As there are no universally accepted criteria for distinguishing
a language from a dialect
, scholars and other interested parties often disagree about the linguistic, historical and social status of Scots, particularly its relationship to English
Although a number of paradigms for distinguishing between languages and dialects exist, they often render contradictory results. Broad Scots is at one end of a bipolar linguistic continuum, with Scottish Standard English
at the other.
Scots is sometimes regarded as a variety of English, though it has its own distinct dialects;:894
other scholars treat Scots as a distinct Germanic language, in the way that Norwegian
is closely linked to but distinct from Danish
is a contraction of Scottis
, the Older Scots
and northern version of late Old English
(modern English "Scottish"), which replaced the earlier i-mutated
Before the end of the fifteenth century, English speech in Scotland was known as "English" (written Ynglis
at the time), whereas "Scottish" (Scottis
) referred to Gaelic
By the beginning of the fifteenth century, the English language used in Scotland had arguably become a distinct language, albeit one lacking a name which clearly distinguished it from all the other English variants and dialects spoken in Britain. From 1495, the term Scottis
was increasingly used to refer to the Lowland vernacular:894
, meaning "Irish", was used as a name for Gaelic. For example, towards the end of the fifteenth century, William Dunbar
was using Erse
to refer to Gaelic and, in the early sixteenth century, Gavin Douglas
was using Scottis
as a name for the Lowland vernacular.
The Gaelic of Scotland is now usually called Scottish Gaelic
Northumbrian Old English
had been established in what is now southeastern Scotland as far as the River Forth
by the seventh century, as the region was part of the Anglo-Saxon
kingdom of Northumbria
. Middle Irish
was the language of the Scottish court
, and the common use of Old English remained largely confined to this area until the thirteenth century. The succeeding variety of early northern Middle English
spoken in southeastern Scotland is also known as Early Scots
. It began to further diverge from the Middle English of Northumbria
due to twelfth and thirteenth century immigration of Scandinavian-influenced
Middle English-speakers from the North and Midlands
Later influences on the development of Scots came from the Romance languages
and legal Latin
, Norman French
and later Parisian French
, due to the Auld Alliance
. Additionally, there were Dutch
and Middle Low German
influences due to trade with and immigration from the Low Countries
Scots also includes loan words in the legal and administrative fields resulting from contact with Middle Irish
, and reflected in early medieval legal documents.:lxi
Contemporary Scottish Gaelic
loans are mainly for geographical and cultural features, such as cèilidh
, the medieval Brittonic languages
of Northern England and Scotland, are the suspected source of a small number of Scots words, such as lum
(derived from Cumbric) meaning "chimney".
From the thirteenth century, the Early Scots language spread further into Scotland via the burghs
, which were proto-urban institutions first established by King David I
. In the fourteenth century Scotland, the growth in prestige of Early Scots and the complementary decline of French made Scots the prestige dialect
of most of eastern Scotland. By the sixteenth century, Middle Scots
had established orthographic and literary norms largely independent of those developing in England.
From the mid-sixteenth century, written Scots was increasingly influenced by the developing Standard English
of Southern England due to developments in royal and political interactions with England.:10
When William Flower
, an English herald, spoke to Mary of Guise
and her councillors in 1560, they first used the "Scottyshe toung"
. When he was "not well understanding"
, they switched into her native French. King James VI
, who in 1603 became James I of England
, observed in his work Some Reulis and Cautelis to Be Observit and Eschewit in Scottis Poesie
that "For albeit sindrie hes written of it in English, quhilk is lykest to our language..."
(For though several have written of
(the subject) in English, which is the language most similar to ours...
). However, with the increasing influence and availability of books printed in England, most writing in Scotland came to be done in the English fashion.:11
In his first speech to the English Parliament in March 1603, King James VI and I declared, "Hath not God first united these two Kingdomes both in Language, Religion, and similitude of maners?"
Following James VI's move to London, the Protestant Church of Scotland
adopted the 1611 Authorized King James Version
of the Bible; subsequently, the Acts of Union 1707
led to England joining Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain
, having a single Parliament of Great Britain
based in London. After the Union and the shift of political power to England, the use of Scots was discouraged by many in authority and education, as was the notion of "Scottishness" itself.
Many leading Scots of the period, such as David Hume
, defined themselves as Northern British
rather than Scottish.:2
They attempted to rid themselves of their Scots in a bid to establish standard English as the official language of the newly formed union. Nevertheless, Scots was still spoken across a wide range of domains until the end of the eighteenth century.:11 Frederick Pottle
, James Boswell
's twentieth-century biographer, described James's view of his father Alexander Boswell
's use of Scots[when?]
while serving as a judge of the Supreme Courts of Scotland
He scorned modern literature, spoke broad Scots from the bench, and even in writing took no pains to avoid the Scotticisms which most of his colleagues were coming to regard as vulgar.
