Short 360 - Wikipedia
Short 360
The Short 360 (also SD3-60; also Shorts 360)[1] is a commuter aircraft that was built by Northern Irish manufacturer Short Brothers during the 1980s. The Short 360 seats up to 39 passengers and was introduced into service in November 1982. It is a larger version of the Short 330.
Short 360
A Pacific Coastal Airlines Short 360
RoleTransport aircraft
National originUnited Kingdom
ManufacturerShort Brothers
First flight1 June 1981
IntroductionNovember 1982
Primary usersAir Cargo Carriers
TransAir
Skyway Enterprises
Air Flamenco
Produced1981–1991
Number built165
Developed fromShort 330
VariantsShort C-23B/C Sherpa
Development
the prototype at the 1982 Farnborough Airshow
During the 1970s the world's commuter airline market began to evolve from the 20-seat class to larger and more comfortable cabins. Short Brothers of Northern Ireland had created the Skyvan in 1962, followed by the related but larger Short 330 in 1974. The Short 360 development was announced in 1980, with the prototype's first flight on 1 June 1981[2] and type certification awarded on 3 September 1981.
The first production Short 360 had its maiden flight on 19 August 1982[3] and entered service with Suburban Airlines (later merged with Allegheny Airlines/US Airways) in November 1982.[4]
After initiating production with the basic model, Short marketed a number of 360 developments. First was the 360 Advanced, in late 1985, with 1,424 shp (1,062 kW) PT6A-65-AR engines. That was followed by the 360/300, in March 1987, with six-blade propellers, more powerful PT6A-67R engines, and aerodynamic improvements, giving a higher cruise speed and improved "hot and high" performance. The 360/300 was also built in 360/300F freighter configuration.
Production of the 360 ceased in 1991 after 165 deliveries.[5]
Design
The Short 360 is a 36-seat derivative of the 30–33 seat Short 330. In high density configuration, 39 passengers could be carried. The two Short airliners have a high degree of commonality and are very close in overall dimensions. The later 360 is easily identified by a larger, swept tail unit mounted on a revised rear fuselage. The 360 has a 3'0" (91 cm) fuselage "plug" which gave sufficient additional length for two more seat rows (six more passengers), while the extra length smoothed out the aerodynamic profile and reduced drag.[1] Seating is arranged with two seats on the starboard side of the cabin and one seat on the port side. The 360's power is supplied by two Pratt & Whitney PT6A-65Rs.
Building on the strengths and reputation of its 330 antecedent, the 360s found a niche in regional airline use worldwide, being able to operate comfortably from 4,500 ft (1,400 m) runways – opening up hundreds of airfields that would otherwise be inaccessible to airliners. With a cruise speed about 215 mph (370 km/h), at an altitude of 10,000 ft (3,048 m), the unpressurized 360 was not the fastest turboprop in its market but it offered acceptable performance at a reasonable price combined with ease of service and maintainability.[6] The PT6A turboprops are fully ICAO Stage 3 noise-compliant, making the 360 one of the quietest turboprop aircraft operating today.
Variants
Nightexpress freighter with windows plugged
Operators
Air Cargo Carriers is the largest operator with 17
In 1998, approximately 110 360s were in service.[5] In 2017 there were 42 Short 360 in service: 17 with Air Cargo Carriers, 6 with TransAir, 4 with Skyway Enterprises, 3 with Air Flamenco, 2 with Benair, Deraya Air Taxi and Freedom Air (Guam), 1 with Ayit Aviation, Comeravia, Gryphon Airlines, International Trans Air Business, Malu Aviation and Nightexpress.[9] The Short 360 specifically proved very popular with the UK's regional airlines including the Isle of Man-based-Manx. This fed passengers into larger hubs in England, Scotland, Northern Ireland and Ireland.[citation needed]
Current and previous operators have included:
Civil operators
 Australia
 Aruba
Tiara Air
 Canada
Pacific Coastal Airlines
 China
CAAC Airlines
 Costa Rica
TACA (SANSA)
 Democratic Republic of Congo
Malu Aviation
 Dominican Republic
SAP Air Group
 Germany
 Greece
Olympic Airways
 Guam
Freedom Air (Guam)[10]
 Guatemala
TACA (INTER)
 Guernsey
Aurigny
 Honduras
TACA (ISLEÑA)[11]
 Ireland
 Israel
Ayit Aviation and Tourism
 Nicaragua
TACA (LA COSTENA)[13]
 Panama
TACA Aeroperlas
 Philippines
Philippine Airlines
 Portugal
Aero Vip
 Puerto Rico
 Seychelles
Air Seychelles (Former)
 Thailand
Thai Airways[14]
 United Kingdom
 United States
(operated by Pennsylvania Airlines and Suburban Airlines)
American Eagle
(operated by Executive Airlines, Flagship Airlines and Simmons Airlines)
(operated by WestAir Commuter Airlines)
US Airways Express
(operated by Allegheny Commuter Airlines)
US Forest Service (smokejumper aircraft)
A number of small air cargo airlines have also operated the Short 360 in freight operations in the U.S.
