for "Saint Francis
"), officially the City and County of San Francisco
, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in Northern California
. San Francisco is the 16th most populous city in the United States
, and the fourth most populous in California
, with 881,549 residents as of 2019.
It covers an area of about 46.89 square miles (121.4 km2
mostly at the north end of the San Francisco Peninsula
in the San Francisco Bay Area
, making it the second most densely populated large U.S. city, and the fifth most densely populated U.S. county
, behind only four of the five New York City boroughs
. San Francisco is part of the 12th-largest metropolitan statistical area
in the United States by population, with 4.7 million people, and the fourth-largest by economic output, with GDP of $592 billion in 2019.
With San Jose
, it forms the fifth most populous combined statistical area
in the United States, with 9.67 million residents as of 2019. Colloquial nicknames for San Francisco include SF
, San Fran
, The City
, and Frisco
In 2019, San Francisco was the county with the seventh-highest income in the United States, with a per capita income
In the same year, San Francisco proper had a GDP of $203.5 billion, and a GDP per capita of $230,829.
The CSA San Francisco shares with San Jose and Oakland
, with a GDP of $1.09 trillion as of 2019, is the country's third-largest urban economy, following New York City
and Los Angeles
Of the 105 primary statistical areas
in the U.S. with over 500,000 residents, this CSA had the highest GDP per capita in 2019, at $112,348.
San Francisco was ranked 12th in the world and second in the United States on the Global Financial Centres Index as of March 2021, after New York City.
San Francisco was founded on June 29, 1776, when colonists from Spain
established the Presidio of San Francisco
at the Golden Gate
and Mission San Francisco de Asís
a few miles away, both named for Francis of Assisi
The California Gold Rush
of 1849 brought rapid growth, making it the largest city on the West Coast
at the time. San Francisco became a consolidated city-county
San Francisco's status as the West Coast's largest city peaked between 1870 and 1900, when around 25% of California's population resided in the city proper.
After three-quarters of the city was destroyed by the 1906 earthquake and fire
San Francisco was quickly rebuilt, hosting the Panama-Pacific International Exposition
nine years later. In World War II
, San Francisco was a major port of embarkation for service members shipping out to the Pacific Theater
It then became the birthplace of the United Nations
After the war, the confluence of returning servicemen, significant immigration
attitudes, along with the rise of the "beatnik
" and "hippie
" countercultures, the Sexual Revolution
, the Peace Movement
growing from opposition to United States involvement in the Vietnam War
, and other factors led to the Summer of Love
and the gay rights
movement, cementing San Francisco as a center of liberal activism in the United States
. Politically, the city votes strongly along liberal Democratic Party
A popular tourist destination,
San Francisco is known for its cool summers, fog
, steep rolling hills, eclectic mix of architecture
, and landmarks, including the Golden Gate Bridge
, cable cars
, the former Alcatraz Federal Penitentiary
, Fisherman's Wharf
, and its Chinatown
district. San Francisco is also the headquarters of companies such as Twitter
, Levi Strauss & Co.
, Gap Inc.
, Pacific Gas and Electric Company
, and Lyft
. The city, and the surrounding Bay Area, is a global center of the sciences and arts
and is home to a number of educational and cultural institutions, such as the University of California, San Francisco
(UCSF), the University of San Francisco
(USF), San Francisco State University
(SFSU), the de Young Museum
, the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
, the SFJAZZ Center
, and the California Academy of Sciences
Yelamu villages in San Francisco
The earliest archaeological evidence of human habitation of the territory of the city of San Francisco dates to 3000 BC.
group of the Ohlone
people resided in a few small villages when an overland Spanish exploration party
, led by Don Gaspar de Portolá
, arrived on November 2, 1769, the first documented European visit to San Francisco Bay
The first maritime presence occurred on August 5, 1775, when San Carlos
—commanded by Juan Manuel de Ayala
—became the first ship to anchor in the bay.
The following year, on March 28, 1776, the Spanish established the Presidio of San Francisco
, followed by a mission
, Mission San Francisco de Asís
(Mission Dolores), established by the Spanish explorer Juan Bautista de Anza
from Spain in 1821, the area became part of Mexico
. Under Mexican rule, the mission system gradually ended, and its lands became privatized
. In 1835, William Richardson
, a naturalized Mexican citizen of English birth, erected the first independent homestead,
near a boat anchorage around what is today Portsmouth Square
. Together with AlcaldeFrancisco de Haro
, he laid out a street plan for the expanded settlement, and the town, named Yerba Buena
, began to attract American settlers. Commodore John D. Sloat
claimed California for the United States on July 7, 1846, during the Mexican–American War
, and Captain John B. Montgomery
arrived to claim Yerba Buena two days later. Yerba Buena was renamed San Francisco on January 30 of the next year, and Mexico officially ceded the territory
to the United States at the end of the war in 1848
. Despite its attractive location as a port and naval base, San Francisco was still a small settlement with inhospitable geography.
The California Gold Rush
brought a flood of treasure seekers (known as "forty-niners", as in "1849"). With their sourdough bread
prospectors accumulated in San Francisco over rival Benicia
raising the population from 1,000 in 1848 to 25,000 by December 1849.
The promise of great wealth was so strong that crews on arriving vessels deserted and rushed off to the gold fields, leaving behind a forest of masts in San Francisco harbor.
Some of these approximately 500 abandoned ships were used at times as storeships, saloons, and hotels; many were left to rot and some were sunk to establish title to the underwater lot. By 1851, the harbor was extended out into the bay by wharves while buildings were erected on piles among the ships. By 1870, Yerba Buena Cove
had been filled to create new land. Buried ships are occasionally exposed when foundations are dug for new buildings.
California was quickly granted statehood
in 1850, and the U.S. military built Fort Point
at the Golden Gate
and a fort on Alcatraz Island
to secure the San Francisco Bay. Silver discoveries, including the Comstock Lode
in 1859, further drove rapid population growth.
With hordes of fortune seekers streaming through the city, lawlessness was common, and the Barbary Coast
section of town gained notoriety as a haven for criminals, prostitution, and gambling.
Entrepreneurs sought to capitalize on the wealth generated by the Gold Rush. Early winners were the banking industry, with the founding of Wells Fargo
in 1852 and the Bank of California
in 1864. Development of the Port of San Francisco
and the establishment in 1869 of overland access to the eastern U.S. rail system via the newly completed Pacific Railroad
(the construction of which the city only reluctantly helped support
) helped make the Bay Area a center for trade. Catering to the needs and tastes of the growing population, Levi Strauss
opened a dry goods
business and Domingo Ghirardelli
began manufacturing chocolate. Chinese immigrants made the city a polyglot culture, drawn to "Old Gold Mountain", creating the city's Chinatown
quarter. In 1870, Asians made up 8% of the population.
The first cable cars
carried San Franciscans up Clay Street
in 1873. The city's sea of Victorian houses
began to take shape, and civic leaders campaigned for a spacious public park, resulting in plans for Golden Gate Park
. San Franciscans built schools, churches, theaters, and all the hallmarks of civic life. The Presidio
developed into the most important American military installation on the Pacific coast.
