Sharif of Mecca
The Sharif of Mecca (Arabic: شريف مكة‎‎, Sharīf Makkah) or Hejaz (Arabic: شريف الحجاز‎‎, Sharīf al-Ḥijāz) was the title of the leader of the Sharifate of Mecca, traditional steward of the holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the surrounding Hejaz. The term sharif is Arabic for "noble", "highborn", and is used to describe the descendants of Prophet Muhammad's grandson al-Hassan ibn Ali.
Family tree of the early sharifian dynasties of Mecca.
The Sharif was charged with protecting the cities and their environs and ensuring the safety of pilgrims performing the Hajj. The title is sometimes spelled Sheriff or Sherif, with the latter variant used, for example, by T. E. Lawrence in Seven Pillars of Wisdom.
The office of the Sharifate of Mecca dates back to the late Abbasid era. Until 1200, the Sharifate was held by a member of the Hawashim clan,[1] not to be confused with the larger clan of Banu Hashim from which all Sharifs claim descent. Descendants of the Banu Hashim continued to hold the position until the 20th century on behalf of various Muslim powers including the Ayyubids and the Mamluks. In 1517, the Sharif acknowledged the supremacy of the OttomanCaliph, but maintained a great degree of local autonomy. During the Ottoman era, the Sharifate expanded its authority northwards to include Medina, and southwards to the frontiers of 'Asir, and regularly raided Nejd.
The Sharifate came to an end shortly after the reign of Hussein bin Ali, who ruled from 1908, who rebelled against the Ottoman rule during the Arab Revolt of 1916. After the defeat of the Ottoman Empire in 1918 and its subsequent dissolution in 1923, Hussein declared himself Caliph. The British granted control over the newly formed states of Iraq and Transjordan to his sons Faisal and Abdullah. In 1924, however, in the face of increasing attacks by Ibn Saud, Hussein abdicated his secular titles to his eldest son, Ali bin Hussein, who was to become the last Grand Sharif. At the end of 1925, Ibn Saud conquered the Hejaz and expelled the Hashemites. The House of Saud has ruled the holy cities and overseen the Hajj since that time.[2]
List of Sharifs of Mecca (967–1925)
During the Fatimid Dynasty (967–1101)
Ja'farid dynasty
Ja'far ibn Muhammad al-Hasani967–980
Isa ibn Ja'far980–994
Abu'l-Futuh al-Hasan ibn Ja'far994–1012Briefly anti-Caliph in 1012
Abu Tayeb Daoud bin Abdul Rahman bin Abi Al-Fatik1012–1039
Shukr ibn Abi'l-Futuh1039–1061Died childless, end of the Ja'farid dynasty
Hawashim dynasty
Abu Hashim Muhammad ibn Ja'far1062–1094
Ibn Abu'l-Hashim al-Thalab1094–1101
During the Ayyubid Empire (1201–1254)
Qatada ibn Idris al-Hasani al-Alawi1201–1220Killed at age 90 by his son; founder of the Banu Qatada, the dynasty which ruled Mecca until 1925.
Hasan ibn Qatada al-Hasani al-Alawi1220–1241Al-Zahir Baibers ruler of Egypt sends a prince to collect Zakat from the area including the surrounding bedouins
Al-Hassan abul-Saad1241–1254
EmirReign AHReign CENotesReferences
Abu Sa'd Hasan ibn Ali ibn Qatadah647–6511250–1253Reigned until his death. Killed by Jammaz ibn Hasan.[3]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd?–651?–1253Co-reigned with his father. Named co-ruler after he defended Mecca from capture by Rajih ibn Qatadah and his Banu Husayn allies.[4]
Jammaz ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah651 – Hij 6511253 – Feb 1254Captured Mecca with an army provided by al-Nasir Yusuf, the Ayyubid ruler of Syria, to whom he had promised the khutbah. However, he reneged and continued the khutbah in the name of al-Muzaffar Yusuf, the Rasulid sultan of Yemen. Deposed by Rajih ibn Qatadah.[5]
Rajih ibn QatadahHij 651 – Rb1 652Feb 1254 – Apr/May 1254Deposed by his son Ghanim.[6]
Ghanim ibn RajihRb1 652 – Shw 652Apr/May 1254 – Nov/Dec 1254Deposed by Abu Numayy and Idris.[7]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'dShw 652 – Qid 652Nov/Dec 1254 – Jan 1255Co-rulers. Khutbah in the name of al-Ashraf Musa, the titular Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, and his atabeg al-Mu'izz Aybak. Deposed by the Yemeni emir Ibn Birtas.[8]
Idris ibn Qatadah
Rasulid occupation[9]
Husayn ibn Ali ibn Birtas
Mubariz al-Din
Qid 652 – Muh 653Jan 1255 – Mar 1255Yemeni emir. Reigned on behalf of the Rasulid sultan al-Muzaffar Yusuf.
