committee
(the country's clerical body) denounced Madkhali personally.
Influence of both the movement and its figureheads have waned so much within the Muslim world that analysts have declared it to be a largely European phenomenon.
Activists are another strain of the global Salafi movement, but different from the Salafi jihadists in that they eschew violence and different from Salafi purists in that they engage in modern political processes.
The movement has often been incorrectly referred to as the mainstream of the Salafist movement at times.
This trend, who some call "politicos", see politics as "yet another field in which the Salafi creed has to be applied" in order to safeguard justice and "guarantee that the political rule is based upon the Shari'a". Al–Sahwa Al-Islamiyya
(Islamic Awakening), as example, has been involved in peaceful political reform. Safar Al-Hawali
and Salman al-Ouda
are representatives of this trend. Because of being active on social media, they have earned some support among the more naive youth.
It's very simple. We want sharia
. Sharia in economy, in politics, in judiciary, in our borders and our foreign relations.
"Salafi Jihadism" was a term invented by Gilles Kepel
to describe those self-claiming Salafi groups who began developing an interest in (armed) jihad
during the mid-1990s. Practitioners are often referred to as "Salafi jihadis" or "Salafi jihadists". Journalist Bruce Livesey estimates Salafi jihadists constitute less than 1.0 percent of the world's 1.2 billion Muslims (i.e., less than 10 million).
An analysis of the Caucasus Emirate
, a Salafi jihadist group, was made in 2014 by Darion Rhodes.
It analyzes the group's strict observance of tawhid
and its rejection of shirk
, while believing that jihad is the only way to advance the cause of Allah on the earth.
However, the purist Salafis often strongly disapprove of the activists and jihadists and deny the other's Islamic character.
Views on violence
In recent years, the Salafi methodology has come to be associated with the jihad of extremist groups that advocate the killing of innocent civilians.The European Parliament
, in a report commissioned in 2013, claimed that Wahhabi and Salafi groups are involved, mainly via Saudi
charities, in the support and supply of arms to rebel groups around the world.
Some Salafi scholars appear to support violent extremism. The Egyptian Salafi cleric Mahmoud Shaaban "appeared on a religious television channel calling for the deaths of main opposition figures Mohammed ElBaradei
– a Nobel Peace Prize
laureate – and former presidential candidate Hamdeen Sabahi
Researcher Anabel Inge stated:
"I found no evidence of so-called brainwashing. On the contrary, I found that the Salafi conversion process was largely intellectual, rather than based on social or other pressures."
Other Salafis have rejected the use of violence. The Saudi scholar Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen
considered suicide bombing to be unlawful
and the scholar Abdul Muhsin al-Abbad wrote a treatise entitled: According to which intellect and Religion is Suicide bombings and destruction considered Jihad?
. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani
stated that "History repeats itself. Everybody claims that the Prophet is their role model. Our Prophet spent the first half of his message making dawah
, and he did not start it with jihad".
Some other Islamic groups, particularly some Sufis
, have also complained about extremism among some Salafi. It has been noted that the Western association of Salafi ideology with violence stems from writings "through the prism of security studies" that were published in the late 20th century and that continue to persist.
Regional groups and movements
is a more strict, Saudi form of Salafism,
according to Mark Durie, who states that Saudi leaders "are active and diligent" using their considerable financial resources "in funding and promoting Salafism all around the world".
Ahmad Moussalli tends to agree with the view that Wahhabism is a subset of Salafism, saying "As a rule, all Wahhabis are salafists, but not all salafists are Wahhabis".
However, many scholars and critics distinguish between the old form of Saudi Salafism (termed as Wahhabism) and the new Salafism in Saudi Arabia
. Stéphane Lacroix, a fellow and lecturer at Sciences Po
, also affirmed a distinction between the two: "As opposed to Wahhabism, Salafism refers […] to all the hybridations that have taken place since the 1960s between the teachings of Muhammad bin ‘Abd al-Wahhab and other Islamic schools of thought". Hamid Algar and Khaled Abou El Fadl
believe, during the 1960s and 70s, Wahhabism rebranded itself as Salafism knowing it could not "spread in the modern Muslim world" as Wahhabism.
Its largesse funded an estimated "90% of the expenses of the entire faith", throughout the Muslim World, according to journalist Dawood al-Shirian.
It extended to young and old, from children's madrasas
to high-level scholarship.
"Books, scholarships, fellowships, mosques" (for example, "more than 1,500 mosques were built from Saudi public funds over the last 50 years") were paid for.
It rewarded journalists and academics, who followed it and built satellite campuses around Egypt
for Al Azhar
, the oldest and most influential Islamic university.
Yahya Birt counts spending on "1,500 mosques, 210 Islamic centres and dozens of Muslim academies and schools" 
at a cost of around $2–3bn annually since 1975.
To put the number into perspective, the propaganda budget of the Soviet Union
was about $1bn per annum.
This spending has done much to overwhelm less strict local interpretations of Islam, according to observers like Dawood al-Shirian and Lee Kuan Yew
and has caused the Saudi interpretation (sometimes called "petro-Islam"
) to be perceived as the correct interpretation – or the "gold standard" of Islam – in many Muslims' minds.
Salafis are often called Wahhabis
, which they consider a derogatory term.
Indian subcontinent (Ahl-i Hadith movement)
Ahl-i Hadith is a religious movement that emerged in Northern India in the mid-nineteenth century.
Adherents of Ahl-i-Hadith regard the Quran, sunnah
, and hadith as the sole sources of religious authority and oppose everything introduced in Islam after the earliest times.
In particular, they reject taqlid
(following legal precedent) and favor ijtihad
(independent legal reasoning) based on the scriptures.
The movement's followers call themselves Salafi
, while others refer to them as Wahhabi
or consider them a variation on the Wahhabi movement.
In recent decades the movement has expanded its presence in Pakistan, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan.
Salafis in Egypt are not united under a single banner or unified leadership. The main Salafi trends in Egypt are Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, The Salafist Calling, al-Madkhaliyya Salafism, Activist Salafism, and al-Gam’eyya Al-Shar’eyya.
Since 2015 the Egyptian government has banned books associated with the Salafi movement.