By 1890, San Francisco's population approached 300,000, making it the eighth-largest city
in the United States at the time. Around 1901, San Francisco was a major city known for its flamboyant style, stately hotels, ostentatious mansions on Nob Hill
, and a thriving arts scene.
The first North American plague epidemic was the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904
At 5:12 am on April 18, 1906, a major earthquake struck San Francisco
and northern California. As buildings collapsed from the shaking, ruptured gas lines
ignited fires that spread across the city and burned out of control for several days. With water mains out of service, the Presidio
Artillery Corps attempted to contain the inferno
by dynamiting blocks of buildings to create firebreaks.
More than three-quarters of the city lay in ruins, including almost all of the downtown core.
Contemporary accounts reported that 498 people lost their lives, though modern estimates put the number in the several thousands.
More than half of the city's population of 400,000 was left homeless.Refugees
settled temporarily in makeshift tent villages in Golden Gate Park, the Presidio, on the beaches, and elsewhere. Many fled permanently to the East Bay
It was during this period San Francisco built some of its most important infrastructure. Civil Engineer Michael O'Shaughnessy
was hired by San Francisco Mayor James Rolph
as chief engineer for the city in September 1912 to supervise the construction of the Twin Peaks Reservoir, the Stockton Street Tunnel
, the Twin Peaks Tunnel
, the San Francisco Municipal Railway
, the Auxiliary Water Supply System
, and new sewers. San Francisco's streetcar system, of which the J
, and N
lines survive today, was pushed to completion by O'Shaughnessy between 1915 and 1927. It was the O'Shaughnessy Dam
, Hetch Hetchy Reservoir
, and Hetch Hetchy Aqueduct
that would have the largest effect on San Francisco.
An abundant water supply enabled San Francisco to develop into the city it has become today.
The Bay Bridge
, under construction in 1935, took forty months to complete.
In ensuing years, the city solidified its standing as a financial capital; in the wake of the 1929 stock market crash
, not a single San Francisco-based bank failed.
Indeed, it was at the height of the Great Depression
that San Francisco undertook two great civil engineering projects, simultaneously constructing the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge
and the Golden Gate Bridge
, completing them in 1936 and 1937, respectively. It was in this period that the island of Alcatraz
, a former military stockade, began its service as a federal maximum security prison, housing notorious inmates such as Al Capone
, and Robert Franklin Stroud
, the Birdman of Alcatraz. San Francisco later celebrated its regained grandeur with a World's fair
, the Golden Gate International Exposition
in 1939–40, creating Treasure Island
in the middle of the bay to house it.
Urban planning projects in the 1950s and 1960s involved widespread destruction and redevelopment of west-side neighborhoods and the construction of new freeways, of which only a series of short segments were built before being halted by citizen-led opposition
The onset of containerization
made San Francisco's small piers obsolete, and cargo activity moved to the larger Port of Oakland
The city began to lose industrial jobs and turned to tourism as the most important segment of its economy.
The suburbs experienced rapid growth, and San Francisco underwent significant demographic change, as large segments of the white population left the city, supplanted by an increasing wave of immigration
from Asia and Latin America.
From 1950 to 1980, the city lost over 10 percent of its population.
Two recent decades have seen two booms driven by the internet industry. First was the dot-com boom
of the late 1990s, startup companies
invigorated the San Francisco economy. Large numbers of entrepreneurs and computer application developers moved into the city, followed by marketing, design, and sales professionals, changing the social landscape as once-poorer neighborhoods became increasingly gentrified
Demand for new housing and office space ignited a second wave of high-rise development, this time in the South of Market district.
By 2000, the city's population reached new highs, surpassing the previous record set in 1950. When the bubble burst in 2001, many of these companies folded and their employees were laid off. Yet high technology and entrepreneurship remain mainstays of the San Francisco economy. By the mid-2000s (decade), the social media boom
had begun, with San Francisco becoming a popular location for tech offices and a common place to live for people employed in Silicon Valley
companies such as Apple
The San Francisco Peninsula
There are more than 50 hills within the city limits.
Some neighborhoods are named after the hill on which they are situated, including Nob Hill
, Potrero Hill
, and Russian Hill
. Near the geographic center of the city, southwest of the downtown area, are a series of less densely populated hills. Twin Peaks
, a pair of hills forming one of the city's highest points, forms an overlook spot. San Francisco's tallest hill, Mount Davidson
, is 928 feet (283 m) high and is capped with a 103-foot (31 m) tall cross built in 1934.
Dominating this area is Sutro Tower
, a large red and white radio and television transmission tower.
The nearby San Andreas
and Hayward Faults
are responsible for much earthquake activity, although neither physically passes through the city itself. The San Andreas Fault caused the earthquakes in 1906 and 1989. Minor earthquakes occur on a regular basis. The threat of major earthquakes plays a large role in the city's infrastructure development. The city constructed an auxiliary water supply system
and has repeatedly upgraded its building codes, requiring retrofits for older buildings and higher engineering standards for new construction.
However, there are still thousands of smaller buildings that remain vulnerable to quake damage.
USGS has released the California earthquake forecast which models earthquake occurrence in California.
Aerial view from the west in April 2018. San Francisco is seen in the foreground, with Oakland in the background.
San Francisco's Chinatown
is the oldest (and one of the largest) in North America.
The historic center of San Francisco is the northeast quadrant of the city anchored by Market Street
and the waterfront. It is here that the Financial District
is centered, with Union Square
, the principal shopping and hotel district, and the Tenderloin
nearby. Cable cars
carry riders up steep inclines to the summit of Nob Hill
, once the home of the city's business tycoons, and down to the waterfront tourist attractions of Fisherman's Wharf
, and Pier 39
, where many restaurants feature Dungeness crab
from a still-active fishing industry. Also in this quadrant are Russian Hill
, a residential neighborhood with the famously crooked Lombard Street
; North Beach
, the city's Little Italy
and the former center of the Beat Generation
; and Telegraph Hill
, which features Coit Tower
. Abutting Russian Hill and North Beach is San Francisco's Chinatown
, the oldest Chinatown
in North America.
The South of Market
, which was once San Francisco's industrial core, has seen significant redevelopment following the construction of Oracle Park
and an infusion of startup companies
. New skyscrapers, live-work lofts, and condominiums dot the area. Further development is taking place just to the south in Mission Bay
area, a former railroad yard, which now has a second campus of the University of California, San Francisco
and Chase Center
, which opened in 2019
as the new home of the Golden State Warriors
West of downtown, across Van Ness Avenue
, lies the large Western Addition
neighborhood, which became established with a large African American population after World War II
. The Western Addition is usually divided into smaller neighborhoods including Hayes Valley
, the Fillmore
, and Japantown
, which was once the largest Japantown in North America but suffered when its Japanese American
residents were forcibly removed and interned
during World War II. The Western Addition survived the 1906 earthquake
with its Victorians
largely intact, including the famous "Painted Ladies
", standing alongside Alamo Square
. To the south, near the geographic center of the city is Haight-Ashbury
, famously associated with 1960s hippie
The Haight is now home to some expensive boutiques
and a few controversial chain stores,
although it still retains some bohemian
North of the Western Addition is Pacific Heights
, an affluent neighborhood that features the homes built by wealthy San Franciscans in the wake of the 1906 earthquake. Directly north of Pacific Heights facing the waterfront is the Marina
, a neighborhood popular with young professionals that was largely built on reclaimed land from the Bay.
