Short chronology
  (Redirected from Short chronology timeline)
The short chronology is one of the chronologies of the Near Eastern Bronze and Early Iron Age, which fixes the reign of Hammurabi to 1728–1686 BC and the sack of Babylon to 1531 BC.
The absolute 2nd millennium BC dates resulting from these reference points have very little academic support, and have essentially been disproved by recent dendrochronology research.[1][2] The middle chronology (reign of Hammurabi 1792–1750 BC) is more commonly accepted in academic literature. For much of the period in question, middle chronology dates can be calculated by adding 64 years to the corresponding short chronology date (e.g. 1728 BC in short chronology corresponds to 1792 in middle chronology).
After the so-called "dark age" between the fall of Babylon and the rise of the Kassite dynasty in Babylonia, absolute dating becomes less uncertain.[3] While exact dates are still not agreed upon, the 64-year middle/short chronology gap ceases from the beginning of the Third Babylon Dynasty onward.
Early Bronze Age
Estimation of absolute dates becomes possible for the second half of the 3rd millennium BC. For the first half of the 3rd millennium, only very rough chronological matching of archaeological dates with written records is possible.
Kings of Ebla
Main article: Ebla
The city-states of Ebla and Mari (in modern Syria) competed for power at this time. Eventually, under Irkab-Damu, Ebla defeated Mari for control of the region just in time to face the rise of Uruk and Akkad. After years of back and forth, Ebla was destroyed by the Akkadian Empire. Pottery seals of the Egyptian pharaoh Pepi I have been found in the wreckage of the city. [4]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Igrish-Halamc. 2300 BC
Irkab-DamuContemporary of Iblul-Il of Mari
Ar-Ennum or Reshi-Ennum
Ibrium or EbriumContemporary of Tudiya of Assyria (treaty)
Ibbi-Sipish or Ibbi-ZikirSon of Ibrium
Dubuhu-AdaEbla destroyed by Naram-Sin of Akkad or Sargon of Akkad
Further information: Sumerian king list
Third Dynasty of Uruk
Further information: Uruk
Lugal-zage-si of Umma rules from Uruk after defeating Lagash, eventually falling to the emerging Akkadian Empire.[5]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Lugal-zage-si2295–2271 BCDefeats Urukagina of Lagash and is in turn defeated by Sargon of Akkad
Dynasty of Akkad
Further information: Akkad
Since Akkad (or Agade), the capital of the Akkadian Empire, has not yet been found, available chronological data comes from outlying locations like Ebla, Tell Brak, Nippur, Susa and Tell Leilan. Clearly, the expansion of Akkad came under the rules of Sargon and Naram-sin. Its last king, Shar-kali-sharri barely held the empire together, but upon his death, it fragmented. Finally, the city of Akkad itself was destroyed by the Guti.[6][7][8]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Sargon2270–2215 BC
Rimush2214–2206 BCSon of Sargon
Man-ishtishu2205–2191 BCSon of Sargon
Naram-sin2190–2154 BCGrandson of Sargon
Shar-kali-sharri2153–2129 BCSon of Naram-sin
Dudu2125–2104 BC
Shu-Durul2104–2083 BCCity of Akkad falls to the Guti
Gutian Kings
Further information: Gutian dynasty of Sumer
First appearing in the area during the reign of Sargon of Akkad, the Guti became a regional power after the decline of the Akkadian Empire following Shar-kali-sharri. The dynasty ends with the defeat of the last king, Tirigan, by Uruk.