Al-Sunna Al-Muhammadeyya Society, also known as Ansar Al-Sunna, was founded in 1926 by Sheikh Mohamed Hamed El-Fiqi (d.), a 1916 graduate of Al-Azhar and a student of the famed Muslim reformer Muhammed Abduh
. It is considered the main Salafi group in Egypt. El-Fiqi's ideas were resentful of Sufism
. But unlike Muhammed Abduh, Ansar Al-Sunna follows the tawhid as preached by Ibn Taymiyyah
is another influential Salafist organisation. It is the outcome of student activism during the 1970s. While many of the activists joined the Muslim Brotherhood
, a faction led by Mohammad Ismail al-Muqaddim, influenced by Salafists of Saudi Arabia
established the Salafist Calling between 1972 and 1977.
According to Ammar Ali Hassan of Al-Ahram
, while Salafis and the Muslim Brotherhood
agree on many issues such as the need to "Islamize" society and restricting private property rights by legally requiring all Muslims to give alms, the former has nevertheless rejected the flexibility of the latter on the issue of whether women and Christians should be entitled to serve in high office, as well as its relatively tolerant attitude towards Iran.
Turkey has been largely absent from the growing literature on the phenomenon of transnational Salafism. Salafism is a fringe strand of Turkish Islam
that evolved in the context of the state's effort in the 1980s to recalibrate religion as a complement to Turkish nationalism
. Although Salafism became a topic of discussion in media and scholarly writing in Turkish religious studies faculties, a continued lack of orthographic stability (variously, Selfye, Selefiyye, Selfyyecilik, Selefizm)" gives an indication both of the denial of its relevance to Turkey and the success of republican secularism
in clearing religion from public discourse. Yet since the 1980s Salafi preachers trained in Saudi Arabia have been able to find a niche through publishing houses that have endeavoured to translate Arabic texts from the Saudi Salafi scene in an attempt to change the discursive landscape of Turkish Islam. In 1999, the Turkish Directorate of Religious Affairs Diyanet
, recognized Salafism as a Sunni school of thought.
Salafist preachers then started to make inroads into the Turkish society. With the implication of Turkish citizens and the Justice and Development Party
(AKP) government in Syrian civil war
, public discussion began to question the narrative of Salafism as a phenomenon alien to Turkey. Salafism becomes an observable element of religious discourse in Turkey in the context of the military regime's attempt to outmanoeuvre movements emerging as a challenge to the Kemalist
secular order, namely the left, Necmettin Erbakan
's Islamism, Kurdish nationalism
, and Iran. Through the Turkish—Islamic Synthesis (Turk islam Sentezi), the scientific positivism that had been the guiding principle of the republic since 1923 was modified to make room for Islam as a central element of Turkish national culture
. The military authorities oversaw an increase of more than 50 percent in the budget of the religious affairs administration (known as Diyanet
), expanding it from 50,000 employees in 1979 to 85,000 in 1989. Pursuing closer ties with Saudi Arabia, Turkey involved itself in a more meaningful manner in the pan-Islamic
institutions under Saudi tutelage, and Diyanet received Muslim World League
funding to send officials to Europe to develop outreach activities in Turkish immigrant communities." A network of commercial and cultural links was established with Saudi businesses and institutions in banking and financial services, publishing houses, newspapers, magazines, and children's books.
Preachers who had studied at the Islamic University of Madinah
, and applied the Salafi designation, also established publishing houses and charity organizations (dernek). Subject to periodic harassment and arrest by security forces, they adopted markedly more public profiles with AKP ascendancy over the military following a resounding electoral victory in 2002. The Turkish Salafis became active on YouTube
, and Facebook
, complementing websites for their publishing enterprises. Saudi-based scholars such as Bin Baz
, Saleh Al-Fawzan
(b. 1933), and Muhammad ibn al-Uthaymeen
(1925-2001) form the core of their references, while they avoid contemporary 'ulama
' associated with the Muslim Brotherhood
such as Yusuf al-Qaradawi
(b. 1926), an Egyptian scholar based in Qatar. Turkish is their prime language of communication, but Arabic is prominent in special sections on websites, Arabic-language Salafi texts in their bookshops, and heavy use of Arabic terminology in their Turkish texts. The most well-established among them is Ablullah Yolcu, who is said to do "production of Turkish Salafism from Arabic texts". While Turkey has been outside the discussion on transnational Salafism, Meijer
's observation that Salafism may succeed `when its quietist current can find a niche or the nationalist movement has failed' seems to speak surprisingly well to the Turkish case."
In France, in 2015 police
say that salafism is represented in 90 out of 2500 investigated religious communities, which is double the number compared to five years earlier.
In December 2017, a salafist mosque in Marseille was closed by authorities for preaching about violent jihad.
In August 2018, after the European Court of Human Rights
approved the decision, French authorities deported salafist Elhadi Doudi to his home country Algeria because of his radical message he preached in Marseille.
Salafism is a growing movement in Germany
whose aim of a Caliphate is incompatible with a Western democracy.
According to the German Federal Agency for Civic Education
, nearly all Islamist terrorists are Salafists, but not all Salafists are terrorists. Therefore, the agency evaluated the Salafist movement beyond the actions by Salafists and analysed the ideological framework of Salafism which is in conflict with the minimal foundations of a democratic and open society. Salafists calling for the death penalty for apostasy
is in conflict with freedom of religion. The dualistic view on "true believers" and "false believers" in practice means people being treated unequally on religious grounds. The call for a religious state in the form of a caliphate means that Salafists reject the rule of law
and the sovereignty of the people's rule
. The Salafist view on gender and society leads to discrimination and the subjugation of women.
Estimates by German interior intelligence service
show that it grew from 3,800 members in 2011 to 7,500 members in 2015.
In Germany, most of the recruitment to the movement is done on the Internet and also on the streets,
a propaganda drive which mostly attracts youth.
There are two ideological camps, one advocates political Salafism and directs its recruitment efforts towards non-Muslims and non-Salafist Muslims to gain influence in society.
The other and minority movement, the jihadist Salafism, advocates gaining influence by the use of violence and nearly all identified terrorist cells in Germany came from Salafist circles.
In 2015, Sigmar Gabriel
, Vice-Chancellor of Germany
, spoke out, saying "We need Saudi Arabia to solve the regional conflicts, but we must at the same time make clear that the time to look away is past. Wahhabi mosques are financed all over the world by Saudi Arabia. In Germany, many dangerous Islamists come from these communities."
According to the German Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution
, the number of Salafists in Germany grew from 9,700 in December 2016 to 10,800 in December 2017. In addition to the rise, the Salafist movement in Germany was increasingly fractured which made them harder to monitor by authorities.