Military operators
 United States
US Army
 Venezuela
Venezuelan Air Force (Fuerza Aérea Venezolana)
Accidents and incidents
The Short 360 has been involved in 15 hull-loss accidents, resulting in the loss of 16 airframes.[20]
Air Cargo Carriers Flight 1290 damage caused by brake fire.
Specifications (360-300)
front view showing the square cross section and braced wing
three abreast seating of aircraft
Data from Flight International[25]
General characteristics
Performance
See also
Related development
Related lists
List of civil aircraft
References
  1. ^ a b Mondey, David. Encyclopedia of the World's Commercial and Private Aircraft. New York: Crescent Books, 1981. ISBN 0-517-36285-6, p. 228.
  2. ^ Simpson, Rod. Airlife's World Aircraft. London: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2001. ISBN 1-84037-115-3. p. 495
  3. ^ "embraer - fairchild - 1982 - 2182 - Flight Archive".
  4. ^ * Eastwood Tony and Roach John.Turbo Prop Airliner Production List. West Drayton: The Aviation Hobby Shop, 2007. p. 455.
  5. ^ a b "Short 360." Airliners.net. Retrieved: 9 August 2007.
  6. ^ Smith 1986, p. 2.
  7. ^ a b c d e Frawley, Gerard. The International Directory of Civil Aircraft, 2003/2004. Fyshwick, ACT, Australia: Aerospace Publications Pty Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-875671-58-7, p. 193.
  8. ^ "Olive-Drab: C-23." olive-drab.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  9. ^ "Worl airliner census". Flightglobal. 15 August 2017.
  10. ^ "Freedom Air." Archived 7 August 2008 at the Wayback Machine freedomairguam.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  11. ^ "HR-IAP." biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  12. ^ "EI-BSP." airliners.net. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  13. ^ "La Costeña." airliners.net.
  14. ^ "HS-TSE." biglobe.ne.jp. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  15. ^ "Fleet: G-CLAS," "G-EXPS," "G-TMRA" and "G-TMRB." Archived 31 March 2009 at the Wayback Machine hdair.com. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  16. ^ "G-BNMT." Archived 3 March 2005 at the Wayback Machine users.zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  17. ^ G-OBHD Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  18. ^ "G-BNYI." Archived 2 November 2005 at the Wayback Machine users.zetnet.co.uk. Retrieved: 18 August 2010.
  19. ^ "About FedEx: FedEx Facts." Archived 7 August 2007 at the Wayback Machine FedEx. REtrieved: 18 May 2011.
  20. ^ Ranter, Harro. "Short 360: hull losses". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 April 2013.
  21. ^ "Engine failure hits flight". HeraldScotland. Retrieved 2 August 2018.
  22. ^ https://reports.aviation-safety.net/2001/20010204-0_SH36_EI-BPD.pdf
  23. ^ https://aviation-safety.net/database/record.php?id=20010204-0
  24. ^ Ranter, Harro. "ASN Aircraft accident Shorts 360-300 FAV-1652 Maracay". aviation-safety.net. Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 24 March 2021.
  25. ^ "Commuter Aircraft Directory". Flight International. Vol. 133 no. 4112. 7 May 1988. pp. 60–61.
  26. ^ a b c Taylor, John W. R. Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1988–89. Coulsdon, UK: Jane's Defence Data, 1988. ISBN 0-7106-0867-5, pp. 305–307.
  27. ^ "Type Certificate Data Sheet No. A41EU: Revision 13" (PDF). FAA. 21 March 2007. Retrieved 29 March 2019.
  28. ^ Harry Hopkins (20 August 1983). "Shorts 360 Flight Test : Shorts' high-selling regional". Flight International.
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Last edited on 21 April 2021, at 23:43
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