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Semi-arid climate
  (Redirected from Semi-arid)
A semi-arid climate, semi-desert climate, or steppe climate is the climate of a region that receives precipitation below potential evapotranspiration, but not as low as a desert climate. There are different kinds of semi-arid climates, depending on variables such as temperature, and they give rise to different biomes.
Regions with semi-arid climates
  BSh
  BSk
Defining attributes of semi-arid climates
A more precise definition is given by the Köppen climate classification, which treats steppe climates (BSk and BSh) as intermediates between desert climates (BW) and humid climates in ecological characteristics and agricultural potential. Semi-arid climates tend to support short or scrubby vegetation and are usually dominated by either grasses or shrubs.
Sahel region of Mali
To determine if a location has a semi-arid climate, the precipitation threshold must first be determined. The method used to find the precipitation threshold (in millimeters):
multiplying by 20 the average annual temperature in degrees Celsius and then
If the area's annual precipitation in millimeters is less than the threshold but more than half the threshold, it is classified as a BS (steppe or semi-arid climate).[1]
Furthermore, to delineate hot semi-arid climates from cold semi-arid climates, there are three widely used isotherms: either a mean annual temperature of 18 °C (64.4 °F), or a mean temperature of 0 or −3 °C (32.0 or 26.6 °F) in the coldest month, so that a location with a BS type climate with the appropriate temperature above whichever isotherm is being used is classified as hot semi-arid (BSh), and a location with the appropriate temperature below the given isotherm is classified as cold semi-arid (BSk).
Hot semi-arid climates
"BSh" redirects here. For other uses, see BSH.
Regions with hot semi-arid climates
Hot semi-arid climates (type "BSh") tend to be located in the 20s and 30s latitudes of the (tropics and subtropics), typically in proximity to regions with a tropical savanna or a humid subtropical climate. These climates tend to have hot, sometimes extremely hot summers and warm to cool winters, with some to minimal precipitation. Hot semi-arid climates are most commonly found around the fringes of subtropical deserts.
Hot semi-arid climates are most commonly found in Africa, Australia and South Asia. In Australia, a large portion of the Outback surrounding the central desert regions lies within the hot semi-arid climate region.[2][clarification needed] In South Asia, both India and sections of Pakistan experiences the seasonal effects of monsoons and feature short but well-defined wet seasons, but is not sufficiently wet overall to qualify as a tropical savanna climate.
Hot semi-arid climates can also be found in Europe, primarily in Southeast Spain[3][4] and parts of Greece,[5]Italy, Portugal and Cyprus. Also in parts of North America, such as in Mexico, ABC Islands, and areas of the Southwestern United States, and sections of South America such as the sertão, the Gran Chaco, and on the poleward side of the arid deserts, where they typically feature a Mediterranean precipitation pattern, with generally rainless summers and wetter winters.
Cold semi-arid climates
"BSk" redirects here. For other uses, see BSK.
Regions with cold semi-arid climates
Cold semi-arid climates (type "BSk") tend to be located in elevated portions of temperate zones, typically bordering a humid continental climate or a Mediterranean climate. They are typically found in continental interiors some distance from large bodies of water. Cold semi-arid climates usually feature warm to hot dry summers, though their summers are typically not quite as hot as those of hot semi-arid climates. Unlike hot semi-arid climates, areas with cold semi-arid climates tend to have cold winters. These areas usually see some snowfall during the winter, though snowfall is much lower than at locations at similar latitudes with more humid climates.
Areas featuring cold semi-arid climates tend to have higher elevations than areas with hot semi-arid climates, and tend to feature major temperature swings between day and night, sometimes by as much as 20°C (36°F) or more in that time frame. These large diurnal temperature variations are seldom seen in hot semi-arid climates. Cold semi-arid climates at higher latitudes tend to have dry winters and wetter summers, while cold semi-arid climates at lower latitudes tend to have precipitation patterns more akin to subtropical climates, with dry summers, relatively wet winters, and even wetter springs and autumns.
Cold semi-arid climates are most commonly found in Asia and North America. However, they can also be found in Northern Africa, South Africa, Europe, sections of South America and sections of interior southern Australia and New Zealand.
Regions of varying classification
In climate classification, three isotherms means that delineate between hot and cold semi-arid climates — the 18 °C (64 °F) average annual temperature or that of the coldest month (0 or −3 °C (32 or 27 °F)), the warm side of the isotherm of choice defining a BSh climate from the BSk on the cooler side. As a result of this, some areas can have climates that are classified as hot or cold semi-arid depending on the isotherm used. One such location is San Diego, California (at its main airport), which has cool summers for the latitude due to prevailing winds off the ocean (so the average annual temperature is below 18 °C (64 °F)) but mild winters (average temperature in January, 14 °C (57 °F), and closer to the 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) isotherm that separates tropical and subtropical climates than to the 0 or −3 °C (32 or 27 °F) isotherm for the coldest month that separates temperate and continental climates).
Charts of selected cities
Patos, Paraíba, Brazil
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
66
 