According to the office, street distributions of Quran
took place less frequently which was described as a success for the authorities.
Radicalisation changed character, from taking place in mosques and interregional Salafist organisations to more often happening in small circles, which increasingly formed on the internet. A further development was a rise in participation of women.
In February 2017, the German Salafist mosque organisation Berliner Fussilet-Moscheeverein
was banned by authorities. Anis Amri, the perpetrator of the 2016 Berlin truck attack
, was said to be among its visitors. In March 2017, the German Muslim community organisation Deutschsprachige Islamkreis Hildesheim
was also banned after investigators found that its members were preparing to travel to the conflict zone in Syria to fight for the Islamic State. According to the Federal Agency for Civic Education
, these examples show that Salafist mosques not only concern themselves with religious matters, but also prepare serious crimes and terrorist activities.
Salafism is opposed by a number of Hui Muslims Sects in China
such as by the Gedimu
, Sufi Khafiya
, to the extent that even the fundamentalist Yihewani
(Ikhwan) Chinese sect, founded by Ma Wanfu
after Salafi inspiration, condemned Ma Debao and Ma Zhengqing as heretics when they attempted to introduce Salafism as the main form of Islam. Ma Debao established a Salafi school, called the Sailaifengye
(Salafi), in Lanzhou
. It is completely separate from other Muslim sects in China
Muslim Hui avoid Salafis, even if they are family members.
The number of Salafis in China are not included on percentage lists of Muslim sects in China.
Sufi Muslim General Ma Bufang
, who backed the Yihewani (Ikhwan) Muslims, persecuted the Salafis and forced them into hiding. They were not allowed to move or worship openly. The Yihewani had become secular and Chinese nationalists; they considered the Salafiyya to be "heterodox" (xie jiao
) and people who followed foreigners' teachings (waidao
). After the Communists
took power, Salafis were allowed to worship openly again.
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Many Islamic religious buildings were damaged or destroyed in the Bosnian War
during the 90s, estimates say up to 80%,
and some are rebuilt with the aid of funds from Saudi Arabia
in exchange for Saudi control
which became the starting point of the wahhabist
influence in Bosnia. According to a study from 2005,[by whom?]
over 3% of the mainstream Sunni Muslim population (around 60,000 people) of Bosnia and Herzegovina identified themselves as wahhabist.
Despite the wahhabism
that came along with Saudi aid to rebuild the mosque and with Gulf-trained imams, all-covering veils such as niqab
are still a rare sight.
An attempt at Salafist expansion among the Muslim Chams
in Vietnam has been halted by Vietnamese government controls, however, the loss of the Salafis among Chams has been to be benefit of Tablighi Jamaat
Representatives from the mosque in Gävle
this variant of Islam, which in Sweden is considered extreme. According to researcher Aje Carlbom at Malmö University
the organisation behind the missionary work is Swedish United Dawah Center, abbreviated SUDC.
SUDC is characterised as a salafist group by a researcher of religious history at Stockholm University
and it has many links to British Muslim Abdur Raheem Green
According to professor Mohammed Fazlhashemi, salafists are opposed to rational theology
and hate shia Muslims above all.
Three Muslim community organisations in Malmö invited reportedly antisemitic and homophobic salafist lecturers such as Salman al-Ouda
. One of the organisations, Alhambra is a student society at Malmö University
.[undue weight? – discuss]
the Ljusets moské
(translated: "mosque of the light") is spreading salafi ideology and portray shia Muslims
as apostates and traitors in social media
while the atrocities of the Islamic state
are never mentioned.
In 2009 the imam Abu al-Hareth at the mosque was sentenced to six years in jail for the attempted murder of a local shia Muslim from Iraq and another member set fire to a shia mosque in Malmö
Salafists in Sweden are supported financially by Saudi Arabia and Qatar. According to police in Sweden, salafists affect the communities where they are active.
According to Swedish researcher Magnus Ranstorp
, salafism is antidemocratic, homophobic and aims to subjugate women and is therefore opposed to a societal order founded on democracy.
Similar to Saudi Arabia, most citizens of Qatar adhere to a strict sect of Salafism referred to as Wahhabism.
The national mosque of Qatar is the Imam Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab Mosque
named after the founder of Wahhabism.
Similar to Saudi Arabian sponsorship of Salafism, Qatar has also funded the construction of mosques that promote the Wahhabi Salafism.
Unlike the strict practice of Wahhabi Salafism in Saudi Arabia, Qatar has demonstrated an alternative view of Wahhabism. In Qatar, women are allowed by law to drive, non-Muslims have access to pork and liquor through a state-owned distribution center, and religious police do not force businesses to close during prayer times.
Also, Qatar hosts branches of several American universities and a "Church City" in which migrant workers may practice their religion.
The adoption of a more liberal interpretation of Wahhabism is largely credited to Qatar's young Emir, Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani
Yet, Qatar's more tolerant interpretation of Wahhabism compared to Saudi Arabia has drawn backlash from Qatari citizens and foreigners. The Economist
reported that a Qatari cleric criticized the state's acceptance of un-Islamic practices away from the public sphere and complained that Qatari citizens are oppressed.
Although Qatari gender separation is less strict than that found in Saudi Arabia, plans to offer co-ed lectures were put aside after threats to boycott Qatar's segregated public university.
Meanwhile, there have been reports of local discontent with the sale of alcohol in Qatar.
Qatar has also drawn widespread criticism for attempting to spread its fundamental religious interpretation both through military and non-military channels. Militarily, Qatar has been criticized for funding rebel Islamist extremist fighters in the Libyan Crisis and the Syrian Civil War. In Libya, Qatar funded allies of Ansar al-Sharia
, the jihadist group thought to be behind the killing of former U.S. ambassador Christopher Stevens
, while channeling weapons and money to the Islamist Ahrar al-Sham
group in Syria.
In addition, Qatar-based charities and online campaigns, such as Eid Charity
and Madid Ahl al-Sham
, have a history of financing terrorist groups in Syria.
Qatar has also repeatedly provided financial support to the Gaza
government led by the militant Hamas
organisation while senior Hamas officials have visited Doha
and hosted Qatari leaders in Gaza.
Qatar also gave approximately $10 billion to the government of Egypt during Mohamed Morsi
's time in office.
Non-militarily, Qatar state-funded broadcaster Al Jazeera
has come under criticism for selective reporting in coordination with Qatar's foreign policy objectives.