Only a handful of the Guti kings are attested to by inscriptions, aside from the Sumerian king list.[9]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Erridupizir2141–2138 BCRoyal inscription at Nippur
Imta or Nibia (There is no king for 3 or 5 years)2138–2135 BC
Inkishush2135–2129 BCFirst Gutian ruler on the Sumerian king list
Sarlagab2129–2126 BC
Shulme2126–2120 BC
Elulmesh or Silulumesh2120–2114 BC
Inimabakesh2114–2109 BC
Igeshaush or Igeaus2109–2103 BC
Yarlagab or Yarlaqaba2103–2088 BC
Ibate2088–2085 BC
Yarlangab or Yarla2085–2082 BC
Kurum2082–2081 BC
Apilkin or Habil-kin or Apil-kin2081–2078 BC
La-erabum2078–2076 BCMace head inscription
Irarum2076–2074 BC
Ibranum2074–2073 BC
Hablum2073–2071 BC
Puzur-Suen2071–2064 BCSon of Hablum
Yarlaganda2064–2057 BCFoundation inscription at Umma
Si-um or Si-u2057–2050 BCFoundation inscription at Umma
Tirigan2050–2050 BCContemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Second Dynasty of Lagash
Further information: Lagash
Following the collapse of the Akkadian Empire after Shar-kali-sharri of Akkad under pressure from the invading Gutians, Lagash gradually regained prominence. As a client state to the Gutian Kings, Lagash was extremely successful, peaking under the rule of Gudea. After the last Gutian king, Tirigan, was defeated, by Utu-hengal, Lagash came under the control of Ur under Ur-Namma.[10] Note that there is some indication that the order of the last two rulers of Lagash should be reversed. [11]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Lugalushumgalca. 2140ruled under Gutian kings
Kaku or Kakugended 2093
Ur-Bau or Ur-baba2093–2080 BC
Gudea2080–2060 BCSon-in-law of Ur-baba
Ur-Ningirsu2060–2055 BCSon of Gudea
Pirigme or Ugme2055–2053 BCGrandson of Gudea
Ur-gar2053–2049 BC
Nammahani2049–2046 BCGrandson of Kaku, defeated by Ur-Namma
Fifth Dynasty of Uruk
Further information: Uruk
Uniting various Sumerian city-states, Utu-hengal frees the region from the Gutians. Note that the Sumerian king list records a preceding 4th Dynasty of Uruk which is as yet unattested. [12]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Utu-hengal2055–2048 BCAppoints Ur-Namma as governor of Ur
Third Dynasty of Ur (Sumerian Renaissance)
Main article: Third Dynasty of Ur
In an apparently peaceful transition, Ur came to power after the end of the reign of Utu-hengal of Uruk, with the first king, Ur-Namma, solidifying his power with the defeat of Lagash. By the dynasty's end with the destruction of Ur by Elamites and Shimashki, the dynasty included little more than the area around Ur.[13][14][15]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Ur-Namma or Ur-Engur2047–2030 BCDefeated Nammahani of Lagash; Contemporary of Utu-hengal of Uruk
Shulgi2029–1982 BCPossible lunar/solar eclipse 2005 BC[16]
Amar-Suena1981–1973 BCSon of Shulgi
Shu-Suen1972–1964 BC
Ibbi-Suen1963–1940 BCSon of Shu-Suen
Middle Bronze Age
The Old Assyrian / Old Babylonian period (20th to 15th centuries)
First Dynasty of Isin
Further information: Isin
After Ishbi-Erra of Isin breaks away from the declining Third Dynasty of Ur under Ibbi-Suen, Isin reaches its peak under Ishme-Dagan. Weakened by attacks from the upstart Babylonians, Isin eventually falls to its rival Larsa under Rim-Sin I.[17][18]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Ishbi-Erra1953–1921 BCContemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Šu-ilišu1920–1911 BCSon of Ishbi-Erra
Iddin-Dagan1910–1890 BCSon of Shu-ilishu
Ishme-Dagan1889–1871 BCSon of Iddin-Dagan
Lipit-Eshtar1870–1860 BCContemporary of Gungunum of Larsa
Ur-Ninurta1859–1832 BCContemporary of Abisare of Larsa
Bur-Suen1831–1811 BCSon of Ur-Ninurta
Lipit-Enlil1810–1806 BCSon of Bur-Suen
Erra-Imittī or Ura-imitti1805–1799 BC
Enlil-bāni1798–1775 BCContemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Zambīia1774–1772 BCContemporary of Sin-Iqisham of Larsa
Iter-piša1771–1768 BC
Ur-du-kuga1767–1764 BC
Suen-magir1763–1753 BC
Damiq-ilishu1752–1730 BCSon of Suen-magir
Kings of Larsa
Further information: Larsa