However, others did scorn Scots, such as Scottish Enlightenment
intellectuals David Hume and Adam Smith
, who went to great lengths to get rid of every Scotticism from their writings.
Following such examples, many well-off Scots took to learning English through the activities of those such as Thomas Sheridan
, who in 1761 gave a series of lectures on English elocution
. Charging a guinea
at a time (about £200 in today's money
), they were attended by over 300 men, and he was made a freeman
of the City of Edinburgh
. Following this, some of the city's intellectuals formed the Select Society for Promoting the Reading and Speaking of the English Language in Scotland. These eighteenth-century activities would lead to the creation of Scottish Standard English
Scots remained the vernacular of many rural communities and the growing number of urban working-class Scots.:14
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the use of Scots as a literary language
was revived by several prominent Scotsmen
such as Robert Burns
. Such writers established a new cross-dialect literary norm.
During the first half of the twentieth century, knowledge of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century literary norms waned, and as of 2006, there is no institutionalised standard literary form.
By the 1940s, the Scottish Education Department
's language policy
was that Scots had no value: "it is not the language of 'educated' people anywhere, and could not be described as a suitable medium of education or culture".
Students reverted to Scots outside the classroom, but the reversion was not complete. What occurred, and has been occurring ever since, is a process of language attrition
, whereby successive generations have adopted more and more features from Standard English. This process has accelerated rapidly since widespread access to mass media in English and increased population mobility became available after the Second World War
It has recently taken on the nature of wholesale language shift
, sometimes also termed language change
. By the end of the twentieth century, Scots was at an advanced stage of language death
over much of Lowland Scotland
Residual features of Scots are often regarded as slang.
A 2010 Scottish Government
study of "public attitudes towards the Scots language" found that 64% of respondents (around 1,000 individuals in a representative sample
of Scotland's adult population) "don't really think of Scots as a language", also finding "the most frequent speakers are least likely to agree that it is not a language (58%) and those never speaking Scots most likely to do so (72%)".
Decline in status
Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self
("Love God above all and thy neighbour as thyself"), an example of Early Scots
, on John Knox House
German linguist Heinz Kloss
considered Modern Scots a Halbsprache
("half language") in terms of an abstand and ausbau languages
although today in Scotland most people's speech is somewhere on a continuum ranging from traditional broad Scots to Scottish Standard English
. Many speakers are diglossic
and may be able to code-switch
along the continuum depending on the situation. Where on this continuum English-influenced Scots becomes Scots-influenced English is difficult to determine. Because standard English now generally has the role of a Dachsprache
, disputes often arise as to whether the varieties of Scots are dialects of Scottish English or constitute a separate language in their own right.
Notwithstanding the UK government's and the Scottish Executive's obligations under part II of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages, the Scottish Executive recognises and respects Scots (in all its forms) as a distinct language, and does not consider the use of Scots to be an indication of poor competence in English.
Evidence for its existence as a separate language lies in the extensive body of Scots literature, its independent – if somewhat fluid – orthographic conventions
, and in its former use as the language of the original Parliament of Scotland
Because Scotland retained distinct political, legal, and religious systems after the Union, many Scots terms passed into Scottish English.
During the 2010s, increased interest was expressed in the language.
The status of the language was raised in Scottish schools,
with Scots being included in the new national school curriculum
Previously in Scotland's schools there had been little education taking place through the medium
of Scots, although it may have been covered superficially in English lessons, which could entail reading some Scots literature and observing the local dialect. Much of the material used was often Standard English disguised as Scots, which caused upset among proponents of Standard English and proponents of Scots alike.
One example of the educational establishment's approach to Scots is, "Write a poem in Scots. (It is important not to be worried about spelling in this – write as you hear the sounds in your head.)",
whereas guidelines for English require teaching pupils to be "writing fluently and legibly with accurate spelling and punctuation".
A course in Scots language and culture delivered through the medium of Standard English and produced by the Open University (OU)
in Scotland, the Open University's School of Languages and Applied Linguistics, and Education Scotland
, became available online for the first time in December 2019.
In the 2011 Scottish census
, a question on Scots language ability was featured
and is planned to be included again in the 2021 census.