In addition, reports have condemned Qatar's financing of the construction of mosques and Islamic centers in Europe as attempts to exert the state's Salafist interpretation of Islam.
Reports of Qatar attempting to impact the curriculum of U.S. schools and buy influence in universities have also spread.
The nearby Persian Gulf States of Saudi Arabia, Bahrain
, and the United Arab Emirates
have been among the countries that have condemned Qatar's actions. In 2014, the three Persian Gulf countries withdrew their ambassadors from Qatar referencing Qatar's failure to commit to non-interference in the affairs of other Gulf Cooperation Council
Saudi Arabia has also threatened to block land and sea borders with Qatar.
This blockade came to an end on 5 January 2021, when authorities from both Saudi and Qatar came on common grounds, with the midmanship of Kuwait.
A 2017 report found the number of Salafi and Wahhabi mosques in Britain had increased from 68 in 2007 to 110 in 2014.
The report found that Middle Eastern nations are providing financial support to mosques and Islamic educational institutions, which have been linked to the spread of extremist material with "an illiberal, bigoted Wahhabi ideology".
It is often reported from various sources, including the German domestic intelligence service (Bundesnachrichtendienst
), that Salafism is the fastest-growing Islamic movement in the world.
The Salafiyya movement has also gained popular acceptance as a "respected Sunni tradition" in Turkey
starting from 1980s, when the Turkish government forged closer ties to Saudi Arabia. This paved the way for cooperation between the Salafi Muslim World League and the Turkish Diyanet
, which recognised Salafism as a traditional Sunni theological school, thus introducing Salafi teachings to Turkish society. Globally, Salafisation of Islamic religious discourse occurred simultaneously alongside the rise of pan-Islamist
Movements, with an emphasis on the concept of Tawhid
As opposed to the traditionalist Salafism discussed throughout this article, academics and historians have used the term "Salafism" to denote modernists
, "a school of thought which surfaced in the second half of the 19th century as a reaction to the spread of European ideas" and "sought to expose the roots of modernity within Muslim civilization".
They are also known as Modernist Salafis
The origins of contemporary Salafism in the modernist "Salafi Movement" of Jamal al-Din al-Afghani and Muhammad Abduh is noted by some,
while others say Islamic Modernism only influenced contemporary Salafism
However, the former notion has been rejected by majority.
According to Quintan Wiktorowicz:
There has been some confusion in recent years because both the Islamic modernists and the contemporary Salafis refer (referred) to themselves as al-salafiyya, leading some observers to erroneously conclude a common ideological lineage. The earlier salafiyya (modernists), however, were predominantly rationalist Asharis.
Influence on Contemporary Salafism
In terms of their respective formation, Wahhabism and Salafism were quite distinct. Wahhabism was a pared-down Islam that rejected modern influences, while Salafism sought to reconcile Islam with modernism. What they had in common is that both rejected traditional teachings on Islam in favor of direct, ‘fundamentalist’ reinterpretation. Although Salafism and Wahhabism
began as two distinct movements, Faisal's embrace of Salafi (Muslim Brotherhood) pan-Islamism resulted in cross-pollination between ibn Abd al-Wahhab's teachings on tawhid, shirk and bid‘ah and Salafi interpretations of ahadith
(the sayings of Muhammad). Some Salafis nominated ibn Abd al-Wahhab as one of the Salaf (retrospectively bringing Wahhabism into the fold of Salafism), and the Muwahideen
began calling themselves Salafis.
In the broadest sense
In a broad sense, Salafism is similar to Non-denominational Islam
(NDM), in the sense some of its adherents do not follow a particular creed.
Salafi (follower of Salaf
) means any reform movement that calls for resurrection of Islam
by going back to its origin. In line with Wahhabism
they promote a literal understanding of the sacred texts of Islam and reject other more liberal reformist movements such as those inspired for example by  Muhammad Abduh
or by Muhammad Iqbal
Scholars from Al-Azhar University
of Cairo produced a work of religious opinions entitled al-Radd
(The Response) to refute the views of the Salafi movement. Al-Radd
singles out numerous Salafi aberrations – in terms of ritual prayer alone it targets for criticism the following Salafi claims:
- The claim that it is prohibited to recite God's name during the minor ablution [Fatwa 50]
- The claim that it is obligatory for men and women to perform the major ablution on Friday [Fatwa 63]
- The claim that it is prohibited to own a dog for reasons other than hunting [Fatwa 134]
- The claim that it is prohibited to use alcohol for perfumes [Fatwa 85].
One of the authors of al-Radd
, the Professor of Law Anas Abu Shady states that, "they [the Salafis] want to be everything to everyone. They're interested not only in the evident (al-zahir), although most of their law goes back to the Muhalla
[of the Ẓāhirī
scholar Ibn Hazm
], but they also are convinced that they alone understand the hidden (al-batin)!"
The Syrian scholar Mohamed Said Ramadan Al-Bouti
wrote a number of works refuting Salafism including Al-La Madhhabiyya (Abandoning the Madhhabs) is the most dangerous Bid‘ah Threatening the Islamic Shari'a (Damascus: Dar al-Farabi 2010)
and Al-Salafiyya was a blessed epoch, not a school of thought (Damascus: Dar al-Fikr, 1990).
The latter is perhaps the most famous refutation of Salafism in the twentieth century.
Numerous academic rebuttals of Salafism have been produced in the English language by Khaled Abou El Fadl
of the UCLA School of Law
, Timothy Winter
of Cambridge University
and G.F. Haddad.
El Fadl argues that fanatical groups such as al-Qaeda "derive their theological premises from the intolerant Puritanism of the Wahhabi and Salafi creeds".
He also suggests that the extreme intolerance and even endorsement of terrorism manifest in Wahhabism and Salafism represents a deviation from Muslim historical traditions.
El-Fadl also argues that the Salafi methodology "drifted into stifling apologetics" by the mid-20th century, a reaction against "anxiety" to "render Islam compatible with modernity," by its leaders earlier in the century.
Salafis are accused of having a double-standard on their views on innovation
,[according to whom?]
rejecting some innovations and accepting others.
(including imam Nawawi
, who is widely praised by Salafis
) categorized innovation into 5 types
, yet Salafis consider all innovation to be sinful. This creates a strange paradox where they unwittingly accept some innovations and reject others. Salafis say that the compilation of the Qur'an under Abu Bakr's
caliphate was not an innovation because bidah in religion is different from the linguistic meaning of bidah, one is forbidden the other is not,[according to whom?]
hence is accepted by Orthodox
Muslims as an obligatory
innovation to preserve the Qur'an. On the other hand, other Salafis accept the validity of "good innovation".