The chronology of the Kingdom of Larsa is based mainly on the Larsa King List (Larsa Dynastic List), the Larsa Date Lists, and a number of royal inscriptions and commercial records. The Larsa King List was compiled in Babylon during the reign of Hammurabi, conqueror of Larsa. It is suspected that the list elevated the first several Amorite Isinite governors of Larsa to kingship so as to legitimize the rule of the Amorite Babylonians over Larsa. After a period of Babylonian occupation, Larsa briefly breaks free in a revolt ended by the death of the last king, Rim-Sin II.[19][20][21]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Naplanum1961–1940 BCContemporary of Ibbi-Suen of Ur III
Emisum1940–1912 BC
Samium1912–1877 BC
Zabaia1877–1868 BCSon of Samium, First royal inscription
Gungunum1868–1841 BCGained independence from Lipit-Eshtar of Isin
Abisare1841–1830 BC
Sumuel1830–1801 BC
Nur-Adad1801–1785 BCContemporary of Sumu-la-El of Babylon
Sin-Iddinam1785–1778 BCSon of Nur-Adad
Sin-Eribam1778–1776 BC
Sin-Iqisham1776–1771 BCContemporary of Zambiya of Isin, Son of Sin-Eribam
Silli-Adad1771–1770 BC
Warad-Sin1770–1758 BCPossible co-regency with Kudur-Mabuk his father
Rim-Sin I1758–1699 BCContemporary of Irdanene of Uruk, Defeated by Hammurabi of Babylon, Brother of Warad-Sin
Hammurabi of Babylon1699–1686 BCOfficial Babylonian rule
Samsu-iluna of Babylon1686–1678 BCOfficial Babylonian rule
Rim-Sin II1678–1674 BCKilled in revolt against Babylon
First Babylonian dynasty (Dynasty I)
Main article: First Babylonian dynasty
Following the fall of the Ur III Dynasty, the resultant power vacuum was contested by Isin and Larsa, with Babylon and Assyria later joining the fray. In the second half of the reign of Hammurabi, Babylon became the preeminent power, a position it largely maintained until the sack by Mursili I in 1531 BC. Note that there are no contemporary accounts of the sack of Babylon. It is inferred from much later documents.[22][23]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Sumu-abum or Su-abu1830–1817 BCContemporary of Ilushuma of Assyria
Sumu-la-El1817–1781 BCContemporary of Erishum I of Assyria
Sabium or Sabum1781–1767 BCSon of Sumu-la-El
Apil-Sin1767–1749 BCSon of Sabium
Sin-muballit1748–1729 BCSon of Apil-Sin
Hammurabi1728–1686 BCContemporary of Zimri-Lim of Mari, Siwe-palar-huppak of Elam and Shamshi-Adad I
Samsu-iluna1686–1648 BCSon of Hammurabi
Abi-eshuh or Abieshu1648–1620 BCSon of Samsu-iluna
Ammi-ditana1620–1583 BCSon of Abi-eshuh
Ammi-saduqa or Ammisaduqa1582–1562 BCVenus tablet of Ammisaduqa
Samsu-Ditana1562–1531 BCSack of Babylon
1st Sealand Dynasty (2nd Dynasty of Babylon)
Main article: Sealand Dynasty
When the names of Sealand Dynasty kings were found on cuneiform records like the Babylonian Kings Lists, Chronicle 20, Chronicle of the Early Kings, and the Synchronistic King List, it was assumed that the dynasty slotted in between the First Dynasty of Babylon and the Kassites.[24] Later discoveries changed this to the assumption that the dynasty ran entirely in parallel to the others. Modern scholarship has made it clear that the Sealand Dynasty did in fact control Babylon and the remnants of its empire for a time after its sack by the Hittites in 1531 BC.[25][26]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Ilumael or Ilum-ma-ilīc. 1700 BCContemporary of Samsu-iluna and Abi-eshuh of the First Dynasty of Babylon
Damqi-ilišu II
mDIŠ+U-EN (reading unknown)
PešgaldaramešSon of Gulkishar
AyadaragalamaSon (=descendant) of Gulkishar
Ea-gâmilca. 1460 BCContemporary of Ulamburiash of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon
Hittite Old Kingdom
Main article: Hittites
The absolute chronology of the Hittite Old Kingdom hinges entirely on the date of the sack of Babylon. In 1531 BC, for reasons that are still extremely unclear, Mursili I marched roughly 500 miles from Aleppo to Babylon, sacked it, and then promptly returned home, never to return. Other than that event, all the available chronological synchronisms are local to the region in and near Anatolia.