In the south-east quadrant of the city is the Mission District
—populated in the 19th century by Californios
and working-class immigrants from Germany, Ireland, Italy, and Scandinavia. In the 1910s, a wave of Central American immigrants settled in the Mission and, in the 1950s, immigrants from Mexico
began to predominate.
In recent years, gentrification has changed the demographics of parts of the Mission from Latino, to twenty-something
professionals. Noe Valley
to the southwest and Bernal Heights
to the south are both increasingly popular among young families with children. East of the Mission is the Potrero Hill
neighborhood, a mostly residential neighborhood that features sweeping views of downtown San Francisco. West of the Mission, the area historically known as Eureka Valley
, now popularly called the Castro
, was once a working-class Scandinavian and Irish area. It has become North America's first gay village
, and is now the center of gay
life in the city.
Located near the city's southern border, the Excelsior District
is one of the most ethnically diverse neighborhoods in San Francisco. The predominantly African American Bayview-Hunters Point
in the far southeast corner of the city is one of the poorest neighborhoods and suffers from a high rate of crime, though the area has been the focus of several revitalizing and controversial urban renewal
The northwestern quadrant of the city contains the Richmond
, also a mostly middle-class neighborhood north of Golden Gate Park, home to immigrants from other parts of Asia as well as many Russian
immigrants. Together, these areas are known as The Avenues
. These two districts are each sometimes further divided into two regions: the Outer Richmond and Outer Sunset can refer to the more western portions of their respective district and the Inner Richmond and Inner Sunset can refer to the more eastern portions.
Many piers remained derelict for years until the demolition of the Embarcadero Freeway
reopened the downtown waterfront, allowing for redevelopment. The centerpiece of the port, the Ferry Building
, while still receiving commuter ferry traffic, has been restored and redeveloped as a gourmet marketplace.
San Francisco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate
) characteristic of California's coast, with moist mild winters and dry summers.
San Francisco's weather is strongly influenced by the cool currents
of the Pacific Ocean on the west side of the city, and the water of San Francisco Bay to the north and east. This moderates temperature swings and produces a remarkably mild year-round climate with little seasonal temperature variation.
is a regular feature of San Francisco summers.
Among major U.S. cities, San Francisco has the coolest daily mean, maximum, and minimum temperatures for June, July, and August.
During the summer, rising hot air in California's interior valleys creates a low pressure area that draws winds from the North Pacific High
through the Golden Gate, which creates the city's characteristic cool winds and fog
The fog is less pronounced in eastern neighborhoods and during the late summer and early fall. As a result, the year's warmest month, on average, is September, and on average, October is warmer than July, especially in daytime.
Because of its sharp topography and maritime influences, San Francisco exhibits a multitude of distinct microclimates
. The high hills in the geographic center of the city are responsible for a 20% variance in annual rainfall between different parts of the city. They also protect neighborhoods directly to their east from the foggy and sometimes very cold and windy conditions experienced in the Sunset District
; for those who live on the eastern side of the city, San Francisco is sunnier, with an average of 260 clear days, and only 105 cloudy days per year.
Temperatures reach or exceed 80 °F (27 °C) on an average of only 21 and 23 days a year at downtown and San Francisco International Airport
The dry period of May to October is mild to warm, with the normal monthly mean temperature peaking in September at 62.7 °F (17.1 °C).
The rainy period of November to April is slightly cooler, with the normal monthly mean temperature reaching its lowest in January at 51.3 °F (10.7 °C).
On average, there are 73 rainy days a year, and annual precipitation averages 23.65 inches (601 mm).
Variation in precipitation from year to year is high. Above average rain years are often associated with warm El Niño
conditions in the Pacific while dry years often occur in cold water La Niña
periods. In 2013 (a "La Niña" year), a record low 5.59 in (142 mm) of rainfall was recorded at downtown San Francisco, where records have been kept since 1849.
Snowfall in the city is very rare, with only 10 measurable accumulations recorded since 1852, most recently in 1976 when up to 5 inches (13 cm) fell on Twin Peaks.
The highest recorded temperature at the official National Weather Service
downtown observation station[a]
was 106 °F (41 °C) on September 1, 2017.
The lowest recorded temperature was 27 °F (−3 °C) on December 11, 1932.
The National Weather Service provides a helpful visual aid
graphing the information in the table below to display visually by month the annual typical temperatures, the past year's temperatures, and record temperatures.
Flora and fauna
Historically, tule elk
were present in San Francisco County, based on archeological evidence of elk remains in at least five different Native American
shellmounds: at Hunter's Point, Fort Mason, Stevenson Street, Market Street, and Yerba Buena.
Perhaps the first historical observer record was from the De Anza Expedition
on March 23, 1776. Herbert Eugene Bolton
wrote about the expedition camp at Mountain Lake, near the southern end of today's Presidio
: "Round about were grazing deer, and scattered here and there were the antlers of large elk."
Also, when Richard Henry Dana Jr.
visited San Francisco Bay in 1835, he wrote about vast elk herds near the Golden Gate
: on December 27 "...we came to anchor near the mouth of the bay, under a high and beautifully sloping hill, upon which herds of hundreds and hundreds of red deer [note: "red deer" is the European term for "elk"], and the stag, with his high branching antlers, were bounding about...", although it is not clear whether this was the Marin side or the San Francisco side.
Race, ethnicity, religion, and languages
San Francisco has a majority minority
population, as non-Hispanic whites
comprise less than half of the population, 41.9%, down from 92.5% in 1940.
As of the 2010 census, the ethnic makeup and population of San Francisco included: 390,387 Whites
(48%), 267,915 Asians
(33%), 48,870 African Americans
(6%), and others. There were 121,744 Hispanics or Latinos
of any race (15%).
In 2010, residents of Chinese ethnicity
constituted the largest single ethnic minority group in San Francisco at 21% of the population; the other Asian groups are Filipinos
(5%) and Vietnamese
The population of Chinese ancestry is most heavily concentrated in Chinatown, Sunset District
, and Richmond District
, whereas Filipinos are most concentrated in the Crocker-Amazon
(which is contiguous with the Filipino community of Daly City
, which has one of the highest concentrations of Filipinos in North America), as well as in SoMa
The Tenderloin District
is home to a large portion of the city's Vietnamese population as well as businesses and restaurants, which is known as the city's Little Saigon.
Map of racial distribution in San Francisco Bay Area, 2010 U.S. Census. Each dot is 25 people: White, Black, Asian, Hispanic, or Other (yellow)
Source: US Census
According to a 2014 study by the Pew Research Center
, the largest religious groupings in San Francisco's metropolitan area
(48%), followed by those of no religion
(1%) and a variety of other religions have smaller followings. According to the same study by the Pew Research Center
, about 20% of residents in the area are Protestant
, and 25% professing Roman Catholic
beliefs. Meanwhile, 10% of the residents in metropolitan San Francisco identify as agnostics
, while 5% identify as atheists
As of 2010, 55% (411,728) of San Francisco residents spoke only English
at home, while 19% (140,302) spoke a variety of Chinese
), 12% (88,147) Spanish
, 3% (25,767) Tagalog
, and 2% (14,017) Russian
. In total, 45% (342,693) of San Francisco's population spoke a language at home other than English.
