The first Saudi to attempt to regain power after the fall of the Emirate of Diriyah
in 1818 was Mishari bin Saud, a brother of the last ruler in Diriyah, Abdullah ibn Saud
but he was soon captured by the Egyptians and killed. In 1824, Turki ibn Abdullah ibn Muhammad
, a grandson of the first Saudi imam Muhammad ibn Saud
who had managed to evade capture by the Egyptians, was able to expel Egyptian forces and their local allies from Riyadh and its environs and is generally regarded as the founder of the second Saudi dynasty as well as being the ancestor of the kings of modern-day Saudi Arabia. He made his capital in Riyadh and was able to enlist the services of many relatives who had escaped captivity in Egypt, including his son Faisal ibn Turki Al Saud
Turki was assassinated in 1834 by Mishari bin Abdul Rahman, a distant cousin. Mishari was soon besieged in Riyadh and later executed by Faisal, who went on to become the most prominent ruler of the Saudis' second reign. Faisal, however, faced a re-invasion of Najd by the Egyptians four years later. The local population was unwilling to resist, and Faisal was defeated and taken to Egypt as a prisoner for the second time in 1838.
The Egyptians installed Khalid bin Saud
, last surviving brother of Abdullah bin Saud bin Abdulaziz, a great grandson of Muhammad bin Saud, had spent many years in the Egyptian court, as ruler in Riyadh and supported him with Egyptian troops. In 1840, however, external conflicts forced the Egyptians to withdraw all their presence in the Arabian Peninsula
, leaving Khalid with little support. Seen by most locals as nothing more than an Egyptian governor, Khalid was toppled soon afterwards by Abdullah bin Thunayan
, of the collateral Al Thunayan
branch. Faisal, however, had been released that year and, aided by the Al Rashid rulers of Ha'il
, was able to retake Riyadh and resume his rule, later appointing his son Abdullah bin Faisal bin Turki
as heir apparent
, and divided his dominions between his three sons Abdullah, Saud
, and Muhammad.
Upon Faisal's death in 1865 the state began to decline due to the fact that different rulers, namely Abdullah, Saud, Abdul Rahman and Saud's sons, became the head of the state until 1891.
Immediately following the death of Faisal Abdullah assumed rule in Riyadh but was soon challenged by his brother, Saud. The two brothers fought a long civil war, in which they traded rule in Riyadh several times. A vassal of the Saudis, Muhammad ibn Abdallah ibn Rashid
took the opportunity to intervene in the conflict and increase his own power. Gradually, Ibn Rashid extended his authority over most of Najd, including the Saudi capital, Riyadh. Ibn Rashid finally expelled the last Saudi leader, Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, from Najd after the Battle of Mulayda
Abdul Rahman bin Faisal, last ruler of the Emirate
- ^ Front Cover George Walter Prothero, Great Britain. Foreign Office. Historical Section. Peace Handbooks: Turkey in Asia (II), no. 61–66. H. M. Stationery Office, 1920. Pp. 20
- ^ Madawi al Rasheed (April 2010). A History of Saudi Arabia. Cambridge University Press. p. 25. ISBN 9780521761284. Retrieved 18 February 2017.
- ^ Mohamed Zayyan Aljazairi (1968). "Diplomatic history of Saudi Arabia, 1903-1960's" (PDF). University of Arizona. p. 13. Retrieved 26 November 2020.
- ^ a b Roby C. Barrett (June 2015). "Saudi Arabia: Modernity, Stability, and the Twenty-First Century Monarchy" (Report). Joint Special Operations University. p. 22. Retrieved 8 February 2021.
Last edited on 4 April 2021, at 16:20
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