Shrines are found in many of the world's religions, including Christianity
, Chinese folk religion
, indigenous Philippine folk religions
, and Asatru
as well as in secular and non-religious settings such as a war memorial. Shrines can be found in various settings, such as churches
, or in the home. However, portable shrines
are also found in some cultures.
Types of shrines
Many shrines are located within buildings and in the temples designed specifically for worship, such as a church
in Christianity, or a mandir
in Hinduism. A shrine here is usually the center of attention in the building and is given a place of prominence. In such cases, adherents of the faith assemble within the building in order to venerate the deity at the shrine. In classical temple architecture, the shrine may be synonymous with the cella
Small outdoor yard shrines are found at the bottom of many peoples' gardens, following various religions, including historically, Christianity
. Many consist of a statue of Christ
, Virgin Mary
or a saint
, on a pedestal or in an alcove, while others may be elaborate booths without ceilings, some include paintings, statuary, and architectural elements, such as walls, roofs, glass doors and ironwork fences.
In the United States, some Christians have small yard shrines; some of these resemble side altars, since they are composed of a statue placed in a niche or grotto
; this type is colloquially referred to as a bathtub madonna
Religious images, usually in some sort of small shelter, placed by a road or pathway, sometimes in a settlement or at a crossroads.
Shrine of Qubrat Hamran, South Arabia, dating from the 15th or 16th century.
Shrines are found in many religions. As distinguished from a temple
, a shrine usually houses a particular relic
or cult image
, which is the object of worship
. A shrine may also be constructed to set apart a site which is thought to be particularly holy, as opposed to being placed for the convenience of worshipers. Shrines therefore attract the practice of pilgrimage
Another use of the term "shrine" in colloquial Catholic terminology is a niche or alcove in most – especially larger – churches used by parishioners when praying privately in the church. They were also called devotional altars
, since they could look like small side altars
or bye-altars. Shrines were always centered on some image of Christ, Mary
or a saint – for instance, a statue, painting, mural or mosaic, and may have had a reredos
behind them (without a Tabernacle
built in).
would not be celebrated at them; they were simply used to aid or give a visual focus for prayers. Side altars, where Mass could actually be celebrated, were used in a similar way to shrines by parishioners. Side altars were specifically dedicated to The Virgin Mary
, Saint Joseph
as well as other saints.
Islam's holiest structure, the Kaaba
(within the Al-Haram Mosque
) in the city of Mecca
, though an ancient temple (in the sense of a "house of God"), may be seen as a shrine
due to it housing a respected relic called the Hajar al-Aswad
and also being the partial focus of the world's largest pilgrimage practice, the Hajj
. A few yards away, the mosque also houses the Maqam Ibrahim
's station") shrine containing a petrosomatoglyph
(of feet) associated with the patriarch and his son Ishmael
's building of the Kaaba in Islamic tradition.
The Green Dome
sepulcher of the Islamic prophet Muhammad
(where his burial chamber also contains the tombs of his friend Abu Bakr
and close companion Umar
) in Medina
, housed in the Masjid an-Nabawi
("The Mosque of the Prophet"),
occurs as a greatly venerated place and important as a site of pilgrimage among Muslims.
More than any other shrines in the Muslim world, the tomb of Muhammad
is considered a source of blessings for the visitor.
attributed to Muhammad include one stated as: "He who visits my grave will be entitled to my intercession."
Visiting Muhammad's tomb after the pilgrimage is considered by the majority of Sunni
legal scholars to be recommended.
Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
(d. 852 AH) explicitly stated that travelling to visit the tomb of the Prophet was "one of the best of actions and the noblest of pious deeds with which one draws near to God, and its legitimacy is a matter of consensus."
Similarly, Ibn Qudamah
(d. 620 AH) considered ziyāra
of the Prophet to be recommended and also seeking intercession directly from the Prophet at his grave.
The tombs of other Muslim religious figures are also respected. The son of Ahmad ibn Hanbal
, one of the primary jurists of Sunnism, reportedly stated that he would prefer to be buried near the mausoleum of a saintly person than his own father.