San Francisco has several prominent Chinese, Mexican, and Filipino ethnic neighborhoods including Chinatown
and the Mission District
. Research collected on the immigrant clusters in the city show that more than half of the Asian population in San Francisco is either Chinese-born (40.3%) or Philippine-born (13.1%), and of the Mexican population 21% were Mexican-born, meaning these are people who recently immigrated to the United States.
Between the years of 1990 and 2000, the number foreign born residents increased from 33% to nearly 40%,
During this same time period, the San Francisco Metropolitan area received 850,000 immigrants, ranking third in the United States after Los Angeles and New York.
Education, households, and income
Of all major cities in the United States, San Francisco has the second-highest percentage of residents with a college degree, behind only Seattle
. Over 44% of adults have a bachelor's or higher degree.
San Francisco had the highest rate at 7,031 per square mile, or over 344,000 total graduates in the city's 46.7 square miles (121 km2
San Francisco has the highest estimated percentage of gay and lesbian individuals of any of the 50 largest U.S. cities, at 15%.
San Francisco also has the highest percentage of same-sex households of any American county, with the Bay Area having a higher concentration than any other metropolitan area
San Francisco ranks third of American cities in median household income
with a 2007 value of $65,519.
Median family income is $81,136.
An emigration of middle-class families has left the city with a lower proportion of children than any other large American city,
with the dog population cited as exceeding the child population of 115,000, in 2018.
The city's poverty rate
is 12%, lower than the national average.Homelessness has been a chronic problem for San Francisco
since the early 1970s.
The city is believed to have the highest number of homeless inhabitants per capita of any major U.S. city.
There are 345,811 households in the city, out of which: 133,366 households (39%) were individuals, 109,437 (32%) were opposite-sex married couples
, 63,577 (18%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 21,677 (6%) were unmarried opposite-sex partnerships
, and 10,384 (3%) were same-sex married couples or partnerships
. The average household size was 2.26; the average family size was 3.11. 452,986 people (56%) lived in rental housing units, and 327,985 people (41%) lived in owner-occupied housing units. The median age of the city population is 38 years.
San Francisco "declared itself a sanctuary city
in 1989, and city officials strengthened the stance in 2013 with its 'Due Process for All' ordinance. The law declared local authorities could not hold immigrants for immigration officials if they had no violent felonies on their records and did not currently face charges."
The city issues a Resident ID Card
regardless of the applicant's immigration status.
8,035 homeless people were counted in San Francisco's 2019 point-in-time street and shelter count. This was an increase of more than 17% over the 2017 count of 6,858 people. 5,180 of the people were living unsheltered on the streets and in parks.
26% of respondents in the 2019 count identified job loss as the primary cause of their homelessness, 18% cited alcohol or drug use, and 13% cited being evicted from their residence.
The city of San Francisco has been dramatically increasing its spending to service the growing population homelessness crisis: spending jumped by $241 million in 2016–17 to total $275 million, compared to a budget of just $34 million the previous year. In 2017–18 the budget for combatting homelessness stood at $305 million.
In the 2019–2020 budget year, the city budgeted $368 million for homelessness services. In the propose 2020–2021 budget the city budgeted $850 million for homelessness services.
In 2011, 50 murders were reported, which is 6.1 per 100,000 people.
There were about 134 rapes, 3,142 robberies, and about 2,139 assaults. There were about 4,469 burglaries, 25,100 thefts, and 4,210 motor vehicle thefts.
area has the highest crime rate in San Francisco: 70% of the city's violent crimes, and around one-fourth of the city's murders, occur in this neighborhood. The Tenderloin also sees high rates of drug abuse, gang violence, and prostitution.
Another area with high crime rates is the Bayview-Hunters Point
area. In the first six months of 2015 there were 25 murders compared to 14 in the first six months of 2014. However, the murder rate is still much lower than in past decades.
That rate, though, did rise again by the close of 2016. According to the San Francisco Police Department, there were 59 murders in the city in 2016, an annual total that marked a 13.5% increase in the number of homicides (52) from 2015.
During the first half of 2018, human feces on San Francisco sidewalks were the second-most-frequent complaint of city residents, with about 65 calls per day. The city has formed a "poop patrol" to attempt to combat the problem.
African-American street gangs familiar in other cities, including the Bloods
and their sets, have struggled to establish footholds in San Francisco,
while police and prosecutors have been accused of liberally labeling young African-American males as gang members.
However, gangs founded in San Francisco with majority Black memberships have made their presence in the city. The gang Westmob
, associated with Oakdale Mob and Sunnydale housing project gangs from the southeast area of the city, was involved in a gang war with Hunters Point-based Big Block from 1999 to the 2000s. Its current status of activity is unknown.
They claim territory from West Point to Middle Point in the Hunters Point
In 2004, a Westmob member fatally shot a SFPD officer and wounded his partner; he was sentenced to life without parole in 2007.
Criminal gangs with shotcallers in China, including Triad
groups such as the Wo Hop To
, have been reported active in San Francisco.
In 1977, an ongoing rivalry between two Chinese gangs led to a shooting attack at the Golden Dragon restaurant in Chinatown
, which left 5 people dead and 11 wounded. None of the victims in this attack were gang members. Five members of the Joe Boys
gang were arrested and convicted of the crime.
In 1990, a gang-related shooting killed one man and wounded six others outside a nightclub near Chinatown.
In 1998, six teenagers were shot and wounded at the Chinese Playground; a 16-year-old boy was subsequently arrested.
According to academic Rob Wilson, San Francisco is a global city
, a status that pre-dated the city's popularity during the California Gold Rush
Such cities are characterized by their ethnic clustering
, network of international connectivity, and convergence of technological innovation.
Global cities, such as San Francisco, are considered to be complex and require a high level of talent as well as large masses of low wage workers. A divide is created within the city of ethnic, typically lower-class neighborhoods, and expensive ones with newly developed buildings. This in turn creates a population of highly educated, white-collar individuals as well as blue-collar workers, many of whom are immigrants, and who both are drawn to the increasing number of opportunities available.
Competition for these opportunities pushes growth and adaptation in world centers.
San Francisco has a diversified service economy
, with employment spread across a wide range of professional services, including financial services
, and (increasingly) high technology
In 2016, approximately 27% of workers were employed in professional business services; 14% in leisure and hospitality; 13% in government services; 12% in education and health care; 11% in trade, transportation, and utilities; and 8% in financial activities.
In 2019, GDP in the five-county San Francisco metropolitan area
grew 3.8% in real terms to $592 billion.
Additionally, in 2019 the 14-county San Jose–San Francisco–Oaklandcombined statistical area
had a GDP of $1.086 trillion,
ranking 3rd among CSAs
, and ahead of all but 16 countries
. As of 2019, San Francisco County was the 7th highest-income county in the United States (among 3,142), with a per capita personal income of $139,405. Marin County
, directly to the north over the Golden Gate Bridge
, and San Mateo County
, directly to the south on the Peninsula
, were the 6th and 9th highest-income counties respectively.
