Sfax - Wikipedia
Sfax
For other uses, see Sfax (disambiguation).
Sfax (
/s(ə)
fæks
/; Arabic: صفاقس‎‎, romanizedṢafāqis Tunisian Arabic: [sˤfɑːqɛːs] (listen)) is a city in Tunisia, located 270 km (170 mi) southeast of Tunis. The city, founded in AD 849 on the ruins of Roman Taparura, is the capital of the Sfax Governorate (about 955,421 inhabitants in 2014),[citation needed] and a Mediterranean port. Sfax has a population of 330,440 (census 2014).[1] The main economic activities of Sfax are industries (phosphate processing), agriculture (olive and olive oil, nuts), fishing (largest fishing port in Tunisia) and trade (import-export). The city is often described as Tunisia's "second city", being the second-most populous city after the capital Tunis.[2]
Sfax
صفاقس
City

Clockwise from top:
the Great Mosque of Sfax and the medina skyline, Cafe Sidi Boussaid, Place de la Republique, Dar Jellouli Museum, Kasbah of Sfax, City Walls, Sidi Amor Kammoun Mosque
Sfax
Coordinates: 34°44′24″N 10°45′36″E
CountryTunisia
GovernoratesSfax Governorate
EstablishedAD 849
Government
 • MayorMounir Elloumi
Elevation0 m (0 ft)
Population (2014)
 • City330,440
 • Metro1,018,341
Time zoneUTC+1 (CET)
 • Summer (DST)UTC+1
History
The French ironclad Colbert which bombarded Sfax in 1881
Further information: Taparura and Thenae
Present-day Sfax was founded in AD 849 on the site of the ancient Roman town (civitas) of Taparura. The modern city has also grown to cover some other ancient settlements, most notably Thenae in its southern suburb of Thyna.
By the end of the 10th century, Sfax had become an independent city-state. The city was conquered by Roger II of Sicily in 1148 and occupied until it was liberated in 1156 by the Almohads, and was briefly occupied by European forces again, this time by the Spanish, in the 16th century, before falling into Ottoman hands. Sfax became an integral base of the Barbary piracy, prompting an unsuccessful invasion by Venice in 1785.
When the Bey of Tunis signed the Bardo Treaty, in 1881, making Tunisia a protectorate, an insurrection broke out in Sfax. Six ironclads were dispatched from Toulon (Colbert, Friedland, Marengo, Trident, Revanche, Surveillante) to join the French Navy ships in Tunisian waters. In Sfax, three ironclads from the Division of the Levant were already present (Alma, Reine Blanche, La Galissonnière), together with four cannon boats.[3] Sfax was bombarded, and on 16 July the city was taken by the French after hard fighting, with 7 dead and 32 wounded for the French.[3]
During World War II, the Axis powers used the city as a major base until British forces took it on 10 April 1943. After World War II, Tunisia was returned to France, but gained independence in 1956.
Transport
Sfax – Thyna International Airport
The A1 motorway connects Sfax with Tunis. A narrow gauge railway system of SNCFT offers passenger services to Tunis and delivers phosphates and iron ore for export. Sfax is served by Sfax–Thyna International Airport and Syphax Airlines has regularly scheduled flights to Paris-Charles de Gaulle Airport, Montréal–Pierre Elliott Trudeau International Airport, Sabiha Gökçen International Airport, Tripoli International Airport, and charter flights to Jeddah Airport for the pilgrimage to Mecca.
Communications
Founded in 1961, Radio Sfax broadcasts twenty hours a day[4] on MW 720 kHz/105.21 MHz.[5]
Climate
Sfax has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen BSh). Owing to its sheltered location relative to Mediterranean Sea winter storms, Sfax receives half the rainfall of Tunis and less even than the major cities of Libya (Tripoli and Benghazi). Summers, like all of North Africa, are hot and almost rainless, whilst winters are very pleasant with only light rain usual.