RulerProposed reignNotes
Labarna I
Hattusili I or Labarna II1586–1556 BCGrandfather of Mursili I
Mursili I1556–1526 BCSacked Babylon in reign of Samsu-Ditana of Babylon
Hantili I1526–1496 BC
Zidanta I1496–1486 BC
Ammuna1486–1466 BCSon of Hantili I
Huzziya I1466–1461 BCSon of Ammuna
Late Bronze Age
Further information: Bronze Age collapse
The Middle Assyrian period (14th to 12th centuries)
Third Babylon Dynasty (Kassite)
Main article: Kassites
The Kassites first appeared during the reign of Samsu-iluna of the First Babylonian dynasty and after being defeated by Babylon, moved to control the city-state of Mari. Some undetermined amount of time after the fall of Babylon, the Kassites established a new Babylonian dynasty. The Babylonian king list identifies 36 kings reigning 576 years, however, only about 18 names are legible. A few more were identified by inscriptions. There is some confusion in the middle part of the dynasty because of conflicts between the Synchronistic Chronicle and Chronicle P. The later kings are well attested from kudurru steles. Relative dating is from sychronisms with Egypt, Assyria and the Hittites. The dynasty ends with the defeat of Enlil-nadin-ahi by Elam.[27][28][29][30]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Agum II or Agum-Kakrime
Burnaburiash ITreaty with Puzur-Ashur III of Assyria
Kashtiliash III
UlamburiashConquers the first Sealand dynasty
Agum III
KaraindashTreaty with Ashur-bel-nisheshu of Assyria
Kadashman-harbe ICampaign against the Sutû
Kurigalzu IFounder of Dur-Kurigalzu and contemporary of Thutmose IV
Kadashman-Enlil I1374–1360 BCContemporary of Amenophis III of the EgyptianAmarna letters
Burnaburiash II1359–1333 BCContemporary of Akhenaten and Ashur-uballit I
Kara-hardash1333 BCGrandson of Ashur-uballit I of Assyria
Nazi-Bugash or Shuzigash1333 BCUsurper "son of a nobody"
Kurigalzu II1332–1308 BCSon of Burnaburiash II, Fought Battle of Sugagi with Enlil-nirari of Assyria
Nazi-Maruttash1307–1282 BCContemporary of Adad-nirari I of Assyria
Kadashman-Turgu1281–1264 BCContemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kadashman-Enlil II1263–1255 BCContemporary of Hattusili III of the Hittites
Kudur-Enlil1254–1246 BCTime of Nippur renaissance
Shagarakti-Shuriash1245–1233 BC"Non-son of Kudur-Enlil" according to Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Kashtiliashu IV1232–1225 BCContemporary of Tukulti-Ninurta I of Assyria
Enlil-nadin-shumi1224 BCAssyria installed vassal king
Kadashman-Harbe II1223 BCAssyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-iddina1222–1217 BCAssyria installed vassal king
Adad-shuma-usur1216–1187 BCContemporary of Ashur-nirari III of Assyria
Meli-Shipak II1186–1172 BCCorrespondence with Ninurta-apal-Ekur confirming foundation of Near East chronology
Marduk-apla-iddina I1171–1159 BC
Zababa-shuma-iddin1158 BCDefeated by Shutruk-Nahhunte of Elam
Enlil-nadin-ahi1157–1155 BCDefeated by Kutir-Nahhunte of Elam
Main article: Mitanni
Perhaps because the capital of Mitanni, Washukanni, has not yet been found, there are no available king lists, year lists, or royal inscriptions. Fortunately, a fair amount of diplomatic, Hittite, and Assyrian sources exist to firm up the chronology. Having become powerful under Shaushtatar, Mitanni eventually falls into the traditional trap of dynasties, the contest for succession. Tushratta and Artatama II both claim the kingship and the Hittites and Assyrians take advantage of the situation. After that, Mitanni was no longer a factor in the region.[31][32]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Kirtaca. 1500 BC
Parshatatar or ParrattarnaSon of Kirta
ShaushtatarContemporary of Idrimi of Alalakh, Sacks Ashur
Artatama ITreaty with PharaohThutmose IV of Egypt, Contemporary of Pharaoh Amenhotep II of Egypt
Shuttarna IIDaughter marries Pharaoh Amenhotep III of Egypt in his year 10
ArtashumaraSon of Shutarna II, brief reign
Tushrattaca. 1350 BCContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites and PharaohsAmenhotep III and Amenhotep IV of Egypt, Amarna letters
Artatama IITreaty with Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites, ruled same time as Tushratta
Shuttarna IIIContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
ShattiwazaMitanni becomes vassal of the Hittite Empire
Shattuara IMittani becomes vassal of Assyria under Adad-nirari I
WasashattaSon of Shattuara I
Assyrian Middle Kingdom
Main article: Assyria
Long a minor player, after the defeat of its neighbor Mitanni by the Hittites, Assyria rises to the ranks of a major power under Ashur-uballit I. The period is marked by conflict with rivals Babylon and the Hittites as well as diplomatic exchanges with Egypt, in the Amarna letters. Note that after the excavation, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, of various Neo-Assyrian documents, such as the Assyrian king list, scholars assumed that the chronological data for earlier Assyrian periods could be taken as accurate history. That view has changed over the years and the early Assyrian chronology is being re-assessed. Since there is yet no consensus, the traditional order and regnal lengths will be followed.[33][34][35]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Eriba-Adad I1380–1353 BC