Idris ibn QatadahMuh 653 – 654Mar 1255 – 1256Co-reigned with his nephew. Deposed in absentia by Abu Numayy when he left Mecca to visit his brother Rajih ibn Qatadah.[10]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'dMuh 653 – 656Mar 1255 –1258Co-reigned with his uncle for most of his reign.
Idris ibn Qatadah654–6561256–1258Restored as co-ruler.
Sons of Hasan ibn Qatadah6561258Took over Mecca while Abu Numayy was absent. Imprisoned Idris and held the city for six days, then withdrew when Abu Numayy returned.[11]
Idris ibn Qatadah656–6671258 – 1268/1269Co-reigned with his nephew. Deposed for his pro-Rasulid inclinations when Abu Numayy sought the favor of the Egyptian Mamluks.[12]
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
656 – Rb1 6691258 – Oct/Nov 1270Co-reigned with his uncle for most of his reign. In 667 AH he instituted the khutbah in the name of the Mamluk sultan al-Zahir Baybars. Deposed by Idris.
Idris ibn Qatadah
Baha’ al-Din
667 – Rb2/Jm1 6691268/1269 – Nov/Dec 1270Restored as co-ruler and pledged obedience to the Mamluk sultan. Co-reigned with his nephew until Rabi I 669 AH, then reigned independently for 40 days. Beheaded by Abu Numayy on the battlefield at Khulays.
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
Rb2/Jm1 669 – Saf 670Nov/Dec 1270 – Sep/Oct 1271Deposed by Jammaz ibn Shihah and Ghanim ibn Idris.[13]
Husaynid occupation
Jammaz ibn Shihah
‘Izz al-Din
Saf 670 – Rb2 670Oct 1271 – Dec 1271Co-rulers. Held Mecca for 40 days. Deposed by Abu Numayy.
Ghanim ibn Idris ibn Hasan ibn Qatadah
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
Rb2 670 – 687Dec 1271 – 1288/1289Deposed by Jammaz ibn Shihah.[14]
Husaynid occupation
Jammaz ibn Shihah
‘Izz al-Din
6871288/1289Emir of Medina. Captured Mecca with an army provided by the Mamluk sultan al-Mansur Qalawun, but afterwards struck coins and had the khutbah pronounced in his own name. Returned to Medina after he was poisoned.