The Scottish government set its first Scots Language Policy in 2015, in which it pledged to support its preservation and encourage respect, recognition and use of Scots.
The Scottish Parliament website also offers some information on the language in Scots.
Serious use of the language for news, encyclopaedias, documentaries, etc., remains rare and usually reserved for niches where it is deemed acceptable, e.g. comedy, Burns Night
, or representations of traditions and times gone by. However, since 2016 The National newspaper
has regularly published some news articles in the language.
The 2010s also saw an increasing number of English books translated in Scots and becoming widely available, particularly those in popular children's fiction
series such as The Gruffalo
, Harry Potter
and several by Roald Dahl
In 2021, the music streaming service Spotify
created a Scots language listing.
In Scotland, Scots is spoken in the Scottish Lowlands
, the Northern Isles
. In Ulster
, the northern province
, its area is usually defined through the works of Robert John Gregg
to include the counties
(especially in East Donegal and Inishowen
More recently, the Fintona
-born linguist Warren Maguire has argued that some of the criteria that Gregg used as distinctive of Ulster Scots are common in south-west Tyrone and were found in other sites across Northern Ireland investigated by the Linguistic Survey of Scotland
Dialects of Scots include Insular Scots
, Northern Scots
, Central Scots
, Southern Scots
and Ulster Scots
It has been difficult to determine the number of speakers of Scots via census, because many respondents might interpret the question "Do you speak Scots?" in different ways. Campaigners for Scots pressed for this question to be included in the 2001 UK National Census
. The results from a 1996 trial before the Census, by the General Register Office for Scotland
suggested that there were around 1.5 million speakers of Scots, with 30% of Scots responding "Yes" to the question "Can you speak the Scots language?", but only 17% responding "Aye" to the question "Can you speak Scots?".
It was also found that older, working-class people were more likely to answer in the affirmative. The University of Aberdeen
Scots Leid Quorum performed its own research in 1995, cautiously suggesting that there were 2.7 million speakers, though with clarification as to why these figures required context.
The GRO questions, as freely acknowledged by those who set them, were not as detailed and systematic as the University of Aberdeen
ones, and only included reared speakers (people raised speaking Scots), not those who had learned the language. Part of the difference resulted from the central question posed by surveys: "Do you speak Scots?". In the Aberdeen University study, the question was augmented with the further clause "... or a dialect of Scots such as Border etc.", which resulted in greater recognition from respondents. The GRO concluded that there simply was not enough linguistic self-awareness amongst the Scottish populace, with people still thinking of themselves as speaking badly pronounced, grammatically inferior English rather than Scots, for an accurate census to be taken. The GRO research concluded that "[a] more precise estimate of genuine Scots language ability would require a more in-depth interview survey and may involve asking various questions about the language used in different situations. Such an approach would be inappropriate for a Census." Thus, although it was acknowledged that the "inclusion of such a Census question would undoubtedly raise the profile of Scots", no question about Scots was, in the end, included in the 2001 Census.
The Scottish Government's Pupils in Scotland Census 2008
found that 306 pupils spoke Scots as their main home language. A Scottish Government
study in 2010 found that 85% of around 1000 respondents (being a representative sample of Scotland's adult population) claim to speak Scots to varying degrees.
The 2011 UK census
was the first to ask residents of Scotland about Scots. A campaign called Aye Can
was set up to help individuals answer the question.
The specific wording used was "Which of these can you do? Tick all that apply" with options for "Understand", "Speak", "Read" and "Write" in three columns: English, Scottish Gaelic and Scots.
Of approximately 5.1 million respondents, about 1.2 million (24%) could speak, read and write Scots, 3.2 million (62%) had no skills in Scots and the remainder had some degree of skill, such as understanding Scots (0.27 million, 5.2%) or being able to speak it but not read or write it (0.18 million, 3.5%).
There were also small numbers of Scots speakers recorded in England and Wales on the 2011 Census, with the largest numbers being either in bordering areas (e.g. Carlisle
) or in areas that had recruited large numbers of Scottish workers in the past (e.g. Corby
or the former mining areas of Kent
In the Victorian era
popular Scottish newspapers regularly included articles and commentary in the vernacular, often of unprecedented proportions.
In 1955, three Ayrshire
men – Sandy MacMillan, an English teacher at Ayr Academy
; Thomas Limond, noted town chamberlain of Ayr
; and A. L. "Ross" Taylor, rector of Cumnock Academy – collaborated to write Bairnsangs
a collection of children's nursery rhymes
and poems in Scots. The book contains a five-page glossary of contemporary Scots words and their pronunciations.