Ashur-uballit I1353–1318 BCContemporary of Burnaburiash II of Babylon and Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
Enlil-nirari1317–1308 BCFought Battle of Sugagi with Kurigalzu II of Babylon, Son of Ashur-uballit I
Arik-den-ili1307–1296 BC
Adad-nirari I1295–1264 BCContemporary of Shattuara I and Wasashatta of Mitanni
Shalmaneser I1263–1234 BCSon of Adad-nirari I
Tukulti-Ninurta I1233–1197 BCContemporary of Kashtiliashu IV of Babylon
Ashur-nadin-apli1196–1194 BCSon of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ashur-nirari III1193–1188 BCContemporary of Adad-shuma-usur of Babylon and Son of Ashur-nadin-apli
Enlil-kudurri-usur1187–1183 BCSon of Tukulti-Ninurta I
Ninurta-apal-Ekur1182–1180 BC
Hittite New Kingdom
Main article: Hittites
Beginning under his father, Suppiluliuma I brought the Hittites from obscurity into an empire that lasts for almost 150 years. The Hittite New Kingdom reaches its height after the defeat of Mitanni, an event which ironically leads to the rise of Assyria. The dynasty ends with the destruction of Hattusa by parties undetermined but which may have included the Sea People and the Kaskians.[36][37][38][39]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Tudhaliya III1360–1344 BCSon of Tudhaliya II
Suppiluliuma I1344–1322 BCSon of Tudhaliya III, Contemporary of Tushratta of Mitanni
Arnuwanda II1322–1321 BCSon of Suppiluliuma I
Mursili II1321–1295 BCSon of Suppiluliuma I; Mursili's eclipse
Muwatalli II1295–1272 BCSon of Mursili II, Battle of Kadesh in year 5 of Ramses II of Egypt,
Mursili III or Urhi-Teshub1272–1267 BCSon of Muwatalli II
Hattusili III1267–1237 BCSon of Mursili II, Treaty in year 21 of Ramses II of Egypt, Contemporary of Shalmaneser I of Assyria & Kadashman-Turgu of Babylon
Tudhaliya IV1237–1209 BCSon of Hattusili III, Battle of Nihriya
Arnuwanda III1209–1207 BCSon of Tudhaliya IV
Suppiluliuma II1207–1178 BCSon of Tudhaliya IV, Fall of Hattusa
Kings of Ugarit
Further information: Ugarit
A client state of Mitanni and later the Hittites, Ugarit was nonetheless a significant player in the region. While regnal lengths and an absolute chronology for Ugarit are not yet available, the known order of kings and some firm synchronisms make it reasonably placeable in time. The fall of Ugarit has been narrowed down to the range from the reign of PharaohMerneptah to the 8th year of Pharaoh Rameses III of Egypt. This is roughly the same time that Hattusa is destroyed.[40][41]
RulerProposed reignNotes
Ammittamru Ica. 1350 BC
Niqmaddu IIContemporary of Suppiluliuma I of the Hittites
NiqmepaTreaty with Mursili II of the Hittites, Son of Niqmadu II,
Ammittamru IIContemporary of Bentisina of Amurru, Son of Niqmepa
Niqmaddu III
Ammurapica. 1200 BCContemporary of Chancellor Bay of Egypt, Ugarit is destroyed
Iron Age
Further information: Neo-Hittite
The Early Iron Age (12th to 7th centuries BC). While not subject to the long versus short dating issue, chronology in the Ancient Near East is not on a firm footing until the rise of the Neo-Babylonian and Neo-Assyrian rulers in their respective regions. The dates, regnal lengths, and even the names of a number of rulers from that interim period are still unknown. To make matters worse, the few surviving records, such as the Synchronistic Chronicle, give conflicting data.[42]
Second Dynasty of Isin
Further information: Kings of Babylon
After the fall of the Kassite dynasty of Babylon to Elam, power in the region, and control of Babylon, swung to the city-state of Isin. Assyria at this time was extremely weak, except during the reign of the powerful Assyrian ruler Tiglath-Pileser I. Other polities in the area had yet to recover from the Bronze Age collapse.[43][44]
Marduk-kabit-aḫḫēšu1157–1140 BC
Itti-Marduk-balāṭu1139–1132 BC
Ninurta-nādin-šumi1131–1126 BCContemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi I of Assyria
Nebuchadnezzar I1125–1104 BCOrig. Nabu-kudurri-usur, Contemporary of Ashur-resh-ishi I
Enlil-nadin-apli1103–1100 BCSon of Nebuchadnezzar I
Marduk-nadin-ahhe1099–1082 BCContemporary of Tiglath-Pileser I of Assyria
Marduk-šāpik-zēri1081–1069 BCContemporary of Ashur-bel-kala of Assyria
Adad-apla-iddina1168–1147 BCContemporary of Ashur-bel-kala
Marduk-aḫḫē-erība1046 BC
Marduk-zer-X1045–1034 BC
Nabû-šuma-libūr1033–1026 BC
Middle-Assyrian period
Further information: Assyria
After the Middle Assyrian Kingdom there is an uncertain period in Assyrian history. The current cornerstone of chronology for this time is the Assyrian King List which, unfortunately, conflicts with other records such as the Synchronised King List and the Babylonian King List. In any event, the rulers of Assyria in this time were all fairly weak, except for Tiglath-Pileser I. Note too that this chronology is based on assumed synchronisms with Egypt in the previous period.