While in some parts of the Muslim world the mausoleums of the tombs are seen as simply places of ziyāra
of a religious figure's gravesite (Mazār
), in others (such as the Indian subcontinent
) they are treated as proper shrines (Dargah
Opposition to tomb shrines by the Salafi and Wahhabi groups
Many modern Islamic reformers oppose the building (and sometimes the visitation of
) tomb shrines, viewing it as a deviation from true Islam.
This mainly includes followers of the Wahhabi
movements, which believe that shrines over graves encourage idolatry
) and that there is a risk of worshipping other than God
The founder of the Wahhabi movement, Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
derived the prohibition to build mosques over graves from a hadith
attributed to the Prophet Muhammad
in which he said "May God curse the Jews and Christians who make the graves of their prophets into places of worship; do not imitate them."
Additionally, he commanded leveling of the graves (taswiyat al-qubur
), which the scholar Imam Al-Shafi'i
The Wahhabi movement was heavily influenced by the works of the medieval Hanbali
theologian Ibn Taymiyyah
who was considered by them to be the "ultimate authority on a great number of issues".
One of these issues was the position on the visitation of the Prophet's tomb. According to Ibn Taymiyyah all the ahadith
encouraging the visitation of the Prophet's tomb are fabricated (mawdu‘
), are not contained in the six main collections of hadith
or Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal
, and violate tawhid al-uluhiya
This view of Ibn Taymiyyah was rejected by some mainstream Sunni scholars both during his life and after his death. The Shafi'i
hadith master Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani
stated that "This is one of the ugliest positions that has been reported of Ibn Taymiyya"
hadith scholar Ali al-Qari
stated that, "Amongst the Hanbalis, Ibn Taymiyya has gone to an extreme by prohibiting travelling to visit the Prophet – may God bless him and grant him peace" Qastallani
stated that "The Shaykh Taqi al-Din Ibn Taymiyya has abominable and odd statements on this issue to the effect that travelling to visit the Prophet is prohibited and is not a pious deed."
In popular Sufism
, one common practice is to visit or make pilgrimages
to the tombs of saints, renowned scholars, and righteous people. This is a particularly common practice in South Asia
, where famous tombs include of saints such as Sayyid Ali Hamadani
, Tajikistan; Afāq Khoja
, near Kashgar
, China; Lal Shahbaz Qalandar
; Ali Hujwiri
, Pakistan; Bahauddin Zakariya
Pakistan; Moinuddin Chishti
, India; Nizamuddin Auliya
, India; and Shah Jalal
Likewise, in Fez
, Morocco, a popular destination for pious visitation is the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II
The area around Timbuktu
in Mali also has many historic Sufi shrines which were destroyed by Islamist in recent years. Many of these have since been rebuilt.
A saint's tomb is a site of great veneration where blessings or baraka
continue to reach the deceased holy person and are deemed (by some) to benefit visiting devotees and pilgrims according to Sufi beliefs. In order to show reverence to Sufi saints, kings, and nobles provided large donations or waqf
to preserve the tombs and renovate them architecturally.
Over time, these donation, rituals, annual commemorations formed into an elaborate system of accepted norms. These forms of Sufi practise created an aura of spiritual and religious traditions around prescribed dates.
Many orthodox or Islamic purists denounce these visiting grave rituals, especially the expectation of receiving blessings from the venerated saints.
The two most well-known Baháʼí Faith
shrines serve as the resting places for the respective remains of the two central figures of the Baháʼí Faith, the Báb
. They are the focal points of a Baháʼí pilgrimage
Buddhist shrine On the banks of Tso Moriri
, Ladkah, 2010
, a shrine refers to a place where veneration is focused on the Buddha
or one of the bodhisattvas
. Monks, nuns and laypeople all give offerings to these revered figures at these shrines and also meditate
in front of them.
Typically, Buddhist shrines contain a statue of either the Buddha, or (in the Mahayana
forms of Buddhism), one of the various bodhisattvas.