Abu Numayy Muhammad ibn Abi Sa'd
Najm al-Din
687 – Saf 7011288/1289 – Oct 1301Reigned until his death.[15]
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
Saf 701 – Hij 701Oct 1301 – Aug 1302
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Abu al-Ghayth ibn Abi Numayy
Imad al-Din
Hij 701 – Hij 704Aug 1302 – Jul 1305
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
Hij 704 – c. Hij 713Jul 1305 – c. Mar 1314
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Abu al-Ghayth ibn Abi Numayy
Imad al-Din
c. Hij 713 – c. Saf 714c. Mar 1314 – c. Jun 1314
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
c. Saf 714 – Ram 715c. Mar 1314 – Dec 1315
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Ram 715 – c. Muh 718Dec 1315 – c. Mar 1318
Humaydah ibn Abi Numayy
Izz al-Din
c. Muh 718 – c. Rb2 718c. Mar 1318 – c. Jun 1318
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
c. Rb2 718 – Hij 718c. Jun 1318 – Feb 1319
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
Muh 719 – c. Rb1 731Mar 1319 – c. Jan 1331
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Qid 720 – c. Rb1 731Dec 1320 – c. Jan 1331
Egyptian occupation
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Jm1 731 – 744Feb 1331 – 1343/1344
Utayfah ibn Abi Numayy
Sayf al-Din
734 – Hij 7341333/1334 – Aug 1334
Hij 735 – c. Shw 737Jul 1335 – c. May 1337
Thaqabah ibn Rumaythah
Asad al-Din
744 – Qid 7441343/1344 – Mar/Apr 1344
Ajlan ibn Rumaythah
Izz al-Din
Rumaythah ibn Abi Numayy
Asad al-Din
Qid 744 – Jm2 746Mar/Apr 1344 – Oct 1345
During the Mamluk Empire (1254–1517)
Flag of Mamluk Hejaz
Muhammed abul-Nubaj1254–1301First Mamluk Sharif after the fall of Ayyubid Empire
Rumaitha Abul-Rada1301–1346
Ajlan Abul-Sarjah1346–1375
Sharif Ali bin Ajlan Abul-Sarjah1375–1394Later become Sultan of Brunei in 1425.
Hasan ibn Ajlan1394–1425
Barakat ibn Hasan1425–1455
Malik ul-Adil ibn Muhammad ibn Barakat1455–1473
Barakat II bin Muhammed1473–1525Built the first Walls of Jeddah by order of Al-Ashraf Qansuh al-Ghawri
During the Ottoman Empire (1517–1917)
Flag of Ottoman Hejaz
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin, Sharif of Mecca 1827–1851, as pictured in the 1848 book by William Francis Lynch
Barakat II bin Muhammed1473–1525Co-reigned with his son Abu Numayy II for the last thirteen years of his rule; first Ottoman Sharif; Hejaz became an Ottoman state after the fall of Cairo to Sultan Selim I.
Abu Numayy II bin Barakat1512–1584Co-reigned with his father Barakat II for the first thirteen years of his rule, and with his son Hassan for the last thirty-one years of his rule; rebuilt the walls of Jeddah in 1525 following the victory over the Portuguese in the Red Sea.
Hassan bin Abu Numayy II1553–1601Co-reigned with his father for the first thirty-one years of his rule.
Abd al-Muttalib bin Hassan1601Reigned for less than a year.
Abu Talib bin Hassan1601–1603Co-reigned with his brother Idris.
Idris bin Hassan1601–1620Co-reigned with his brother Abu Talib for the first two years of his rule, then with his brother Fuhaid for six years and nephew Muhsin for sixteen.
Fuhaid bin Hassan1604–1610Co-reigned with his brother Idris and his son Muhsin.
Muhsin bin Fuhaid1604–1628Co-reigned with his father for the first six years of his rule, and with his uncle Idris for the first sixteen.
Ahmed bin Abd al-Muttalib1628–1629
Masoud bin Idris1629–1630
Abdullah I bin Hassan1630–1631
Muhammed bin Abdullah1631–1632Co-reigned with his first cousin once removed, Zeid.
Zeid bin Muhsin1631–1632First reign, co-reigned with his first cousin once removed, Muhammed.
Namy bin Abd al-Muttalib1632Briefly co-reigned with his cousin Abd al-Aziz.
Abd al-Aziz bin Idris1632Briefly co-reigned with his cousin Namy.
Zeid bin Muhsin1632–1666Second reign.
Saad bin Zeid1666–1672First reign, co-reigned with his brother Ahmed for the last three years of his rule.
Ahmed bin Zeid1669–1672First reign, co-reigned with his brother Saad.
Barakat bin Muhammed bin Ibrahim bin Barakat bin Abu Numayy1672–1682
Said bin Barakat1682–1683
Ahmed bin Zeid1672–1688
Ahmed bin Ghalib bin Muhammed bin Musaid bin Masoud bin Hasan1688–1690
Muhsin bin Hussein1690–1691
Said bin Saad1691Ceded reign to his father Saad.
Saad bin Zeid1691–1696Second reign.
Abdullah II bin Hashim1696Co-reigned with Said.
Saad bin Zeid1694–1702Third reign.