Ashur-Dan I1179–1133 BCSon of Ninurta-apal-Ekur
Ninurta-tukulti-Ashur1133 BC
Mutakkil-nusku1133 BC
Ashur-resh-ishi I1133–1115 BC
Tiglath-Pileser I1115–1076 BC
Asharid-apal-Ekur1076–1074 BC
Ashur-bel-kala1074–1056 BC
Eriba-Adad II1056–1054 BC
Shamshi-Adad IV1054–1050 BC
Ashur-nasir-pal I1050–1031 BC
Shalmaneser II1031–1019 BC
Ashur-nirari IV1019–1013 BC
Ashur-rabi II1013–972 BC
Ashur-resh-ishi II972–967 BC
Tiglath-Pileser II967–935 BC
Ashur-dan II935–912 BC
Further information: Kings of Babylon
Dynasties V to IX of Babylon (post-Kassite):
Simbar-šipak1025–1008 BCDynasty V – Second Sealand Dynasty
Ea-mukin-zēri1008 BC
Kaššu-nādin-aḫi1008–1004 BC
Eulmaš-šākin-šumi1004–987 BCDynasty VI – Bῑt-Bazi Dynasty
Ninurta-kudurrῑ-uṣur I987–985 BC
Širikti-šuqamuna985 BC
Mâr-bîti-apla-uṣur985–979 BCDynasty VII – Dynasty of "Elam"
Nabû-mukin-apli979–943 BCDynasty VIII – Dynasty of E
Ninurta-kudurri-usur II943 BCDynasty IX
Mar-biti-ahhe-iddina943–920 BC
Šamaš-mudammiqc. 900 BC
Nabû-šuma-ukin I
Marduk-zakir-šumi I
5 unnamed kingsc. 800 BC
Eriba-Marduk769–761 BC
Nabu-šuma-iškun761–748 BC
Nabonassar (Nabu-nasir)748–734 BCContemporary of Tiglath-Pileser III
Nabu-nadin-zeri734–732 BC
Nabu-šuma-ukin II732 BC
Neo-Assyrian Empire
Main article: Neo-Assyrian Empire
The Assyrian empire rises to become the dominant power in the ancient Near East for over two centuries. This occurs despite the efforts of various other strong groups that existed in this period, including Babylon, Urartu, Damascus, Elam, and Egypt.[45][46][47]
Adad-nirari II912–891 BC
Tukulti-Ninurta II890–884 BCSon of Adad-nirari II
Assur-nasir-pal II883–859 BCSon of Tukulti-Ninurta II
Shalmaneser III858–824 BCBattle of Qarqar
Shamshi-Adad V823–811 BCTreaty with Marduk-zakir-sumi I of Babylon
Adad-nirari III810–783 BCRegent Shammu-ramat
Shalmaneser IV782–773 BCSon of Adad-nirari III
Ashur-Dan III772–755 BCEclipse on June 15 763 BC
Ashur-nirari V754–745 BC
Tiglath-Pileser III744–727 BCContemporary of Nabonassar of Babylon
Shalmaneser V726–722 BCContemporary of Rusas I of Urartu
Sargon II721–705 BCContemporary of Marduk-apla-iddina II of Babylon
Sennacherib704–681 BCContemporary of Shutruk-Nahhunte II of Elam
Esarhaddon680–669 BCContemporary of PharaohTaharqa of Egypt
Assurbanipal668–631 BC
Further information: Kings of Babylon
Dynasties X of Babylon (Assyrian):
Babylon was under the direct control of Neo-Assyrian rulers or their appointed governors for much of this period.