They also commonly contain candles, along with offerings such as flowers, purified water, food, and incense. Many shrines also contain sacred relics, such as the alleged tooth of the Buddha
held at a shrine in Sri Lanka
Philippine folk religions
Ancient Filipinos and Filipinos who continue to adhere to the indigenous Philippine folk religions
generally do not have so-called "temples" of worship under the context known to foreign cultures.
However, they do have sacred shrines
, which are also called as spirit houses
They can range in size from small roofed platforms, to structures similar to a small house (but with no walls), to shrines that look similar to pagodas, especially in the south where early mosques were also modeled in the same way.
These shrines were known in various indigenous terms, which depend on the ethnic group association.[note 1]
They can also be used as places to store taotao
and caskets of ancestors. Among Bicolanos, taotao
were also kept inside sacred caves called moog
During certain ceremonies, anito
are venerated through temporary altars near sacred places. These were called latangan
in Visayan and dambana
in Tagalog.[note 2]
These bamboo or rattan
altars are identical in basic construction throughout most of the Philippines. They were either small roof-less platforms or standing poles split at the tip (similar to a tiki torch
). They held halved coconut shells, metal plates, or martaban jars
as receptacles for offerings. Taotao
may sometimes also be placed on these platforms.
Other types of sacred places or objects of worship of diwata
include the material manifestation of their realms. The most widely venerated were balete trees
(also called nonok
, etc.) and anthills
or termite mounds
). Other examples include mountains, waterfalls, tree groves, reefs, and caves.
In Germanic paganism
, types of shrines were employed, but terms for the shrines show some level of ambiguity:
- Hörgrs, which may have originally exclusively referred to "holy places", whereas its Old English cognate hearg could mean "holy grove" and/or "temple, idol"
- Vés (Old Norse) or wēohs (Old English), referring to either a types of shrines or sacred enclosures. The term appears in skaldic poetry and in place names in Scandinavia (with the exception of Iceland), often in connection with a Norse deity or a geographic feature. The name of the Norse god Vé, refers to the practice.
, a shrine is a place where gods or goddesses are worshipped. Shrines are typically located inside a Hindu temple
of various forms. Most Hindu families have a household shrine as well. For example, according to memoirs of Stephen Huyler of his visits to some Hindu homes, a part of home was dedicated to the household shrine. Here, image of a deity was placed and offered prayers, instead of visits to a temple.
Among Tamil Hindu homes, according to Pintchman, a shrine in Kitchen is more common. If the family is wealthy, it may locate the household shrine in a separate room.
A Taoist shrine.
The line between a temple and a shrine in Taoism
is not fully defined; shrines are usually smaller versions of larger Taoist temples or small places in a home
where a yin-yang
emblem is placed among peaceful settings to encourage meditation and study of Taoist texts and principles. Taoists place less emphasis on formalized attendance but include ritualized worship than other Asian religions
; formal temples and structures of worship came about in Taoism mostly in order to prevent losing adherents to Buddhism
Frequent features of Taoist shrines include the same features as full temples, often including any or all of the following features: gardens
, running water or fountains, small burning braziers
or candles (with or without incense
), and copies of Taoist texts such as the Tao Te Ching
or other texts by Lao Tzu
, Chuang Tzu
or other Taoist sages.
A number of Confucian temples and shrines exist across the sinophone world. Often in Chinese they are called 文庙 or "culture temples". Like Taoist temples they consist of gardens and then a large pavilion where incense is burnt. However inside the shrine a statue of Confucius or Mencius is held.
Confucian shrines are often adorned with messages to the sage (God of learning) mainly wishing for good luck in exams.
Confucian shrines exist outside of China too, for example in Naha, Okinawa. However some Buddhist temples reserve a room for Confucius also.
In some countries around the world, landmarks
may be called "historic shrines."
Notable shrines of this type include:
- The Alamo in San Antonio, Texas, U.S.
- Fort McHenry in Baltimore, Maryland, U.S.
- Touro Synagogue in Newport, Rhode Island, U.S.