The Salafi creed
which divides tawhid
into three types is said by critics to be an innovation which leads to excommunication
, accusations of shirk
, and violence against other Muslims.
Although Salafist claim to re-establish Islamic values and protects Islamic culture, sociological observations
show that they often interpret it in a manner which does not match with Islamic traditions, with some members of the movement regarding inherit elements of Islamic culture, such as music, poetry, literature and philosophy as works of the devil.
Generally, Salafis do not adhere to traditional Islamic communities, and those who do, often oppose the traditional Islamic values.
German government's statement on Salafism
German government officials
have stated that Salafism has a strong link to terrorism but have clarified that not all Salafists are terrorists. The statements by German government officials criticizing Salafism were televised by Deutsche Welle
during April 2012.
- Abd al-Aziz ibn Baz, late Saudi Arabian Grand Mufti
- Abdullaah al-Ghudayyan, late Saudi Arabian Salafi scholar (died 2010)
- Abdullah el-Faisal, Jamaican Muslim leader
- Abdur Raheem Green
- Abu Qatada, Jordanian cleric
- Ali al-Tamimi, contemporary American Islamic leader
- Anjem Choudary, 21st-century British Salafi figure
- Anwar al-Awlaki, leader of American/Yemeni terror group Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
- Bilal Philips, Canadian Salafi imam
- Feiz Mohammad
- Haitham al-Haddad, British Salafi cleric
- Muhammad Al-Munajjid, Salafi scholar, founder of IslamQA, answering theological and juridical questions of Islam .
- Muhammad ibn al Uthaymeen, late Saudi Arabian Salafi scholar (died 1999)
- Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani (died 1999), Albanian-Syrian scholar who published more than 100 books, lectured widely, and taught briefly in Saudi Arabia
- Muhammad Asadullah Al-Ghalib, (born 15 January 1948) a Bangladeshi salafi academic, reformist Islamic scholar and the leader of a puritan Islamic movement Ahle Hadeeth Movement Bangladesh (AHAB). He published more than 50 books and founding chief editor of an Islamic research journal in Bangla language, Monthly At-tahreek.
- Mohammed Yusuf (Boko Haram), Nigerian Muslim
- Abu Bakar Bashir, leader of Indonesian terror group (Jema'ah Islamiyah)
- Nasir al-Fahd, Saudi Arabian Salafi scholar who supports jihad, opposes the Saudi state, and in 2012 proclaimed allegiance to ISIS
- Omar Bakri Muhammad, 21st-century Salafi Jihadist preacher
- Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, leader of terrorist group (Islamic State, known as ISIS, ISIL, IS, Daesh)
- Osama bin Laden, Saudi Arabian cleric who developed and led the terror group Al-Qaeda
- Rabee al-Madkhali, Saudi scholar and former head of the Sunnah Studies Department at the Islamic University of Madinah. He is disassociated with extremist insurgent groups.
- Umar Sulaiman Ashqar, late author of the Islamic Creed-series.
- Zakir Naik, Salafi ideologue in India
- Mohammad Abu Rumman, Salafi ideologue and educator.
- Abdullah Yolcu, salafi preacher and educator in Turkey.
, American Muslim cleric, professor at Rhodes College
, and author; also Dean of Academic Studies at international al-Maghrib Institute
Dr. Yasir Qadhi has stated in several interviews that he is no longer a Salafi and he disagrees with the Salafi movement.
Some of the reasons he gave for leaving the movement is the violence and hostility of the movement against non-Salafi Muslims as well as it not being "intellectually stimulating".
He believes the movement to be violent, flawed, and not very faithful to the actual Salaf. He claims that he advocates for "following the actions of the Salaf instead of following the Salafi movement."
- ^ Esposito, John (2004). The Oxford Dictionary of Islam. Oxford University Press. p. 275. ISBN 9780195125597. Retrieved 5 December 2015.
- ^ Joppke, Christian (1 April 2013). Legal Integration of Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 27. ISBN 9780674074910. Salafism, which is probhited, apolitical sect favoring a literalist reading of the Quran and Sunna.
- ^ Joas Wagemakers (2016). Salafism in Jordan: Political Islam in a Quietist Community. Cambridge University Press. p. 227. ISBN 9781107163669. These men adhere to the Salafi branch of Islam is a Kraizi Muslim
- ^ a b "The Rise of European Colonialism". Harvard Divinity School. Archived from the original on 9 April 2018. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- ^ Bernard Haykel (2009). "Salafī Groups". In John L. Esposito (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of the Islamic World. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195305135.
- ^ Bin Ali Mohamed Roots Of Religious Extremism, The: Understanding The Salafi Doctrine Of Al-wala' Wal Bara World Scientific, 14.09.2015 9781783263943 p. 61
- ^ a b Mahmood, Saba (23 October 2011). Politics of Piety: The Islamic Revival and the Feminist Subject. Princeton University Press. p. 61, note 45. ISBN 978-0691149806. salafi%20origins%20Abduh.
- ^ a b Esposito, John L.; Shahin, Emad El-Din (1 November 2013). The Oxford Handbook of Islam and Politics. OUP USA. p. 38. ISBN 9780195395891.
- ^ a b c Dubler, Joshua (2010). "Salafi Muslims". In Edward E. Curtis (ed.). Encyclopedia of Muslim-American History. Infobase Publishing. p. 499. ISBN 9781438130408.
- ^ a b Campo, Juan Eduardo (2009). Encyclopedia of Islam. Infobase Publishing. p. 601. ISBN 9781438126968.
- ^ Tucker, Spencer C.; Roberts, Priscilla (12 May 2008). The Encyclopedia of the Arab-Israeli Conflict: A Political, Social, and Military History [4 volumes]: A Political, Social, and Military History. ABC-CLIO. p. 975. ISBN 9781851098422.
- ^ Sinan Siyech, Mohammed (4 February 2020). "What Makes a Movement Violent: Comparing the Ahle Hadith (Salafists) in India and Pakistan". MEI. Archived from the original on 18 April 2021.
- ^ Khan, Rehan (3 February 2020). "Shah Ismail Dehlawi, a Grandson of Shah Waliullah Dehlawi, Represented a Fusion of Sufism with Salafism". New Age Islam. Archived from the original on 9 May 2021.