Nabu-mukin-zeri of Assyria732–729 BC
Tiglath-Pileser III of Assyria729–727 BC
Shalmaneser V of Assyria727–722 BC
Marduk-apla-iddina II722–710 BC
Sargon II of Assyria710–705 BC
Sennacherib of Assyria705–703 BC
Marduk-zakir-shumi II703 BC
Marduk-apla-iddina II703 BC
Bel-ibni703–700 BCAssyrian appointed governor
Ashur-nadin-shumi700–694 BCSon of Sennacherib of Assyria
Nergal-ushezib694–693 BC
Mushezib-Marduk693–689 BC
Sennacherib of Assyria689–681 BC
Esarhaddon of Assyria681–669 BC
Shamash-shum-ukin668–648 BCSon of Esarhaddon of Assyria
Kandalanu648–627 BC
Sin-shumu-lishir626 BC
Sinsharishkunca. 627–620 BCSon of Assurbanipal of Assyria
Classical Antiquity
For times after Assurbanipal (died 627 BC), see:
The Hellenistic period begins with the conquests of Alexander the Great in 330 BC.
See also
  1. ^ Manning, S. W.; Kromer, B.; Kuniholm, P. I.; and Newton, M. W. 2001 Anatolian tree-rings and a new chronology for the east Mediterranean Bronze-Iron Ages. Science 294: 2532-35.
  2. ^ Sturt W. Manning et al., Integrated Tree-Ring-Radiocarbon High-Resolution Timeframe to Resolve Earlier Second Millennium BCE Mesopotamian Chronology, PlosONE July 13 2016
  3. ^ [1], Schwartz, Glenn, 2008. "Problems of Chronology: Mesopotamia, Anatolia, and the Syro-Levantine Region." In Beyond Babylon: Art, Trade, and Diplomacy in the Second Millennium B.C., edited by Joan Aruz, Kim Benzel, and Jean M. Evans: 450-452.
  4. ^ A Victory over Mari and the Fall of Ebla, Alfonso Archi, Maria Giovanna Biga, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 55, 2003, pp. 1-44
  5. ^ Sumerian and Akkadian Royal Inscriptions: Presargonic Inscriptions, Jerold S. Cooper, Eisenbrauns, 1986, ISBN 0-940490-82-X
  6. ^ The Genesis and Collapse of Third Millennium North Mesopotamian Civilization, H. Weiss et al., Science, Aug 20, pp. 995-1004, 1993
  7. ^ Historical Perception in the Sargonic Literary Tradition. The Implication of Copied Texts, Rosetta 1, pp 1-9, 2006
  8. ^ The Sargonic and Gutian Periods (2334-2113), Douglas R. Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8020-0593-4
  9. ^ Reallexikon der Assyriologie by Erich Ebling, Bruno Meissner, 1993, Walter de Gruyter, ISBN 3-11-003705-X
  10. ^ Gudea and His Dynasty, Dietz Otto Edzard, 1997, University of Toronto Press ISBN 0-8020-4187-6
  11. ^ The Calendar of Neo-Sumerian Ur and Its Political Significance, Magnus Widell, University of Chicago, 2004
  12. ^ A Sumerian reading-book, C.J Gadd, The Clarendon Press, 1924
  13. ^ The Ancient Near East: C.3000-330 B.C. By Amélie Kuhrt, Routledge, 1995, ISBN 0-415-16762-0
  14. ^ Ur III Period (2112-2004 BC) by Douglas Frayne, University of Toronto Press, 1997, ISBN 0-8020-4198-1
  15. ^ The ruling family of Ur III Umma. A Prosopographical Analysis of an Elite Family in Southern Iraq 4000 Years ago Archived 2006-05-12 at the Wayback Machine, J.L. Dahl, UCLA dissertation, 2003
  16. ^ "Ancient Eclipses and Dating the Fall of Babylon"[permanent dead link], Boris Banjevic, Publ. Astron. Obs. Belgrade No. 80 (2006), 251 – 257
  17. ^ Kings of Isin Year Names
  18. ^ The Old Babylonian Period (2003-1595), Douglas R. Frayne, University Of Toronto Press, 1990, ISBN 0-8020-5873-6
  19. ^ The Rulers of Larsa Archived 2009-03-06 at the Wayback Machine, M. Fitzgerald, Yale University Dissertation, 2002
  20. ^ Larsa Year Names, Marcel Segrist, Andrews University Press, 1990, ISBN 0-943872-54-5