- Shrine of Remembrance, a war memorial in Melbourne, Australia
- Shrine of Remembrance, a war memorial in Brisbane, Australia
- Lenin's Mausoleum in Moscow, Russia
- Kumsusan Palace of the Sun in Pyongyang, North Korea
Halls of fame
also serve as shrines into which single or multiple individuals are inducted on the basis of their influence upon regions, cultures or disciplines. Busts
or full-body statues are often erected and placed alongside each other in commemoration. This includes Halls of Fame that honor sports athletes, where an athlete's entrance to the hall is commonly described as "enshrinement".
- ^ Harper, Douglas. "shrine". Online Etymology Dictionary.
- ^ Shrine. thefreedictionary.com
- ^ Portable Tibetan Shrine Archived 2015-10-19 at the Wayback Machine. British Museum
- ^ Patricia Chang (February 23, 2007). "Shrines in shops in Chinatown". Downtown Express. 19 (41).
- ^ Household Shrines. Gualala Arts
- ^ Front Yard Shrines Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine. catholichomeandgarden.com
- ^ Catholic Shrines. Sacred Destinations
- ^ David Tyson (1997). "Shrine pilgrimage in Turkmenistan as a means to understand Islam among the Turkmen". Central Asia Monitor. 1.
- ^ Wikipedia Roman Catholic Church
- ^ PART III : SACRED PLACES AND TIMES. ourladyswarriors.org
- ^ "Masjid al-Haram - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-12. The Grand Mosque of Mecca in western Saudi Arabia. Along with the Prophet Muhammad 's Mosque in Medina, it is one of the two holiest shrines in Islam, its spiritual center, and the focus of the hajj pilgrimage. A place of worship even before the time of Muhammad, the mosque is organized around the Kaaba, a pre-Islamic “House of God” founded by Abraham and Ishmael, toward which all Muslim prayer is directed. The present layout of the Grand Mosque evolved from a series of enlargements during the Umayyad and Abbasid periods, Ottoman refinements, and recent Saudi additions.
- ^ "Kaʿbah | shrine, Mecca, Saudi Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ "Great Mosque of Mecca | Overview, Description, & Facts". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ Peters, F.E. (1994). "Another Stone: The Maqam Ibrahim". The Hajj. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press. pp. 16–17. ISBN 9780691026190.
- ^ "Maqam-e-Ibrahim shines ... like visitors' faith". 25 September 2016.
- ^ "Al-Masjid An-Nabawy". www.olemiss.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ "Important Sites: The Prophet's Mosque". Inside Islam. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2018-08-13. The most distinct aspect of the mosque is a green dome called the Dome of the Prophet and marks the location of the Prophet Muhammad’s tomb. Abu Bakr and Umar, the first and second caliphs, are buried near the Prophet.
- ^ "Prophet's Mosque | mosque, Medina, Saudi Arabia". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ Slavik, Diane (2001). Cities through Time: Daily Life in Ancient and Modern Jerusalem. Geneva, Illinois: Runestone Press. p. 60. ISBN 978-0-8225-3218-7.
- ^ M. Anwarul Islam and Zaid F. Al-hamad (2007). "The Dome of the Rock: Origin of its octagonal plan". Palestine Exploration Quarterly. 139 (2): 109–128. doi:10.1179/003103207x194145. S2CID 162578242.
- ^ Nasser Rabbat (1989). "The meaning of the Umayyad Dome of the Rock". Muqarnas. 6: 12–21. doi:10.2307/1602276. JSTOR 1602276.
- ^ a b Diem, Werner; Schöller, Marco (2004-01-01). The Living and the Dead in Islam: Indices. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 46. ISBN 9783447050838.
- ^ Bayhaqi. Sunan. V. p. 245.
- ^ Iyyad, Qadi. Shifa. II. p. 71.
- ^ Diem, Werner; Schöller, Marco (2004-01-01). The Living and the Dead in Islam: Indices. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 55. ISBN 9783447050838.
- ^ Diem, Werner; Schöller, Marco (2004-01-01). The Living and the Dead in Islam: Indices. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. p. 23. ISBN 9783447050838.
- ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (2010-01-01). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 290/291. ISBN 9780195478341.
- ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (2010-01-01). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 291. ISBN 9780195478341.