 
32
22
 
 
139
 
 
32
22
 
 
213
 
 
31
22
 
 
177
 
 
30
22
 
 
55
 
 
29
21
 
 
28
 
 
27
21
 
 
12
 
 
27
20
 
 
3
 
 
28
20
 
 
1
 
 
30
20
 
4
 
 
31
21
 
8
 
 
32
21
 
 
22
 
 
32
21
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [6]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
2.6
 
 
90
71
 
 
5.5
 
 
89
71
 
 
8.4
 
 
88
71
 
 
7
 
 
86
71
 
 
2.2
 
 
84
71
 
 
1.1
 
 
81
69
 
 
0.5
 
 
81
67
 
 
0.1
 
 
82
67
 
 
0
 
 
85
69
 
0.2
 
 
88
69
 
0.3
 
 
89
70
 
 
0.9
 
 
90
71
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Penticton, Canada
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
27
 
 
2
−3
 
 
20
 
 
5
−3
 
 
24
 
 
10
−1
 
 
26
 
 
16
3
 
 
39
 
 
21
7
 
 
46
 
 
25
11
 
 
29
 
 
29
13
 
 
28
 
 
28
13
 
 
25
 
 
22
8
 
 
26
 
 
14
3
 
 
28
 
 
7
0
 
 
29
 
 
1
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: [7]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.1
 
 
35
27
 
 
0.8
 
 
40
27
 
 
0.9
 
 
51
31
 
 
1
 
 
60
37
 
 
1.5
 
 
69
44
 
 
1.8
 
 
76
51
 
 
1.1
 
 
84
56
 
 
1.1
 
 
82
55
 
 
1
 
 
72
46
 
 
1
 
 
58
38
 
 
1.1
 
 
44
32
 
 
1.1
 
 
35
26
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Jaipur (Sanganer), India
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
8
 
 
19
4
 
 
12
 
 
22
7
 
 
6
 
 
29
12
 
 
4
 
 
34
17
 
 
16
 
 
38
21
 
 
66
 
 
38
23
 
 
216
 
 
31
22
 
 
231
 
 
29
20
 
 
80
 
 
30
19
 
 
23
 
 
30
15
 
3
 
 
25
9
 
3
 
 
20
5
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: India Weather On Web
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0.3
 
 
66
39
 
 
0.5
 
 
72
45
 
 
0.2
 
 
84
54
 
 
0.2
 
 
93
63
 
 
0.6
 
 
100
70
 
 
2.6
 
 
100
73
 
 
8.5
 
 
88
72
 
 
9.1
 
 
84
68
 
 
3.1
 
 
86
66
 
 
0.9
 
 
86
59
 
0.1
 
 
77
48
 
0.1
 
 
68
41
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Niamey, Niger
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0
 
 
33
16
 
 
0
 
 
36
19
 
 
3.9
 
 
39
23
 
 
5.7
 
 
41
27
 
 
35
 
 
40
28
 
 
69
 
 
37
26
 
 
154
 
 
34
24
 
 
171
 
 
33
23
 
 
92
 
 
34
24
 
9.7
 
 
38
24
 
0.7
 
 
36
20
 
0
 
 
33
17
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Deutscher Wetterdienst[8]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
0
 
 
91
61
 
 
0
 
 
96
66
 
 
0.2
 
 
102
73
 
 
0.2
 
 
106
80
 
 
1.4
 
 
104
82
 
 
2.7
 
 
99
78
 
 
6.1
 
 
93
75
 
 
6.7
 
 
91
74
 
 
3.6
 
 
94
74
 
0.4
 
 
100
76
 
0
 
 
97
67
 
0
 
 
92
62
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Port Louis, Mauritius
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
131
 
 
32
24
 
 
160
 
 
31
24
 
 
83
 
 
32
24
 
 
87
 
 
31
23
 
 
48
 
 
29
22
 
 
24
 
 
28
20
 
 
18
 
 
27
19
 
 
19
 
 
27
19
 
 
17
 
 
28
19
 
 
15
 
 
29
20
 
 
24
 
 
30
22
 
 
85
 
 
31
23
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: World Meteorological Organization.[9]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
5.2
 
 
89
75
 
 
6.3
 
 
89
75
 
 
3.3
 
 
89
75
 
 
3.4
 
 
87
73
 
 
1.9
 
 
85
71
 
 
0.9
 
 
82
68
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
67
 
 
0.7
 
 
80
66
 
 
0.7
 
 
82
67
 
 
0.6
 
 
84
69
 
 
0.9
 
 
86
71
 
 
3.3
 
 
88
74
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Murcia, Spain
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
25
 
 
17
5
 
 
28
 
 
18
6
 
 
30
 
 
21
8
 
 
27
 
 
23
10
 
 
32
 
 
27
13
 
 
20
 
 
31
17
 
 
5
 
 
34
20
 
 
10
 
 
34
21
 
 
27
 
 
30
18
 
 
44
 
 
26
14
 
 
32
 
 
20
9
 
 
21
 
 
17
6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[10]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1
 