California Street in the Financial District
The legacy of the California Gold Rush turned San Francisco into the principal banking and finance center of the West Coast
in the early twentieth century. Montgomery Street
in the Financial District
became known as the "Wall Street of the West
", home to the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco
, the Wells Fargo
corporate headquarters, and the site of the now-defunct Pacific Coast Stock Exchange
. Bank of America
, a pioneer in making banking services accessible to the middle class, was founded in San Francisco and in the 1960s, built the landmark modern skyscraper at 555 California Street
for its corporate headquarters. Many large financial institutions, multinational banks, and venture capital firms are based in or have regional headquarters in the city. With over 30 international financial institutions,
six Fortune 500
and a large support infrastructure of professional services—including law, public relations, architecture
and design—San Francisco is designated as an Alpha(-) World City
The 2017 Global Financial Centres Index
ranked San Francisco as the sixth-most competitive financial center in the world.
Since the 1990s, San Francisco's economy has diversified away from finance and tourism towards the growing fields of high tech, biotechnology
, and medical research
Technology jobs accounted for just 1 percent of San Francisco's economy in 1990, growing to 4 percent in 2010 and an estimated 8 percent by the end of 2013.
San Francisco became a center of Internet start-up companies
during the dot-com bubble
of the 1990s and the subsequent social media
boom of the late 2000s (decade).
Since 2010, San Francisco proper has attracted an increasing share of venture capital investments as compared to nearby Silicon Valley
, attracting 423 financings worth US$4.58 billion in 2013.
In 2004, the city approved a payroll tax exemption for biotechnology companies
to foster growth in the Mission Bay
neighborhood, site of a second campus and hospital of the University of California, San Francisco
(UCSF). Mission Bay hosts the UCSF Medical Center
, the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine
, California Institute for Quantitative Biosciences
, and Gladstone Institutes
as well as more than 40 private-sector life sciences companies.
The top employer in the city is the city government itself, employing 5.6% (31,000+ people) of the city's workforce, followed by UCSF
with over 25,000 employees.
The largest private-sector employer is Salesforce
, with 8,500 employees, as of 2018.
Small businesses with fewer than 10 employees and self-employed firms make up 85% of city establishments,
and the number of San Franciscans employed by firms of more than 1,000 employees has fallen by half since 1977.
The growth of national big box
and formula retail
chains into the city has been made intentionally difficult by political and civic consensus. In an effort to buoy small privately owned businesses in San Francisco and preserve the unique retail personality of the city, the Small Business Commission started a publicity campaign in 2004 to keep a larger share of retail dollars in the local economy,
and the Board of Supervisors has used the planning code to limit the neighborhoods where formula retail establishments can set up shop,
an effort affirmed by San Francisco voters.
However, by 2016, San Francisco was rated low by small businesses in a Business Friendliness Survey.
Like many U.S. cities
, San Francisco once had a significant manufacturing sector employing nearly 60,000 workers in 1969, but nearly all production left for cheaper locations by the 1980s.
As of 2014, San Francisco has seen a small resurgence in manufacturing, with more than 4,000 manufacturing jobs across 500 companies, doubling since 2011. The city's largest manufacturing employer is Anchor Brewing Company
, and the largest by revenue is Timbuk2
San Francisco became a hub for technological driven economic growth during the internet boom
of the 1990s, and still holds an important position in the world city network today.
Intense redevelopment towards the "new economy
" makes business more technologically minded. Between the years of 1999 and 2000, the job growth rate was 4.9%, creating over 50,000 jobs in technology firms and internet content production.
In the second technological boom driven by social media in the mid 2000s, San Francisco became a location for companies such as Apple
to base their tech offices and for their employees to live.
Since then, tech employment has continued to increase. In 2014, San Francisco's tech employment grew nearly 90% between 2010 and 2014, beating out Silicon Valley
's 30% growth rate over the same period.
The tech sector's dominance in the Bay Area
is internationally recognized and continues to attract new businesses and young entrepreneurs from all over the globe.
San Francisco is now widely considered the most important city in the world for new technology startups
A recent high of 7 billion dollars in venture capital
was invested in the region.
These startup companies hire well educated individuals looking to work in the tech industry, which helps the city have a well educated citizenry. Over 50% of San Franciscans have a 4-year university degree, thus the city ranks high in terms of its population's educational level.
Tourism and conventions
Tourism is one of the city's largest private-sector industries, accounting for more than one out of seven jobs in the city.
The city's frequent portrayal
in music, film, and popular culture has made the city and its landmarks recognizable worldwide. In 2016, it attracted the fifth-highest number of foreign tourists of any city in the United States.
More than 25 million visitors arrived in San Francisco in 2016, adding US$9.96 billion to the economy.
With a large hotel infrastructure and a world-class convention facility in the Moscone Center
, San Francisco is a popular destination for annual conventions and conferences.
is a popular tourist destination in San Francisco, known for its "crookedness".
Some of the most popular tourist attractions in San Francisco noted by the Travel Channel include the Golden Gate Bridge
and Alamo Square Park
, which is home to the famous "Painted Ladies
". Both of these locations were often used as landscape shots for the hit American sitcom Full House
. There is also Lombard Street
, known for its "crookedness" and extensive views. Tourists also visit Pier 39
, which offers dining, shopping, entertainment, and views of the bay, sun-bathing seals, and the famous Alcatraz Island
San Francisco also offers tourists cultural and unique nightlife in its neighborhoods.
The new Terminal Project at Pier 27 opened September 25, 2014 as a replacement for the old Pier 35.
Itineraries from San Francisco usually include round trip cruises to Alaska and Mexico.
A heightened interest in conventioneering in San Francisco, marked by the establishment of convention centers such as Yerba Buena, acted as a feeder into the local tourist economy and resulted in an increase in the hotel industry: "In 1959, the city had fewer than thirty-three hundred first-class hotel rooms; by 1970, the number was nine thousand; and by 1999, there were more than thirty thousand."
of the Castro District
has contributed to San Francisco's tourist economy.
Arts and culture
Although the Financial District
, Union Square
, and Fisherman's Wharf
are well known around the world, San Francisco is also characterized by its numerous culturally rich streetscapes featuring mixed-use
neighborhoods anchored around central commercial corridors
to which residents and visitors alike can walk. Because of these characteristics, San Francisco is ranked the second "most walkable" city in the United States by Walkscore.com.
Many neighborhoods feature a mix of businesses, restaurants and venues that cater to both the daily needs of local residents while also serving many visitors and tourists. Some neighborhoods are dotted with boutiques, cafés and nightlife such as Union Street in Cow Hollow
, 24th Street in Noe Valley
, Valencia Street in the Mission
, Grant Avenue in North Beach
, and Irving Street in the Inner Sunset
. This approach especially has influenced the continuing South of Market neighborhood redevelopment with businesses and neighborhood services rising alongside high-rise residences.
Since the 1990s, the demand for skilled information technology
workers from local startups and nearby Silicon Valley
has attracted white-collar workers
from all over the world and created a high standard of living in San Francisco.