  21. ^ Chronology of the Larsa Dynasty, E.M. Grice, C.E. Keiser, M. Jastrow, AMS Press, 1979, ISBN 0-404-60274-6
  22. ^ Chronicle of early kings at Livius.org
  23. ^ The Proclamation of Telipinu Archived 2012-08-16 at the Wayback Machine
  24. ^ Albert Kirk Grayson, Assyrian and Babylonian chronicles, Eisenbrauns, 2000 ISBN 1-57506-049-3
  25. ^ W. G. Lambert, The Home of the First Sealand Dynasty, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 208-210, 1974
  26. ^ Stephanie Dalley, Babylonian Tablets from The First Sealand Dynasty in the Schoyen Collection, CDL Press, 2009 ISBN 1-934309-08-7
  27. ^ The Collapse of a Complex State, A Reappraisal of the End of the First Dynasty of Babylon 1683–1597 B.C., Seth Richardson, dissertation, Columbia University, 2002
  28. ^ J. A. Brinkman (1976). Materials for the Study of Kassite History, Vol. I (MSKH I). Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago.
  29. ^ The Kassites of Ancient Mesopotamian: Origins, Politics, and Culture, Walter Sommerfield, vol 2 of J. M. Sasson ed. Civilizations of the Ancient Near East, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1995
  30. ^ "The Kassites and Near Eastern Chronology," Albrecht Goetze, Journal of Cuneiform Studies, Vol. 18, No. 4, 1964, pp. 97–101.
  31. ^ Pharaoh and his Brothers, S Jakob
  32. ^ Letters of the Great Kings of the Ancient Near East, Trevor Bryce, Routledge, 2003, ISBN 0-415-25857-X
  33. ^ "Comments on the Nassouhi Kinglist and the Assyrian Kinglist Tradition," J.A. Brinkman, Orientalia N.S 42, 1973
  34. ^ Assyrian Rulers of the Third and Second Millennia BC, A.K. Grayson, University of Toronto Press, 1987, ISBN 0-8020-2605-2
  35. ^ "The Chronology of Ancient Assyria Re-assessed," B. Newgrosh, JACF, vol. 08, pp. 78–106, 1999
  36. ^ Bryce, T., 'The 'Eternal Treaty' from the Hittite perspective', BMSAES 6 (2006), 1–11
  37. ^ Sürenhagen, D., 'Forerunners of the Hattusili-Ramesses treaty', BMSAES 6 (2006), 59–67
  38. ^ Hittite Studies in Honor of Harry A. Hoffner Jr. on the Occasion of His 65th Birthday. Eisenbrauns, 2003, ISBN 1-57506-079-5
  39. ^ Hittite Diplomatic Texts, G Brinkman, Scholars Press, 1999, ISBN 0-7885-0551-3
  40. ^ Handbook of Ugaritic Studies, edited by Wilfred G. E. Watson and Nicolas Wyatt, Brill, 1999, ISBN 90-04-10988-9
  41. ^ The City of Ugarit at Tell Ras Shamra, Marguerite Yon, Eisenbrauns, 2006, ISBN 1-57506-029-9
  42. ^ John Anthony Brinkman, A Political History of Post-Kassite Babylonia, 1158–722 B.C., Biblical Institute Press, 1968, ISBN 88-7653-243-9
  43. ^ A Poebel, "The Second Dynasty of Isin According to a New King-List Tablet," Assyriological Studies 15, Oriental Institute of Chicago, 1955
  44. ^ J. A. Brinkman, "Foreign Relations of Babylonia from 1600 to 624 B. C.: The Documentary Evidence," American Journal of Archaeology, vol. 76, no. 3, pp. 271–281, 1972
  45. ^ "Landscape and Settlement in the Neo-Assyrian Empire," T. J. Wilkinson, E. B. Wilkinson, J. Ur, M. Altaweel, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, Nov 2005
  46. ^ Neo-Assyrian Eponym List Livius.org
  47. ^ Empires and Exploitation: The Neo-Assyrian Empire Archived 2008-08-27 at the Wayback Machine, P Bedford, WA Perth, 2001
External links
Last edited on 16 August 2020, at 19:57
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