's translations into Scots constitute the greater part of his work, and are the main basis for his reputation.
In 2020, the Scots Wikipedia
received a burst of attention after a Reddit
post criticized it for containing a large number of articles written in very low-quality Scots by a single prolific contributor who was not a native speaker of Scots.
The vowel system of Modern Scots:
- ^ With the exception of North Northern dialects this vowel has generally merged with vowels 2, 4 or 8.
- ^ Merges with vowels 15. and 8. in central dialects and vowel 2 in Northern dialects.
- ^ a b Also /(j)u/ or /(j)ʌ/ before /k/ and /x/ depending on dialect.
- ^ Monophthongisation to /o/ may occur before /k/.
- ^ Some mergers with vowel 5.
- ^ Spelt ng, always /ŋ/.
- ^ /t/ may be a glottal stop between vowels or word final.:501 In Ulster dentalised pronunciations may also occur, also for /d/.
- ^ The cluster nch is usually realised /nʃ/:500 e.g. brainch ("branch"), dunch ("push"), etc.
- ^ In Northern dialects, the clusters kn and gn may be realised as /kn/, /tn/ and /ɡn/:501 e.g. knap ("talk"), knee, knowe ("knoll"), etc.
- ^ Spelt th. In Mid Northern varieties an intervocallic /ð/ may be realised /d/.:506 Initial "th-" in thing, think and thank, etc. may be /h/.:507
- ^ Both /s/ and /z/ may be spelt s or se. Z is seldom used for /z/ but may occur in some words as a substitute for the older ⟨ȝ⟩ (yogh) realised /jɪ/ or /ŋ/. For example: brulzie ("broil"), gaberlunzie (a beggar) and the names Menzies, Finzean, Culzean, Mackenzie etc.
- ^ a b Spelt ch, also gh. Medial "cht" may be /ð/ in Northern dialects. loch ("fjord" or "lake"), nicht ("night"), dochter ("daughter"), dreich ("dreary"), etc. Similar to the German "Nacht".:499 The spelling ch is realised /tʃ/ word initially or where it follows "r" e.g. airch ("arch"), mairch ("march"), etc.
- ^ a b Spelt r and pronounced in all positions,:510–511 i.e. rhotically.
- ^ W /w/ and wh /ʍ/, older /xʍ/, do not merge.:499 Northern dialects also have /f/ for /ʍ/.:507 The cluster wr may be realised /wr/, more often /r/, but may be /vr/ in Northern dialects:507 e.g. wrack ("wreck"), wrang ("wrong"), write, wrocht ("worked"), etc.
of Early Scots
had become more or less standardised
by the middle to late sixteenth century.
After the Union of the Crowns
in 1603, the Standard English
of England came to have an increasing influence on the spelling of Scots
through the increasing influence and availability of books printed in England. After the Acts of Union
in 1707 the emerging Scottish form of Standard English
replaced Scots for most formal writing in Scotland.:11
The eighteenth-century Scots revival saw the introduction of a new literary language
descended from the old court Scots, but with an orthography that had abandoned some of the more distinctive old Scots spellings
and adopted many standard English spellings. Despite the updated spelling, however, the rhymes make it clear that a Scots pronunciation was intended.
These writings also introduced what came to be known as the apologetic apostrophe
generally occurring where a consonant
exists in the Standard English cognate
. This Written Scots drew not only on the vernacular, but also on the King James Bible
, and was heavily influenced by the norms and conventions of Augustan English poetry
Consequently, this written Scots looked very similar to contemporary Standard English, suggesting a somewhat modified version of that, rather than a distinct speech form with a phonological system which had been developing independently for many centuries.
This modern literary dialect, "Scots of the book" or Standard Scots,
once again gave Scots an orthography of its own, lacking neither "authority nor author".
This literary language used throughout Lowland Scotland and Ulster,
embodied by writers such as Allan Ramsay, Robert Fergusson, Robert Burns, Sir Walter Scott, Charles Murray
, David Herbison
, James Orr, James Hogg
and William Laidlaw
among others, is well described in the 1921 Manual of Modern Scots
Other authors developed dialect writing, preferring to represent their own speech in a more phonological manner rather than following the pan-dialect conventions of modern literary Scots,
especially for the northern
and insular dialects of Scots.
During the twentieth century, a number of proposals for spelling reform were presented. Commenting on this, John Corbett (2003: 260) writes that "devising a normative orthography for Scots has been one of the greatest linguistic hobbies of the past century". Most proposals entailed regularising the use of established eighteenth- and nineteenth-century conventions, in particular the avoidance of the apologetic apostrophe
, which represented letters that were perceived to be missing when compared to the corresponding English cognates but were never actually present in the Scots word.