 
62
40
 
 
1.1
 
 
65
43
 
 
1.2
 
 
70
46
 
 
1.1
 
 
74
49
 
 
1.3
 
 
80
56
 
 
0.8
 
 
88
63
 
 
0.2
 
 
93
69
 
 
0.4
 
 
94
70
 
 
1.1
 
 
87
64
 
 
1.7
 
 
78
57
 
 
1.3
 
 
69
48
 
 
0.8
 
 
63
42
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Reno, Nevada, United States
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
26
 
 
8
−4
 
 
26
 
 
11
−2
 
 
19
 
 
14
1
 
 
12
 
 
18
3
 
 
12
 
 
23
8
 
 
13
 
 
29
11
 
 
4.6
 
 
33
14
 
 
5.8
 
 
33
13
 
 
8.9
 
 
28
9
 
 
13
 
 
21
4
 
 
21
 
 
13
−1
 
 
26
 
 
8
−4
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: NOAA[11]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1
 
 
46
25
 
 
1
 
 
51
29
 
 
0.8
 
 
58
33
 
 
0.5
 
 
64
38
 
 
0.5
 
 
74
46
 
 
0.5
 
 
83
52
 
 
0.2
 
 
92
58
 
 
0.2
 
 
91
56
 
 
0.4
 
 
82
49
 
 
0.5
 
 
69
39
 
 
0.8
 
 
55
31
 
 
1
 
 
46
25
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Lampedusa, Italy
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
43
 
 
15
12
 
 
30
 
 
15
12
 
 
24
 
 
16
12
 
 
21
 
 
18
14
 
 
6
 
 
21
17
 
 
2
 
 
25
20
 
 
1
 
 
27
23
 
 
3
 
 
29
24
 
 
15
 
 
27
23
 
 
59
 
 
24
20
 
 
63
 
 
20
17
 
 
52
 
 
17
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: Servizio Meteorologico[12]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.7
 
 
60
53
 
 
1.2
 
 
60
53
 
 
0.9
 
 
61
54
 
 
0.8
 
 
64
57
 
 
0.2
 
 
70
62
 
 
0.1
 
 
76
68
 
 
0
 
 
81
73
 
 
0.1
 
 
83
76
 
 
0.6
 
 
81
73
 
 
2.3
 
 
75
68
 
 
2.5
 
 
68
62
 
 
2
 
 
62
56
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
Piraeus, Greece
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
42
 
 
14
8
 
 
36
 
 
14
8
 
 
34
 
 
17
10
 
 
30
 
 
20
13
 
 
16
 
 
25
18
 
 
5
 
 
30
22
 
 
6
 
 
33
25
 
 
3
 
 
33
25
 
 
11
 
 
29
22
 
 
31
 
 
24
17
 
 
59
 
 
19
13
 
 
59
 
 
15
10
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: H.N.M.S[13]
Imperial conversion
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
1.7
 
 
57
47
 
 
1.4
 
 
58
46
 
 
1.3
 
 
62
50
 
 
1.2
 
 
69
56
 
 
0.6
 
 
77
64
 
 
0.2
 
 
86
72
 
 
0.2
 
 
91
77
 
 
0.1
 
 
91
77
 
 
0.4
 
 
84
71
 
 
1.2
 
 
76
63
 
 
2.3
 
 
66
55
 
 
2.3
 
 
60
49
Average max. and min. temperatures in °F
Precipitation totals in inches
See also
References
  1. ^ Peel, M. C.; Finlayson, B. L.; McMahon, T. A. (March 1, 2007). "Updated world map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification" (PDF). hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net. University of Melbourne: Hydrology and Earth System Sciences. pp. 1633–1644. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  2. ^ Bureau of Meteorology - climate classification maps[permanent dead link]
  3. ^ "ATLAS CLIMÁTICO IBÉRICO" (PDF). administracion.gob.es/. Instituto de Meteorologia de Portugal. Retrieved May 8, 2017.
  4. ^​http://www.aemet.es/documentos/es/conocermas/recursos_en_linea/publicaciones_y_estudios/publicaciones/2Atlas_climatologico/Atlas_Clima_Macaronesia___Baja.pdf
  5. ^ "Climate Atlas of Greece" (PDF). Hellenic National Meteorological Service. Archived from the original (PDF) on 21 September 2017. Retrieved 30 December 2019.
  6. ^ Climate of Patos Access on January 16th, 2016.
  7. ^ "Moosonee UA Station". Canadian Climate Normals 1971–2000. Environment Canada. 2011-01-19. Retrieved 2012-03-24.
  8. ^ "Klimatafel von Niamey (Aéro) / Niger" (PDF). Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
  9. ^ World Weather Information Service-Port Louis, World Meteorological Organization. Retrieved 29 September 2012. }}
  10. ^ "Valores Climatológicos Normales. Murcia - Alcantarilla". Aemet.es. Archived from the original on 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2013-09-08.
  11. ^ "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved June 6, 2015.
  12. ^ "Servizio Meteorologico". Archived from the original on 2017-02-26.
  13. ^ "Climate Atlas of Greece" (PDF). H.N.M.S. Retrieved Jan 23, 2021.
External links
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Last edited on 22 April 2021, at 13:26
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