Many neighborhoods that were once blue-collar
, middle, and lower class have been gentrifying
, as many of the city's traditional business and industrial districts have experienced a renaissance driven by the redevelopment of the Embarcadero
, including the neighborhoods South Beach
and Mission Bay
. The city's property values and household income have risen to among the highest in the nation,
creating a large and upscale restaurant, retail, and entertainment scene. According to a 2014 quality of life survey of global cities, San Francisco has the highest quality of living
of any U.S. city.
However, due to the exceptionally high cost of living, many of the city's middle and lower-class families have been leaving the city for the outer suburbs of the Bay Area, or for California's Central Valley
By June 2, 2015, the median rent was reported to be as high as $4,225.
The high cost of living is due in part to restrictive planning laws which limit new residential construction.
The international character that San Francisco has enjoyed since its founding is continued today by large numbers of immigrants from Asia and Latin America. With 39% of its residents born overseas,
San Francisco has numerous neighborhoods filled with businesses and civic institutions catering to new arrivals. In particular, the arrival of many ethnic Chinese, which began to accelerate in the 1970s, has complemented the long-established community historically based in Chinatown
throughout the city and has transformed the annual Chinese New Year Parade
into the largest event of its kind in its hemisphere.
The Sunset Reservoir
Solar Project, completed in 2010, installed 24,000 solar panels on the roof of the reservoir. The 5-megawatt plant more than tripled the city's 2-megawatt solar generation capacity when it opened in December 2010.
San Francisco has long had an LGBT
. It was home to the first lesbian-rights organization in the United States, Daughters of Bilitis
; the first openly gay person to run for public office in the United States, José Sarria
; the first openly gay man to be elected to public office in California, Harvey Milk
; the first openly lesbian judge appointed in the U.S., Mary C. Morgan
; and the first transgender
police commissioner, Theresa Sparks
. The city's large gay population has created and sustained a politically and culturally active community over many decades, developing a powerful presence in San Francisco's civic life.
Survey data released in 2015 by Gallup
place the proportion of the San Francisco metro area at 6.2%, which is the highest such proportion observed of the 50 most populous metropolitan areas as measured by the polling organization.
One of the most popular destinations for gay tourists internationally, the city hosts San Francisco Pride
, one of the largest and oldest pride parades
. San Francisco Pride
events have been held continuously since 1972. The events are themed and a new theme is created each year. In 2013, over 1.5 million people attended, around 500,000 more than the previous year.
The Folsom Street Fair
(FSF) is an annual BDSM
and leather subculture
street fair that is held in September, capping San Francisco's "Leather Pride Week".
It started in 1984 and is California's third-largest single-day, outdoor spectator event and the world's largest leather event and showcase for BDSM products and culture.
The San Francisco Museum of Modern Art
(SFMOMA) houses 20th century and contemporary works of art. It moved to its current building in the South of Market
neighborhood in 1995 and attracted more than 600,000 visitors annually.
SFMOMA closed for renovation and expansion in 2013. The museum reopened on May 14, 2016 with an addition, designed by Snøhetta
, that has doubled the museum's size.
The San Francisco Warriors played in the NBA from 1962 to 1971, before being renamed the Golden State Warriors
prior to the 1971–1972 season in an attempt to present the team as a representation of the whole state of California
The Warriors' arena, Chase Center
, is located in San Francisco.
They have won six championships,
and made five consecutive NBA Finals
from 2015 to 2019, winning three of them.
With an ideal climate for outdoor activities, San Francisco has ample resources and opportunities for amateur and participatory sports and recreation. There are more than 200 miles (320 km) of bicycle paths, lanes
and bike routes in the city.
San Francisco residents have often ranked among the fittest in the country.Golden Gate Park
has miles of paved and unpaved running trails as well as a golf course
and disc golf
course. Boating, sailing, windsurfing
are among the popular activities on San Francisco Bay, and the city maintains a yacht harbor in the Marina District
Parks and recreation
is one of the most well known parks in the area, and is often a symbol of San Francisco for its popular location for film and pop culture.
San Francisco is the first city in the U.S. to have a park within a 10-Minute Walk
of every resident.
It also ranks fifth in the U.S. for park access and quality in the 2018 ParkScore ranking of the top 100 park systems across the United States, according to the nonprofit Trust for Public Land
San Francisco—officially known as the City and County of San Francisco—is a consolidated city-county
, a status it has held since the 1856 secession of what is now San Mateo County
It is the only such consolidation in California.
is also the county executive, and the county Board of Supervisors
acts as the city council
. The government of San Francisco is a charter city
and is constituted of two co-equal branches: the executive branch is headed by the mayor and includes other citywide elected and appointed officials as well as the civil service; the 11-member Board of Supervisors, the legislative branch, is headed by a president and is responsible for passing laws and budgets, though San Franciscans also make use of direct ballot initiatives
to pass legislation.
The members of the Board of Supervisors are elected as representatives of specific districts within the city.
Upon the death or resignation of mayor, the President of the Board of Supervisors becomes acting mayor until the full Board elects an interim replacement for the remainder of the term. In 1978, Dianne Feinstein
assumed the office following the assassination of George Moscone
and was later selected by the board to finish the term. In 2011, Ed Lee
was selected by the board to finish the term of Gavin Newsom
, who resigned to take office as Lieutenant Governor of California
Lee (who won 2 elections to remain mayor) was temporarily replaced by San Francisco Board of Supervisors President London Breed
after he died on December 12, 2017. Supervisor Mark Farrell
was appointed by the Board of Supervisors to finish Lee's term on January 23, 2018.
The municipal budget for fiscal year 2015–16 was $8.99 billion,
and is one of the largest city budgets in the United States.
The City of San Francisco spends more per resident than any city other than Washington D.C, over $10,000 in FY 2015–2016.
The city employs around 27,000 workers.
Colleges and universities
The University of California, San Francisco
is the sole campus of the University of California system
entirely dedicated to graduate education in health and biomedical sciences. It is ranked among the top five medical schools in the United States
and operates the UCSF Medical Center
, which ranks as the number one hospital in California and the number 5 in the country.
UCSF is a major local employer, second in size only to the city and county government.
A 43-acre (17 ha) Mission Bay
campus was opened in 2003, complementing its original facility in Parnassus Heights
. It contains research space and facilities to foster biotechnology and life sciences entrepreneurship and will double the size of UCSF's research enterprise.
All in all, UCSF operates more than 20 facilities across San Francisco.
The University of California, Hastings College of the Law
, founded in Civic Center
in 1878, is the oldest law school in California and claims more judges on the state bench than any other institution.
San Francisco's two University of California institutions have recently formed an official affiliation in the UCSF/UC Hastings Consortium on Law, Science & Health Policy.
Founded in 1855, the University of San Francisco
, a private Jesuit
university located on Lone Mountain
, is the oldest institution of higher education in San Francisco and one of the oldest universities established west of the Mississippi River. Golden Gate University
is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational university formed in 1901 and located in the Financial District
. With an enrollment of 13,000 students, the Academy of Art University
is the largest institute of art and design in the nation.
Founded in 1871, the San Francisco Art Institute
is the oldest art school
west of the Mississippi.