- ^ "Shawkani, Muhammad al-". Oxford Islamic Studies Online. Archived from the original on 4 December 2020.
- ^ "Salafism". RRG. 2016. Archived from the original on 18 March 2021.
- ^ Turner, J. (26 August 2014). Religious Ideology and the Roots of the Global Jihad: Salafi Jihadism and International Order. Springer. ISBN 9781137409577.
- ^ a b "Salafism: Politics and the puritanical". The Economist. 27 June 2015. Retrieved 29 June 2015.
- ^ a b c Al-Yaqoubi, Muhammad (2015). Refuting ISIS: A Rebuttal Of Its Religious And Ideological Foundations. Sacred Knowledge. p. xiii. ISBN 978-1908224125.
- ^ Haykel, Bernard (2009). Meijer, Roel (ed.). Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 35. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8. Salafi teachings and ideas have become pervasive in recent decades so that many modern Muslims -even ones who do not identify formally as being Salafi- are attracted to certain aspects of Salafism, namely its exclusive emphasis on textual forms of authority, its theology that attacks Ashari voluntarism, its pared down version of legal interpretation and its call for reform of Muslim belief and practice by, among other things, returning to the model of the Prophet Muhammad and his companions
- ^ a b Stephane Lacroix, "Al-Albani's Revolutionary Approach to Hadith" Archived 10 October 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Leiden University's ISIM Review, Spring 2008, #21.
- ^ a b Kepel, Gilles (2006). Jihad: The Trail of Political Islam. I.B.Tauris. ISBN 9781845112578. Retrieved 28 January 2014.
- ^ a b For example: "Salafism originated in the mid to late 19th-century as an intellectual movement at al-Azhar University, led by Muhammad Abduh (1849–1905), Jamal al-Din al-Afghani (1839–1897) and Rashid Rida (1865–1935)." from Understanding the Origins of Wahhabism and Salafism Archived 3 March 2011 at the Wayback Machine, by Trevor Stanley. Terrorism Monitor Volume 3, Issue 14. 15 July 2005
- ^ Kepel, Gilles (24 February 2006). Jihad By Gilles Kepel, Anthony F. Roberts. ISBN 978-1-84511-257-8. Retrieved 18 April 2010.
- ^ Haykel, Bernard. "Sufism and Salafism in Syria". 11 May 2007. Syria Comment. Retrieved 22 May 2013. The Salafis of the Muhammad Abduh variety no longer exist, as far as I can tell, and certainly are not thought of by others as Salafis since this term has been appropriated/co-opted fully by Salafis of the Ahl al-Hadith/Wahhabi variety.
- ^ Meijer, Roel; Haykel, Bernard (2013). "On the Nature of Salafi thought and Action". Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. 198 Madison Avenue, New York, New York 10016: Oxford University Press. pp. 45–47. ISBN 978-0-19-933343-1.
- ^ Lauziere, Henri (2010). "THE CONSTRUCTION OF SALAFIYYA: RECONSIDERING SALAFISM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONCEPTUAL HISTORY". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 42: 369–389 – via Cambridge.org.
- ^ Oliver Leaman The Qur'an: An Encyclopedia Taylor & Francis 2006 ISBN 978-0-415-32639-1 page 632
- ^ Lauziere, Henri (2010). "THE CONSTRUCTION OF SALAFIYYA: RECONSIDERING SALAFISM FROM THE PERSPECTIVE OF CONCEPTUAL HISTORY". International Journal of Middle East Studies. 42: 371 – via Cambridge.org.
- ^ Wood, Graeme (20 December 2016). The Way of the Strangers: Encounters with the Islamic State. Penguin Books Limited. ISBN 9780241240120.
- ^ Lacey, Robert (2009). Inside the Kingdom, Kings, Clerics, Modernists, Terrorists, and the Struggle for Saudi Arabia. New York: Viking. p. 9.
- ^ "What ISIS really wants", The Atlantic, February 2015
- ^ "The way of the Sufis is the way of the Salaf, the Scholars among the Sahaba, Tabi’in and Tabi’ at-Tabi’in. Its origin is to worship Allah and to leave the ornaments of this world and its pleasures." (Ibn Khaldun (733–808 H/1332–1406 CE) Muqaddimat ibn Khaldan, p. 328, quoted in PAHARY SHEIK MOHAMMAD YASSER, SUFISM: ORIGIN, DEVELOPMENT AND EMERGENCE OF SUFI ORDERS Archived 27 April 2015 at the Wayback Machine, retrieved March 2012
- ^ Haykel, Bernard (2009). "Chapter 1: On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action". In Meijer, Roel (ed.). Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8.
- ^ Haykel, Bernard (2009). "Chapter 1: On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action". In Meijer, Roel (ed.). Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. pp. 34–35. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8. Salafis are first and foremost religious and social reformers who are engaged in creating and reproducing particular forms of authority and identity, both personal and communal. Indeed, Salafis are determined to create a distinct Muslim subjectivity, one with profound social and political implications.It is important to understand Salafis as constituting a group that defines its reformist project first and foremost through credal tenets (i.e., a theology).Also important, though secondary, for their self-definition are certain legal teachings as well as forms of sociability and politics. I hope to show in this study that Salafism is a term that is heuristically useful because it is a marker of a distinctive form of engagement with the world, and one that is identifiable as such to many Muslims
- ^ a b GlobalSecurity.org "Salafi Islam", Global Security website
- ^ Roy, Olivier (2004). Globalized Islam: The Search for a New Ummah. Columbia University Press. p. 266. ISBN 9780231134996. Retrieved 13 October 2016.
- ^ Hamdeh, Emad (9 June 2017). "Qurʾān and Sunna or the Madhhabs?: A Salafi Polemic Against Islamic Legal Tradition". Islamic Law and Society. 24 (3): 211–253. doi:10.1163/15685195-00240A01. ISSN 1568-5195.
- ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, p. 484
- ^ Stephane Lacroix; George Holoch (2011). Awakening Islam. Harvard University Press. p. 84. ISBN 978-0-674-04964-2.