- ^ Zargar, Cameron (2014). The Hanbali and Wahhabi Schools of Thought As Observed Through the Case of Ziyārah. The Ohio State University. pp. 28–29.
- ^ Ibn Qudāmah, Abū Muḥammad, Al-Mughnī, (Beirut: Bayt al-Afkār al-Dawliyyah, 2004), p 795.
- ^ Diem, Werner; Schöller, Marco (2004-01-01). The Living and the Dead in Islam: Indices. Otto Harrassowitz Verlag. pp. 7–8. ISBN 9783447050838.
- ^ Dasgupta, Piyali (7 January 2014). "799th birthday celebrations of Hazrat Nimazuddin Auliya, held recently at the Hazrat Nizamuddin Dargah in Delhi". The Times of India. Retrieved 13 June 2018.
- ^ "797th Urs of Khawaja Moinuddin Chisty begins in Ajmer". Sify. Archived from the original on 1 October 2012. Retrieved 18 February 2012.
- ^ "Pakistan's Sufis defiant after Islamic State attack on shrine kills 83". Reuters. 17 February 2017. Retrieved 17 February 2017.
- ^ "Shrine - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-10. Many modern Islamic reformers criticize visits to shrines as mere superstition and a deviation from true Islam.
- ^ "Mecca for the rich: Islam's holiest site 'turning into Vegas'". The Independent. Archived from the original on 24 October 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-10. In the eyes of Wahabis, historical sites and shrines encourage "shirk" – the sin of idolatry or polytheism – and should be destroyed. When the al-Saud tribes swept through Mecca in the 1920s, the first thing they did was lay waste to cemeteries holding many of Islam's important figures. They have been destroying the country's heritage ever since. Of the three sites the Saudis have allowed the UN to designate World Heritage Sites, none are related to Islam.
- ^ "Saudi Arabia Bulldozes Over Its Heritage". Time. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-10. Wahhabism, the prevailing Saudi strain of Islam, frowns on visits to shrines, tombs or religio-historical sites, on grounds that they might lead to Islam’s gravest sin: worshipping anyone other than God.
- ^ "Medina: Saudis take a bulldozer to Islam's history". The Independent. Archived from the original on 10 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-10. In most of the Muslim world, shrines have been built. Visits to graves are also commonplace. But Wahabism views such practices with disdain. The religious police go to enormous lengths to discourage people from praying at or visiting places closely connected to the time of the Prophet while powerful clerics work behind the scenes to promote the destruction of historic sites.
- ^ a b Ondrej, Beranek; Tupek, Pavel (July 2009). Naghmeh, Sohrabi (ed.). From Visiting Graves to Their Destruction: The Question of Ziyara through the Eyes of Salafis (PDF). Crown Paper (Crown Center for Middle East Studies/Brandeis University). Brandeis University. Crown Center for Middle East Studies. p. 16. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2018. Ibn Taymiyya argues that the prohibition against treating graves as places of prayer is not based only on the impurity of such places;58 the true reason lies in concern over the temptation of worshiping the dead (khawf al-fitna bi alqabr). This was the opinion of Imam al-Shafi‘i and other salaf, who commanded leveling these graves (taswiyat al-qubur) and effacing what might arouse the temptation (ta‘fiyat ma yatafattan bihi minha).