Abdulkarim bin Muhammed1704–1705First reign.
Saad bin Zeid1705Fourth reign, lasted eighteen days.
Said bin Saad1705
Abdulkarim bin Muhammed1705–1711Second reign.
Said bin Saad1711–1717Second reign.
Abdullah III bin Said1717–1718First reign.
Ali bin Said1718
Yahya bin Barakat1718–1720
Mubarak bin Ahmad1720–1723
Yahya bin Barakat1723–1725
Abdullah III bin Said1725–1731Second reign.
Muhammed bin Abdullah1731–1733Co-reigned with his uncle Masoud for the last year of his rule.
Masoud bin Said1732–1752Briefly co-reigned with his nephew Muhammed for the first year of his rule.
Musaid bin Said1752–1759First reign.
Jafar bin Said1759–1760
Musaid bin Said1760–1770Second reign.
Abdullah IV bin Hussein bin Barakat1770–1771
Ahmed bin Said1771–1773
Surur bin Musaid1773–1788
Abd al-Muin bin Musaid1788First reign, only lasted a few days.
Ghalib bin Musaid1788–1813Co-reigned with his brother Abd al-Muin while Saudis held the city of Mecca.
Abd al-Muin bin Musaid1796–1813Second reign, co-reigned with his brother Ghalib.
Yahya bin Surur1813–1827
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib1827First reign.
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin bin Awn bin Muhsin bin Abdullah bin al-Hussain bin Abdullah I1827–1851First reign, placed in power by Muhammad Ali Pasha.
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib1851–1856Second reign.
Muhammed bin Abd al-Muin1856–1858Second reign.
Abdullah bin Muhammed1858–1877
Hussein bin Muhammed1877–1880
Abd al-Muttalib bin Ghalib1880–1881Third reign.
Abd al-Ilah bin Muhammed1881–1882Was appointed again in 1908 after the deposition of Ali bin Abdullah, however he died before reaching Mecca.
Awn ar-Rafiq bin Muhammed1882–1905
Ali bin Abdullah bin Muhammed1905–1908
Hussein bin Ali Pasha1908–1916Later King Hussein
Ali Haidar Pasha1916–1917
During the Kingdom of Hejaz (1916–1925)
Flag of Kingdom of Hejaz
PortraitMonarchReignNotesPrime Minister
King Hussein bin Ali1916–1924Previously Hussein PashaAli bin Hussein
King Ali bin Hussein1924–1925Invaded by Nejd on 19 December 1925Abd Allah Siraj
Muhammad at-Tawil
Genealogical tree of the Hashemite family showing their descent from Muhammad.[16][17][18][19]
See also
  1. ^ "الأشراف الهواشم الأمراء - أشراف الحجاز". www.al-amir.info (in Arabic). Retrieved 2017-03-17.
  2. ^ "Ibn Saud reign of Hejaz – www.saudinf.com".
  3. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/311–314
  4. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/312–314; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 2/39–40
  5. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/314–315
  6. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/315–316
  7. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/315–316
  8. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/316; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 1/642, 2/10; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/76
  9. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/316–317; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 1/642, 2/10–12, 44–46; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/76–77
  10. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/317–318; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 1/640–642, 2/11–12
  11. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/318; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/80
  12. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/319–321; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 1/641–642, 2/12–14; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/93–99
  13. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/321–322; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 2/14–16; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/101
  14. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/323–324; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 2/17–18; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/118–119
  15. ^ al-Sinjārī, Manā’iḥ al-karam, 2/324–325; al-‘Izz Ibn Fahd, Ghāyat al-marām, 2/38; al-Najm Ibn Fahd, Itḥāf al-wará, 3/132–134
  16. ^ Stitt, George (1948). A Prince of Arabia, the Amir Shereef Ali Haider. George Allen & Unwin, London.
  17. ^ Bosworth, Clifford Edmund (1996). The New Islamic Dynasties. Edinburgh University Press.
  18. ^ Antonius, George (1946). The Arab Awakening. Capricorn Books, New York.
  19. ^ The Hashemites, 1827-present
Last edited on 6 April 2021, at 06:17
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