- ^ Miriam Cooke, Bruce B. Lawrence, Muslim Networks from Hajj to Hip Hop, p. 213
- ^ "From there he [Albani] learned to oppose taqlid in a madhab." Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 174. "Al-Albani had denounced Wahhabi attachment to the Hanbali school." Stephane Lacroix, George Holoch, Awakening Islam, p. 85
- ^ "For many Salafis, both modernist and conservative, "worship" of created beings includes practicing taqlid within a madhab of fiqh." Bennett, The Bloomsbury Companion to Islamic Studies, p. 165
- ^ Haykel, Bernard (2009). "Chapter 1: On the Nature of Salafi Thought and Action". In Meijer, Roel (ed.). Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. pp. 35–36. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8. And because of their adherence to a particular form of textual interpretation-one that emphasises a direct interfaçe with the texts of revelation.Salafis enjoy a relatively shallow and limited hierarchy of scholarly authoritics. Most Salafis -though not all- are unlike traditional, and pre-modern, Muslinms in that they do not subscribe to a developed and layered scholastic tradition of religious interpretation, which otherwise constrains and regulates, in rigorous tashion, the output of opinions. As such, it is striking how relatively easy it is to become an authority figure among the Salafis. In fact, as an interpretive community Salafıs are, in contrast to other Muslim traditions of learning, relatively open, even democratic
- ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam, 2010: 38–48
- ^ Michael Cook, On the Origins of Wahhābism, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 2, No. 2 (July, 1992), p. 198
- ^ Bin Ali Mohamed Roots Of Religious Extremism, The: Understanding The Salafi Doctrine Of Al-wala Wal Bara World Scientific, 14.09.2015 9781783263943 p. 61
- ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam, 2010: 36
- ^ Halverson, Theology and Creed in Sunni Islam, 2010: 36–7
- ^ Bin Ali Mohamed Roots Of Religious Extremism, The: Understanding The Salafi Doctrine Of Al-wala Wal Bara World Scientific, 14.09.2015 9781783263943 pp. 62-63
- ^ TY - JOUR AU - Østebø, Terje PY - 2014 DA - 2014/01/01 TI - The revenge of the Jinns: spirits, Salafi reform, and the continuity in change in contemporary Ethiopia JO - Contemporary Islam SP - 17 EP - 36 VL - 8 IS - 1 AB - The point of departure for this article is a story about jinns taking revenge upon people who have abandoned earlier religious practices. It is a powerful account of their attempt to free themselves from a past viewed as inhabited by evil forces and about the encounter between contemporary Salafi reformism and a presumed disappearing religious universe. It serves to prove how a novel version of Islam has superseded former practices; delegitimized and categorized as belonging to the past. The story is, however, also an important source and an interesting entry-point to examine the continued relevance of past practices within processes of reform. Analyzing the story about the jinns and the trajectory of Salafi reform in Bale, this contribution demonstrates how the past remains intersected with present reformism, and how both former practices and novel impetuses are reconfigured through this process. The article pays attention to the dialectics of negotiations inherent to processes of reform and points to the manner in which the involvement of a range of different actors produces idiosyncratic results. It challenges notions of contemporary Islamic reform as something linear and fixed and argues that such processes are multifaceted and open-ended. SN - 1872-0226 UR - https://doi.org/10.1007/s11562-013-0282-7 DO - 10.1007/s11562-013-0282-7 ID - Østebø2014 ER -
- ^ Stephen Burge Angels in Islam: Jalal al-Din al-Suyuti's al-Haba'ik fi Akhbar al-malik Routledge 2015 ISBN 978-1-136-50473-0 p. 13-14
- ^ Abu Saʿd al-Tamimi al-Samʿani, al-Ansab, ed. ʿAbd al-Rahman ibn Yahya al-Muʿallimi al-Yamani, vol.7 (Hayderabad: Matbaʿat Majlis Daʾirat al-Maʿarif al-ʿUthmaniyya, 1976), 167
- ^ a b Lauzière, Henri (24 July 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 63.
- ^ a b Lauzière, Henri (24 July 2008). The Evolution of the Salafiyya in the Twentieth Century through the life and thought of Taqi al-Din al-Hilali. Phd Dissertation Georgetown University. p. 65.
- ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz, Anatomy of the Salafi Movement, p. 216.
- ^ Commins, David (2006). The Wahhabi Mission and Saudi Arabia. I.B.Tauris. p. 7. ISBN 9780857731357. The Wahhabi religious reform movement arose in Najd, the vast, thinly populated heart of Central Arabia.
- ^ Esposito 2003, p. 333
- ^ a b c Anatomy of the Salafi MovementArchived 3 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine by QUINTAN WIKTOROWICZ, Washington, D.C.
- ^ Natana J. DeLong-Bas, in Wahhabi Islam: From Revival and Reform to Global Jihad,
- ^ a b Whatever Happened to the Islamists? edited by Olivier Roy and Amel Boubekeur, Columbia University Press, 2012
- ^ Richard Gauvain, Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God, p. 41. New York: Routledge, 2013.
- ^ Roel Meijer, Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement, p. 49. New York: Columbia University Press, 2009.
- ^ George Joffé, Islamist Radicalisation in Europe and the Middle East: Reassessing the Causes of Terrorism, p. 317. London: I.B. Tauris, 2013.
- ^ a b The Transmission and Dynamics of the Textual Sources of Islam: Essays in Honour of Harald Motzki, eds. Nicolet Boekhoff-van der Voort, Kees Versteegh and Joas Wagemakers, p. 382. Leiden: Brill Publishers, 2011.
- ^ Meijer, p. 48.
- ^ a b "Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, Rashid Rida, Hasan al-Banna: Modernism, Revolution and the Muslim Brotherhood". www.abukhadeejah.com. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 August 2019.
- ^ On Salafism Archived 14 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine By Yasir Qadhi | page-7
- ^ Saudi Arabia's Muslim Brotherhood predicament washingtonpost.com
- ^ Ghosh, Bobby (8 October 2012). "The Rise Of The Salafis". Time. 180 (15). Retrieved 6 May 2014.
- ^ a b "Special Reports - The Salafist Movement - Al Qaeda's New Front - FRONTLINE - PBS". www.pbs.org.
- ^ Coming to Terms: Fundamentalists or Islamists?, Martin Kramer, Middle East Quarterly, Spring 2003, pp. 65–77.
- ^ Hafez, Mohammed M. (23 June 2017). Suicide Bombers in Iraq: The Strategy and Ideology of Martyrdom. US Institute of Peace Press. ISBN 9781601270047 – via Google Books.