- ^ Ondrej, Beranek; Tupek, Pavel (July 2009). Naghmeh, Sohrabi (ed.). From Visiting Graves to Their Destruction: The Question of Ziyara through the Eyes of Salafis (PDF). Crown Paper (Crown Center for Middle East Studies/Brandeis University). Brandeis University. Crown Center for Middle East Studies. p. 19. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2018. Relying mainly on hadiths and the Qur’an, Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab’s most famous work, The Book of God’s Unicity (Kitab al-tawhid), describes a variety of shirk practices, such as occultism, the cult of the righteous (salih), intercession, oaths calling on other than God himself, sacrifices or invocational prayers to other than God, and asking other than Him for help. Important things about graves are remarked on in a chapter entitled “About the Condemnation of One Who Worships Allah at the Grave of a Righteous Man, and What if He Worships [the Dead] Himself.”72 Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab starts by quoting a hadith: “Umm Salama told the messenger of Allah about a church she had seen in Abyssinia in which there were pictures. The Prophet said: ‘Those people, when a righteous member of their community or a pious slave dies, they build a mosque over his grave and paint images thereon; they are for God wicked people.’ They combine two kinds of fitna: the fitna of graves and the fitna of images.” He then continues with another hadith: “When the messenger of Allah was close to death, he . . . said: ‘May Allah curse the Jews and Christians who make the graves of their prophets into places of worship; do not imitate them.’” From this hadith Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab derives the prohibition of building places of worship over graves, because that would mean glorification of their inhabitants, which would amount to an act of worship to other than Allah.
- ^ Zargar, Cameron (2014). The Hanbali and Wahhabi Schools of Thought As Observed Through the Case of Ziyārah. The Ohio State University. p. 3.
- ^ Ondrej, Beranek; Tupek, Pavel (July 2009). Naghmeh, Sohrabi (ed.). From Visiting Graves to Their Destruction: The Question of Ziyara through the Eyes of Salafis (PDF). Crown Paper (Crown Center for Middle East Studies/Brandeis University). Brandeis University. Crown Center for Middle East Studies. p. 15. Archived (PDF) from the original on 10 August 2018. Ibn Taymiyya criticizes hadiths encouraging visitation of the Prophet’s grave, pronouncing them all forgeries (mawdu‘) and lies (kidhb). According to him, most famous are ”He who performs the pilgrimage and does not visit me, has shunned me” and “Who visited my grave must ask me for intercession.” Ibn Taymiyya notes that although some of these hadiths are part of Daraqutni’s collection, they are not included in the main hadith collections of Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud, and Nasa’i, nor are they part of the Musnad of Ibn Hanbal. He observes that with regard to visiting the Prophet’s grave, ulama rely only upon hadiths according to which the Prophet must be greeted (al-salam wa al-salat alayhi).56 As for the contents of hadiths encouraging visitation, they contradict the principle of tawhid al-uluhiya.
- ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (2010-01-01). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 290. ISBN 978-0-19-547834-1.
- ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (2010-01-01). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 292. ISBN 978-0-19-547834-1.
- ^ Rapoport, Yossef; Ahmed, Shahab (2010-01-01). Ibn Taymiyya and His Times. Oxford University Press. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-19-547834-1.
- ^ "Free at last from Isis, millions of Muslims stage the greatest religious march in the world". The Independent. Retrieved 2018-08-12. The Arbaeen has provided many modern-day Shia martyrs, murdered by Saddam Hussein, al-Qaeda and Isis, but its purpose is to mourn the martyrdom of Imam Hussein, the revered Shia leader, killed in the battle for Kerbala in AD680. The long ritual walk to his golden-domed shrine in that city – some walkers spend 10 or 12 days on the road from Basra or Kirkuk, others two or three days from Najaf – comes on the 40th day of the mourning period as religious fervour reaches its peak among the faithful.
- ^ "Najaf - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-12. One of Iraq's two holiest cities (Karbala is the other one). Reputedly founded by the Abbasid caliph Harun al-Rashid in 791. A Shii religious center located south of Baghdad and six miles west of Kufa. Site of Ali ibn Abi Talib's (the first Shii imam) tomb. Kufa retained its importance as the locus of Shii activities until the fifteenth century, when Najaf replaced it. Hospices, schools, libraries, and Sufi convents were built around the shrine. Late nineteenth-century Qom replaced Najaf as the center of Shii learning; this was reversed with the rise of Ayatollah Khomeini (d. 1989) and Muhammad Baqir al-Sadr (d. 1980).
- ^ Abid, S. K. "Imam Ali Shrine, institution and cultural monument: the implications of cultural significance and its impact on local conservation management". CiteSeerX 10.1.1.735.1355.