For example, in the fourteenth century, Barbour
spelt the Scots cognate
of "taken" as tane
. It is argued that, because there has been no k
in the word for over 700 years, representing its omission with an apostrophe is of little value. The current spelling is usually taen
Through the twentieth century, with the decline of spoken Scots and knowledge of the literary tradition, phonetic (often humorous) representations became more common.
Modern Scots follows the subject–verb–object
sentence structure like Standard English
. However, the word order Gie's it
(Give us it
) vs. "Give it to me" may be preferred.:897
The indefinite article a
may be used before both consonants and vowels. The definite article the
is used before the names of seasons, days of the week, many nouns, diseases, trades and occupations, sciences and academic subjects.:78
It is also often used in place of the indefinite article and instead of a possessive pronoun
Scots includes some strong plurals
such as ee/een
("cow/cows") and shae/shuin
("shoe/shoes") that survived from Old English
into Modern Scots, but have become weak plurals in Standard Modern English – ox
of measure and quantity remain unchanged in the plural.:896:80
The relative pronoun
for all persons and numbers, but may be elided
Modern Scots also has a third adjective/adverb this
) indicating something at some distance.:896 Thir
are the plurals of this
respectively. The present tense
adheres to the Northern subject rule
whereby verbs end in -s
in all persons and numbers except when a single personal pronoun is next to the verb.:896:112
Certain verbs are often used progressively:896
and verbs of motion may be dropped before an adverb or adverbial phrase
Many verbs have strong
forms which are distinctive from Standard English.:896:126
The regular past form of the weak
verbs is -it
, according to the preceding consonant or vowel.:896:113
The present participle
and gerund in
are now usually /ən/
but may still be differentiated /ən/ and /in/ in Southern Scots,
and /ən/ and /ɪn/ Northern Scots. The negative particle
, sometimes spelled nae
, e.g. canna
usually take the same form as the verb root or adjective
, especially after verbs. Examples include Haein a real guid day
("Having a really good day") and She's awfu fauchelt
("She's awfully tired").
Sample text of Modern Scots
From The Four Gospels in Braid Scots (William Wye Smith):
Noo the nativitie o' Jesus Christ was this gate: whan his mither Mary was mairry't till Joseph, 'or they cam thegither, she was fund wi' bairn o' the Holie Spirit.
Than her guidman, Joseph, bein an upricht man, and no desirin her name sud be i' teh mooth o' the public, was ettlin to pit her awa' hidlins.
But as he had thir things in his mind, see! an Angel o' the Lord appear't to him by a dream, sayin, "Joseph, son o' Dauvid, binna feared to tak till ye yere wife, Mary; for that whilk is begotten in her is by the Holie Spirit.
"And she sall bring forth a son, and ye sal ca' his name Jesus ; for he sal save his folk frae their sins."
Noo, a' this was dune, that it micht come to pass what was said by the Lord throwe the prophet,
"Tak tent! a maiden sal be wi' bairn, and sal bring forth a son; and they wull ca' his name Emmanuel," whilk is translatit, "God wi' us."
Sae Joseph, comin oot o' his sleep, did as the Angel had bidden him, and took till him his wife.
And leev'd in continence wi' her till she had brocht forth her firstborn son; and ca'd his name Jesus.
From The New Testament in Scots (William Laughton Lorimer, 1885–1967)
This is the storie o the birth o Jesus Christ. His mither Mary wis trystit til Joseph, but afore they war mairriet she wis fund tae be wi bairn bi the Halie Spírit. Her husband Joseph, honest man, hed nae mind tae affront her afore the warld an wis for brakkin aff their tryst hidlinweys; an sae he wis een ettlin tae dae, whan an angel o the Lord kythed til him in a draim an said til him, "Joseph, son o Dauvit, be nane feared tae tak Mary your trystit wife intil your hame; the bairn she is cairrein is o the Halie Spírit. She will beir a son, an the name ye ar tae gíe him is Jesus, for he will sauf his fowk frae their sins."
Aa this happent at the wurd spokken bi the Lord throu the Prophet micht be fulfilled: Behaud, the virgin wil bouk an beir a son, an they will caa his name Immanuel – that is, "God wi us".
Whan he hed waukit frae his sleep, Joseph did as the angel hed bidden him, an tuik his trystit wife hame wi him. But he bedditna wi her or she buir a son; an he caa’d the bairn Jesus.
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