- ^ a b Darion Rhodes, Salafist-Takfiri Jihadism: the Ideology of the Caucasus Emirate, International Institute for Counter-terrorism, March 2014
- ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft Harper San Francisco, 2005, pp. 62–8
- ^ Valentine, Simon Ross (28 November 2014). Force and Fanaticism: Wahhabism in Saudi Arabia and Beyond. Oxford University Press. p. 246. ISBN 9781849044646.
- ^ The Observer, Violent tide of Salafism threatens the Arab spring, by Peter Beaumont and Patrick Kingsley, 10 February 2013.
- ^ Reuters, Egypt orders cleric held over ElBaradei death call, by Marwa Awad, edited by Paul Taylor and Jon Hemming, 11 February 2013.
- ^ "6 common misconceptions about Salafi Muslims in the West". Radicalisation Research. 7 October 2016. Retrieved 14 February 2021.
- ^ a b Gabriel G. Tabarani, Jihad's New Heartlands: Why the West Has Failed to Contain Islamic Fundamentalism, p. 26.
- ^ Richard Gauvain, Salafi Ritual Purity: In the Presence of God, p. 331
- ^ Quintan Wiktorowicz, Anatomy of the Salafi Movement, p. 217.
- ^ Meijer, Roel (2009). "Introduction". In Meijer, Roel (ed.). Global Salafism: Islam's New Religious Movement. Columbia University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-231-15420-8.
- ^ Murphy, Caryle (5 September 2006). "For Conservative Muslims, Goal of Isolation a Challenge". Washington Post. The kind of Islam practiced at Dar-us-Salaam, known as Salafism, once had a significant foothold among area Muslims, in large part because of an aggressive missionary effort by the government of Saudi Arabia. Salafism and its strict Saudi version, known as Wahhabism, struck a chord with many Muslim immigrants who took a dim view of the United States' sexually saturated pop culture and who were ambivalent about participating in a secular political system.
- ^ Lewis, Bernard (27 April 2006). "Islam and the West: A Conversation with Bernard Lewis (transcript)". pewforum.org. Pew. Retrieved 5 August 2014. There are others, the so-called Salafia. It's run along parallel lines to the Wahhabis, but they are less violent and less extreme – still violent and extreme but less so than the Wahhabis.
- ^ Mark Durie (6 June 2013). "Salafis and the Muslim Brotherhood: What is the difference?". Middle East Forum. What is called Wahhabism – the official religious ideology of the Saudi state – is a form of Salafism. Strictly speaking, 'Wahhabism' is not a movement, but a label used mainly by non-Muslims to refer to Saudi Salafism, referencing the name of an influential 18th-century Salafi teacher, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab. ... The continuing impact of Salafi dogma in Saudi Arabia means that Saudi leaders are active and diligent in funding and promoting Salafism all around the world. If there is a mosque receiving Saudi funding in your city today, in every likelihood it is a Salafi mosque. Saudi money has also leveraged Salafi teachings through TV stations, websites and publications.
- ^ Moussalli, Ahmad (30 January 2009). Wahhabism, Salafism and Islamism: Who Is The Enemy? (PDF). A Conflicts Forum Monograph. p. 3.
- ^ Dillon, Michael R. "WAHHABISM: IS IT A FACTOR IN THE SPREAD OF GLOBAL TERRORISM?" (PDF). September 2009. Naval Post-Graduate School. pp. 3–4. Retrieved 2 April 2014. Hamid Algar […] emphasizes the strong influence of the Saudi petrodollar in the propagation of Wahhabism, but also attributes the political situation of the Arab world at the time as a contributing factor that led to the co-opting of Salafism. […] Khaled Abou El Fadl, […] expresses the opinion that Wahhabism would not have been able to spread in the modern Muslim world […] it would have to be spread under the banner of Salafism.8 This attachment of Wahhabism to Salafism was needed as Salafism was a much more 'credible paradigm in Islam'; making it an ideal medium for Wahhabism. […] The co-opting of Salafism by Wahhabism was not completed until the 1970s when the Wahhabis stripped away some of their extreme intolerance and co-opted the symbolism and language of Salafism; making them practically indistinguishable.
- ^ Abou El Fadl, Khaled (2005). The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists. p. 75.
- ^ a b Dawood al-Shirian, 'What Is Saudi Arabia Going to Do?' Al-Hayat, 19 May 2003
- ^ Abou al Fadl, Khaled, The Great Theft: Wrestling Islam from the Extremists, Harper SanFrancisco, 2005, pp. 48–64
- ^ Kepel, p. 72
- ^ Murphy, Caryle, Passion for Islam – Shaping the Modern Middle East: the Egyptian Experience, Simon & Schuster, 2002 p. 32
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- ^ "Uproar in Germany Over Salafi Drive to Hand Out Millions of Qurans". AFP. 16 April 2012. Retrieved 9 June 2014. The service [German domestic intelligence service] said in its most recent annual report dating from 2010 that Salafism was the fastest growing Islamic movement in the world…
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- ^ "‘Abduh clearly did not claim to be a Salafi nor identified his followers as Salafis. He simply referred al-Salafiyyin in the context of theological debates as Sunni Muslims who differed from Ash’arites based on their strict adherence to ‘aqidat al-salaf (the creed of the forefather) (Lauziere, 2010)"
- ^ The split between Qatar and the GCC won’t be permanent Archived 17 November 2016 at the Wayback Machine "However, the intra-Sunni divides have not been so clear to foreign observers. Those divides include the following: purist Salafism (which many call "Wahhabism"), modernist Salafism (which is the main intellectual ancestor of the Muslim Brotherhood) and classical Sunnism (which is the mainstream of Islamic religious institutions in the region historically"
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- ^ As-Sunnah Foundation of America, Wahhabism: Understanding the Roots and Role Models of Islamic Extremism by Zubair Qamar, condensed and edited by ASFA staff. This article lists 65 Sunni scholars from different time periods, whom the article claims were opposed to either the Salafi or the Wahhabi movements. The article claims that the Wahhabi movement is the same thing as the Salafi movement.
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- ^ Fair, C. Christine; Watson, Sarah J. (18 February 2015). Pakistan's Enduring Challenges. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 246. ISBN 9780812246902. Osama bin Laden was a hard-core Salafi who openly espoused violence against the United States in order to achieve Salafi goals.
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Muhammad in History, Thought, and Culture: An Encyclopedia of the Prophet of God
(2 vols.), Edited by C. Fitzpatrick and A. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014. ISBN 1610691776
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