- ^ Carnelos, Marco (18 July 2018). "Like it or not, Iran will continue to be the most powerful player in Iraq". Middle East Eye. Retrieved 2018-08-12. Every year, during the annual Shia pilgrimages to the Holy Shrines in Najaf, Karbala and Samarra, millions of Iranians, in numbers two or three times higher than the entire traditional Hajj pilgrimage to Mecca, cross the Iraqi border; they are spontaneously fed and housed by the poorest Iraqi Shia families free of any charge.
- ^ Kadhimiyah hawzah.net
- ^ "Qom - Oxford Islamic Studies Online". www.oxfordislamicstudies.com. Retrieved 2018-08-12. Leading center of Shii theological seminaries and site of Hazrat-i Masumah, which is the second most important Shii shrine in Iran. Burial site of numerous shahs of the Safavid and Qajar dynasties and many religious scholars. Major center of political activity in 1963, 1975, and 1977 – 79 . The shrine and the Borujerdi mosque are important places for leading communal prayers and sermons. The shrine has been an economic and state institution, the focus of endowments and commercial rents dedicated to its upkeep, and a symbolic site whose opening and closing each day are accompanied by state-appointed guards extolling the sovereignty of the reigning government under God. Qom's madrasas in particular were a major center of resistance to the Pahlavi monarchy. When Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Iran from exile, he went immediately to Qom, which remains a key seat of the ulama's educational and political organizations.
- ^ "Imam Reza shrine complex (Mashhad, Iran): Mosque: Detail of tile - Yale University Library". findit.library.yale.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ "Samarra Shrine Restoration in Iraq | United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization". www.unesco.org. Retrieved 2018-08-13. On Wednesday, 22 February 2006, unidentified assailants bombed the Al-Askari Mosque in Samarra, one of the holiest Shia'a sites in Iraq, containing the shrines of Ali Al-Hadi and Hassan Al-Askari, two of the most important Shia'a Imams, and the mausoleum of Mohammad Al Mehdi, known as the "hidden Imam", and hosting millions of pilgrims annually.
- ^ "Iraq Significant Site 011 - Baghdad - Al-Kadhimayn Mosque and Shrine". www.cemml.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-13.
- ^ "Afghanistan Significant Site 147. Mazar-i Sharif". www.cemml.colostate.edu. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ "Sacred Sites: Mashhad, Iran". sacredsites.com. Archived from the original on 2010-11-27. Retrieved 2006-03-13.
- ^ "Ayatollah Khomeini's mausoleum: A symbol of Iranian pride". USA TODAY. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ "What is the mausoleum of Ayatollah Khomeini?". The Indian Express. 2017-06-07. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ "Iranians mourn Khomeini's widow". BBC News. 2009-03-22. Archived from the original on 12 August 2018. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
- ^ Annemarie Schimmel (1975). Mystical Dimensions of Islam. Univ of North Carolina Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-8078-1271-6.
- ^ Métalsi, Mohamed (2003). Fès: La ville essentielle. Paris: ACR Édition Internationale. pp. 192–194. ISBN 978-2867701528
- ^ "Timbuktu mausoleums in Mali rebuilt after destruction". BBC News. 2015-07-19.
- ^ "United Nations News Centre". UN News Service Section. 20 July 2015.
- ^ "Masons rebuild Timbuktu tombs after militant destruction – World – The Star Online". thestar.com.my.
- ^ Jafri, S.Z.H. and Reifeld, H., 2006. The Islamic path: sufism, society, and politics in India. Rainbow Publishers.
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- ^ Known as magdantang in Visayan and ulango or simbahan in Tagalog. Among the Itneg, shrines are known tangpap, pangkew, or alalot (for various small roofed altars); and balaua or kalangan (for larger structures). In Mindanao, shrines are known among the Subanen as maligai; among the Teduray as tenin (only entered by shamans); and among the Bagobo as buis (for those built near roads and villages) and parabunnian (for those built near rice fields).(Kroeber, 1918)
- ^ Also saloko or palaan (Itneg); sakolong (Bontoc); salagnat (Bicolano); sirayangsang (Tagbanwa); ranga (Teduray); and tambara, tigyama, or balekat (Bagobo)
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