The California College of the Arts
, located north of Potrero Hill
, has programs in architecture, fine arts, design, and writing.
The San Francisco Conservatory of Music
, the only independent music school
on the West Coast, grants degrees in orchestral instruments, chamber music, composition, and conducting. The California Culinary Academy
, associated with the Le Cordon Bleu
program, offers programs in the culinary arts, baking and pastry arts, and hospitality and restaurant management. California Institute of Integral Studies
, founded in 1968, offers a variety of graduate programs in its Schools of Professional Psychology & Health, and Consciousness and Transformation.
Primary and secondary schools
The San Francisco Bay Area is the sixth-largest television market
and the fourth-largest radio market
in the U.S. The city's oldest radio station, KCBS
, began as an experimental station in San Jose in 1909, before the beginning of commercial broadcasting. KALW
was the city's first FM radio station when it signed on the air in 1941. The city's first television station was KPIX
, which began broadcasting in 1948.
San Francisco-based inventors made important contributions to modern media. During the 1870s, Eadweard Muybridge
began recording motion photographically and invented a zoopraxiscope
with which to view his recordings. These were the first motion pictures. Then in 1927, Philo Farnsworth
's image dissector camera tube transmitted its first image. This was the first television.
Transit is the most used form of transportation every day in San Francisco. Every weekday, more than 560,000 people travel on Muni’s 69 bus routes and more than 140,000 customers ride the Muni Metro light rail system.
32% of San Francisco residents use public transportation for their daily commute to work, ranking it first on the West Coast and third overall in the United States.
The San Francisco Municipal Railway
, primarily known as Muni, is the primary public transit system of San Francisco. Muni is the seventh-largest transit system in the United States, with 210,848,310 rides in 2006.
The system operates a combined light rail
and subway system, the Muni Metro
, as well as large bus and trolley coach
Additionally, it runs a historic streetcar line
, which runs on Market Street from Castro Street
to Fisherman's Wharf
It also operates the famous cable cars
which have been designated as a National Historic Landmark
and are a major tourist attraction.
The Golden Gate Ferry M/V Del Norte
docked at the Ferry Building
To accommodate the large amount of San Francisco citizens who commute to the Silicon Valley
daily, employers like Genentech
, and Apple
have begun to provide private bus transportation for their employees, from San Francisco locations. These buses have quickly become a heated topic of debate within the city, as protesters
claim they block bus lanes and delay public buses.
The Bay Bridge
offers the only direct automobile connection to the East Bay.
Freeways and roads
In 2014, only 41.3% of residents commuted by driving alone or carpooling in private vehicles in San Francisco, a decline from 48.6% in 2000.
There are 1,088 miles of streets in San Francisco with 946 miles of these streets being surface streets, and 59 miles of freeways.
Due to its unique geography, and the freeway revolts
of the late 1950s,Interstate 80
begins at the approach to the Bay Bridge
and is the only direct automobile link to the East Bay. U.S. Route 101
connects to the western terminus of Interstate 80 and provides access to the south of the city along San Francisco Bay toward Silicon Valley
. Northward, the routing for U.S. 101 uses arterial streets to connect to the Golden Gate Bridge
, the only direct automobile link to Marin County
and the North Bay.
As part of the retrofitting of the Golden Gate Bridge and installation of a suicide barrier, starting in 2019 the railings on the west side of the pedestrian walkway were replaced with thinner, more flexible slats
in order to improve the bridge's aerodynamic tolerance of high wind to 100 mph (161 km/h). Starting in June 2020, reports were received of a loud hum produced by the new railing slats, heard across the city when a strong west wind was blowing.
In 2014, San Francisco committed to Vision Zero
, with the goal of ending all traffic fatalities caused by motor vehicles within the city by 2024.
San Francisco's Vision Zero plan calls for investing in engineering, enforcement, and education, and focusing on dangerous intersections. In 2013, 25 people were killed by car and truck drivers while walking and biking in the city and 9 car drivers and passengers were killed in collisions. In 2019, 42 people were killed in traffic collisions in San Francisco.
San Francisco International Airport is the primary airport of San Francisco and the Bay Area.
Though located 13 miles (21 km) south of downtown in unincorporated San Mateo County
, San Francisco International Airport
(SFO) is under the jurisdiction of the City and County of San Francisco. SFO is a hub for United Airlines
and Alaska Airlines
SFO is a major international gateway to Asia and Europe, with the largest international terminal in North America.
In 2011, SFO was the eighth-busiest airport in the U.S. and the 22nd-busiest in the world, handling over 40.9 million passengers.
Located across the bay, Oakland International Airport
is a popular, low-cost alternative to SFO. Geographically, Oakland Airport is approximately the same distance from downtown San Francisco as SFO, but due to its location across San Francisco Bay
, it is greater driving distance from San Francisco.
Cycling and walking
A bike lane in San Francisco.
San Francisco has significantly higher rates of pedestrian and bicyclist traffic deaths than the United States on average. In 2013, 21 pedestrians were killed in vehicle collisions, the highest since 2001,
which is 2.5 deaths per 100,000 population – 70% higher than the national average of 1.5.
is becoming increasingly popular in the city. Annual bicycle counts conducted by the Municipal Transportation Agency (MTA)
in 2010 showed the number of cyclists at 33 locations had increased 58% from the 2006 baseline counts.
In 2008, the MTA estimated that about 128,000 trips were made by bicycle each day in the city, or 6% of total trips.
As of 2019, 2.6% of the city's streets have protected bike lanes, with 28 miles of protected bike lanes in the city.
Since 2006, San Francisco has received a Bicycle Friendly Community status of "Gold" from the League of American Bicyclists
The city operates 22 public "pit stop" toilets.
To prevent the spread of diseases from needles, the city gives away 400,000 free syringes every month. Only 60% are ever returned. Some end up as potentially dangerous litter.
San Francisco has several nicknames, including "The City by the Bay", "Golden Gate City",
"Frisco", "SF", "San Fran", and "Fog City"; as well as older ones like "The City that Knows How", "Baghdad by the Bay", "The Paris of the West", or, as locals call it, "The City".
"San Fran" and "Frisco" are controversial as nicknames among San Francisco residents.
San Francisco participates in the Sister Cities
A total of 41 consulates general and 23 honorary consulates have offices in the San Francisco Bay Area.
- ^ Station currently at the United States Mint building[self-published source?]
- ^ The coordinates of the station are 37.7706°N 122.4269°W. Precipitation, high temperature, low temperature, snow, and snow depth records date from 1 October 1849, 1 June 1874, 1 January 1875, 1 January 1876, and 1 January 1922, respectively.
- ^ Mean monthly maxima and minima (i.e. the expected highest and lowest temperature readings at any point during the year or given month) calculated based on data at said location from 1991 to 2020.
- ^ a b Garling, Caleb (June 30, 2013). "Don't Call It Frisco: The History of San Francisco's Nicknames". The Bold Italic. Retrieved June 18, 2016.
- ^ Museum of San Francisco, retrieved June 17, 2020.