Climate data for Sfax (1981-2010, extremes 1950-2017)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)26.8
(80.2)
32.7
(90.9)
36.9
(98.4)
37.2
(99.0)
41.3
(106.3)
47.8
(118.0)
47.2
(117.0)
46.8
(116.2)
43.5
(110.3)
38.2
(100.8)
34.5
(94.1)
28.6
(83.5)
47.8
(118.0)
Average high °C (°F)17.1
(62.8)
18.1
(64.6)
20.2
(68.4)
22.5
(72.5)
26.0
(78.8)
29.9
(85.8)
32.7
(90.9)
33.2
(91.8)
30.5
(86.9)
27.1
(80.8)
22.3
(72.1)
18.2
(64.8)
24.8
(76.7)
Daily mean °C (°F)11.5
(52.7)
12.3
(54.1)
14.6
(58.3)
17.2
(63.0)
20.9
(69.6)
24.6
(76.3)
27.3
(81.1)
28.0
(82.4)
25.6
(78.1)
22.1
(71.8)
16.8
(62.2)
12.7
(54.9)
19.5
(67.0)
Average low °C (°F)6.4
(43.5)
7.0
(44.6)
9.3
(48.7)
12.0
(53.6)
15.7
(60.3)
19.2
(66.6)
21.6
(70.9)
22.8
(73.0)
21.1
(70.0)
17.6
(63.7)
11.8
(53.2)
7.8
(46.0)
14.4
(57.8)
Record low °C (°F)−2.3
(27.9)
−1.2
(29.8)
−1.0
(30.2)
2.0
(35.6)
6.1
(43.0)
10.6
(51.1)
13.6
(56.5)
13.2
(55.8)
11.2
(52.2)
5.2
(41.4)
2.0
(35.6)
−1.0
(30.2)
−2.3
(27.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches)30.1
(1.19)
13.5
(0.53)
21.8
(0.86)
19.1
(0.75)
13.2
(0.52)
4.2
(0.17)
1.2
(0.05)
4.2
(0.17)
24.9
(0.98)
36.6
(1.44)
25.1
(0.99)
29.0
(1.14)
222.9
(8.79)
Average rainy days (≥ 1.0 mm)3.43.33.72.81.70.60.20.52.53.62.82.928
Average relative humidity (%)65636363626059636566656663
Mean monthly sunshine hours198.4201.6238.7258.0310.0333.0378.2347.2273.0241.8210.0195.33,185.2
Mean daily sunshine hours6.47.27.78.610.011.112.211.29.17.87.06.38.7
Source 1: Institut National de la Météorologie (precipitation days/humidity/sun 1961–1990)[6][7][8][note 1]
Source 2: NOAA (humidity and sun 1961–1990)[10]
Sfax mean sea temperature[11]
JanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDec
16 °C (61 °F)15 °C (59 °F)15 °C (59 °F)17 °C (63 °F)19 °C (66 °F)22 °C (72 °F)26 °C (79 °F)28 °C (82 °F)27 °C (81 °F)25 °C (77 °F)22 °C (72 °F)18 °C (64 °F)
Education
A 2015 astronaut photo of Sfax. Shown are the old city, part of the port, and the distinctive circular earth works of the Taparura redevelopment project.
Hadi Chaker Street
The University of Sfax includes:
Sport
This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. (February 2011)
Notable people
International relations
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(October 2015) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Main article: List of twin towns and sister cities in Tunisia
Twin towns — sister cities
Sfax is twinned with:
See also
References
  1. ^ Cities of the Middle East and North Africa : a historical encyclopedia. Dumper, Michael., Stanley, Bruce E. Santa Barbara, Calif.: ABC-CLIO. 2007. ISBN 978-1-57607-920-1. OCLC 80014324.
  2. ^ "Biggest Cities In Tunisia". WorldAtlas. Retrieved 2018-07-10.
  3. ^ a b Randier 2006, p. 395.
  4. ^ Jeter, James Phillip; Rampal, Kuldip R.; Cambridge, Vibert C.; Pratt, Cornelius B. (1996). International Afro mass media: a reference guide. Westport, CT: Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 130. ISBN 0-313-28400-8. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
  5. ^ Radio Tunis (2010). "Radio Sfax, official site". Radiodiffusion Television Tunisienne. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21. Retrieved 2011-01-01.
  6. ^ "Les normales climatiques en Tunisie entre 1981 2010" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 19 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  7. ^ "Données normales climatiques 1961-1990" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  8. ^ "Les extrêmes climatiques en Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Archived from the original on 21 December 2019. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  9. ^ "Réseau des stations météorologiques synoptiques de la Tunisie" (in French). Ministère du Transport. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  10. ^ "Sfax Climate Normals 1961–1990". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. Retrieved January 24, 2015.
  11. ^ "Sfax Climate and Weather Averages, Tunisia". Weather2Travel. Retrieved 19 July 2014.
  12. ^ enis.rnu.tn
  13. ^ escs.rnu.tn
  14. ^ flshs.rnu.tn
  15. ^ fmsf.rnu.tn Archived 2007-04-05 at the Wayback Machine
  16. ^ isaas.rnu.tn
  17. ^ fsegs.rnu.tn
  18. ^ [1]
  19. ^ isimsf.rnu.tn
  20. ^ Jérôme Steffenino, Marguerite Masson. "Ville de Grenoble –Coopérations et villes jumelles". Grenoble.fr. Retrieved 16 May 2013.
  21. ^ "Universitätsstadt Marburg Partnerstädte". marburg.de. Retrieved 2011-03-20.
Notes
^ The Station ID for Sfax is 45050111.[9]
External links
Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sfax.
Last edited on 1 May 2021, at 12:53
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