- ^ a b c Edward F. O'Day (October 1926). "The Founding of San Francisco". San Francisco Water. Spring Valley Water Authority. Archived from the original on July 27, 2010. Retrieved February 14, 2009.
- ^ "San Francisco: Government". SFGov.org. Archived from the original on March 16, 2012. Retrieved March 8, 2012. San Francisco was incorporated as a City on April 15th, 1850 by act of the Legislature.
- ^ "Office of the Mayor : Home". City & County of San Francisco. Retrieved July 11, 2018.
- ^ "Statewide Database". UC Regents. Archived from the original on February 1, 2015. Retrieved November 21, 2014.
- ^ "Board of Supervisors". City and County of San Francisco. Retrieved January 28, 2017.
- ^ "Communities of Interest – City". California Citizens Redistricting Commission. Archived from the original on October 23, 2015. Retrieved September 23, 2014.
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- ^ "2019 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 1, 2020.
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- ^ a b "Elevations and Distances in the United States". US Geological Survey. April 29, 2005. Retrieved October 29, 2014.
- ^ a b c d e "QuickFacts: San Francisco County, California". US Census Bureau. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
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- ^ "ZIP Codes for City of San Francisco, CA". 2010 United States census. 2010. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved March 14, 2021 – via Zip-Codes.com.
- ^ "NPA City Report". North American Numbering Plan Administration. Archived from the original on November 4, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014.
- ^ "GDP by County, Metro, and Other Areas; U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)".
- ^ "GCT-PH1 – Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density: 2010 – County – Census Tract". 2010 United States Census Summary File 1. United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on February 13, 2020. Retrieved February 8, 2018.
- ^ a b "Bureau of Economic Analysis". apps.bea.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2020.
- ^ Brinklow, Adam (January 26, 2018). "Is it ever okay to use "San Fran?"". Curbed. Archived from the original on May 13, 2019. Retrieved August 31, 2019.
- ^ "The Best Nicknames For San Francisco". The Culture Trip. Archived from the original on August 12, 2019. Retrieved August 21, 2019.
- ^ a b "Personal Income by County, Metro, and Other Areas | U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis (BEA)". Bea.gov. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- ^ U.S. Census Bureau (January 1, 1970). "Resident Population in San Francisco County/city, CA". FRED, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. Retrieved January 5, 2021.
- ^ a b c d "GDP by County, Metro, and Other Areas". Bea.gov. Retrieved March 27, 2021.
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- ^ a b Coy, Owen Cochran (1919). Guide to the County Archives of California. Sacramento, California: California Historical Survey Commission. p. 409.
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- ^ a b Montagne, Renée (April 11, 2006). "Remembering the 1906 San Francisco Earthquake". People & Places. NPR. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- ^ a b "Port of Embarkation Essay—World War II in the San Francisco Bay Area". A National Register of Historic Places Travel Itinerary. US Department of the Interior. August 28, 2007. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- ^ "Charter of the United Nations | United Nations". Un.org. August 10, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ "History of the United Nations | United Nations". Un.org. August 21, 2015. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ "San Francisco – the birthplace of the United Nations". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved December 29, 2016.
- ^ Top U.S. Destinations for International Visitors. The Hotel Price Index. Retrieved April 12, 2014.
- ^ "Top 200 Science cities". Retrieved August 17, 2019.
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- ^ Stewart, Suzanne B. (November 2003). "Archaeological Research Issues for the Point Reyes National Seashore – Golden Gate National Recreation Area" (PDF). Sonoma State University – Anthropological Studies Center. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
- ^ "Visitors: San Francisco Historical Information". City and County of San Francisco. n.d. Archived from the original on March 1, 2006. Retrieved June 10, 2008.
- ^ Raup, H. F. “The Delayed Discovery of San Francisco Bay.” California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 27, no. 4, 1948, p. 293. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/3816007. Accessed November 12, 2020.
- ^ The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco (July 16, 2004). "From the 1820s to the Gold Rush". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. Archived from the original on October 22, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- ^ Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 4–5. ISBN 978-0-471-19120-9. OCLC 44313415.
- ^ Sourdough bread was a staple of western explorers and miners of the 19th century. It became an iconic symbol of San Francisco, and is still a staple of city life today.Tamony, Peter (October 1973). "Sourdough and French Bread". Western Folklore. 32 (4): 265–270. doi:10.2307/1498306. JSTOR 1498306.
- ^ "San Francisco's First Brick Building". The Virtual Museum of the City of San Francisco. July 16, 2004. Retrieved June 13, 2008.
- ^ a b Richards, Rand (1992). Historic San Francisco: A Concise History and Guide. Heritage House. ISBN 978-1-879367-00-5. OCLC 214330849.
- ^ Harris, Ron (November 14, 2005). "Crews Unearth Shipwreck on San Francisco Condo Project". Associated Press. Retrieved September 4, 2006.
- ^ Filion, Ron S. "Buried Ships". SFgenealogy. Retrieved April 19, 2016.
- ^ Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 31–33. ISBN 978-0-471-19120-9. OCLC 44313415.
- ^ "The miners came in forty-nine, / The whores in fifty-one, / And when they got together / They produced the native son." Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 237–238. ISBN 978-0-471-19120-9. OCLC 44313415.
- ^ Construction of the Pacific Railroad was partially (albeit reluctantly) funded by the City and County of San Francisco Pacific Railroad Bond issue under the provisions of "An Act to Authorize the Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco to take and subscribe One Million Dollars to the Capital Stock of the Western Pacific Rail Road Company and the Central Pacific Rail Road Company of California and to provide for the payment of the same and other matters relating thereto." approved on April 22, 1863, as amended by §5 of the "Compromise Act of 1864" approved on April 4, 1864. The bond issue was objected to by the Mayor and the Board of Supervisors, however, and they were not delivered to the WPRR and CPRR until 1865 after Writs of Mandamus ordering such were issued by the Supreme Court of the State of California in 1864 ("The People of the State of California on the relation of the Central Pacific Railroad Company vs. Henry P. Coon, Mayor; Henry M. Hale, Auditor; and Joseph S. Paxson, Treasurer, of the City and County of San Francisco" 25 Cal 635) and 1865 ("The People ex rel The Central Pacific Railroad Company of California vs. The Board of Supervisors of the City and County of San Francisco, and Wilhelm Lowey, Clerk" 27 Cal 655)
- ^ a b c "Historical Census Statistics on Population Totals By Race, 1790 to 1990, and By Hispanic Origin, 1970 to 1990, For Large Cities And Other Urban Places in the United States". U.S. Census Bureau. Archived from the original on August 12, 2012. Retrieved December 18, 2011.
- ^ "Under Three Flags" (PDF). Golden Gate National Recreation Area Brochures. US Department of the Interior. November 2004. Retrieved June 22, 2011.
- ^ Wiley, Peter Booth (2000). National trust guide- San Francisco: America's guide for architecture and history travelers. New York: John Wiley & Sons, Inc. pp. 44–55. ISBN 978-0-471-19120-9. OCLC 44313415.
- ^ Kalisch, Philip A. (Summer 1972). "The Black Death in Chinatown: Plague and Politics in San Francisco 1900–1904". Arizona and the West. 14 (2): 113–136. JSTOR 40168068. PMID 11614219.
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