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Silver certificate (United States)
Silver certificates are a type of representative money issued between 1878 and 1964 in the United States as part of its circulation of paper currency.[1] They were produced in response to silver agitation by citizens who were angered by the Fourth Coinage Act, which had effectively placed the United States on a gold standard.[2] The certificates were initially redeemable for their face value of silver dollar coins and later (for one year – June 24, 1967 to June 24, 1968) in raw silver bullion.[1] Since 1968 they have been redeemable only in Federal Reserve Notes and are thus obsolete, but still valid legal tender at their face value and thus are still an accepted form of currency.[1]
The $1 silver certificate from the Hawaii overprint series.
$5 Series 1899 silver certificate depicting Running Antelope of the Húŋkpapȟa.
Large-size silver certificates (1878 to 1923)[nb 1] were issued initially in denominations from $10 to $1,000 (in 1878 and 1880)[4][5] and in 1886 the $1, $2, and $5 were authorized.[5][6] In 1928, all United States bank notes were re-designed and the size reduced.[7] The small-size silver certificate (1928–1964) was only regularly issued in denominations of $1, $5, and $10.[8] The complete type set below is part of the National Numismatic Collection at the Smithsonian's​National Museum of American History.
History
The Coinage Act of 1873 intentionally[9][10] omitted language authorizing the coinage of “standard”[2] silver dollars[11] and ended the bimetallic standard[12] that had been created by Alexander Hamilton.[13][nb 2] While the Coinage Act of 1873 stopped production of silver dollars, it was the 1874 adoption of Section 3568 of the Revised Statutes that actually removed legal tender status from silver certificates in the payment of debts exceeding five dollars.[15] By 1875 business interests invested in silver (e.g., Western banks, mining companies) wanted the bimetallic standard restored. People began to refer to the passage of the Act as the Crime of '73. Prompted by a sharp decline in the value of silver in 1876, Congressional representatives from Nevada and Colorado, states responsible for over 40% of the world's silver yield in the 1870s and 1880s,[16] began lobbying for change. Further public agitation for silver use was driven by fear that there was not enough money in the community.[17] Members of Congress claimed ignorance that the 1873 law would lead to the demonetization of silver,[18] despite having had three years to review the bill prior to enacting it to law.[19] Some blamed the passage of the Act on a number of external factors including a conspiracy involving foreign investors and government conspirators.[11] In response, the Bland–Allison Act, as it came to be known, was passed by Congress (over a Presidential veto)[20] on 28 February 1878. It did not provide for the "free and unlimited coinage of silver" demanded by Western miners, but it did require the United States Treasury to purchase between $2 million and $4 million of silver bullion per month[21][22] from mining companies in the West, to be minted into coins.[nb 3]
Large-size silver certificates
Silver dollar certificate banknote, US Department of the Treasury, USA, 1886. On display at the British Museum in London
The first silver certificates (Series 1878) were issued in denominations of $10 through $1,000. [nb 4] Reception by financial institutions was cautious.[25] While more convenient and less bulky than dollar coins, the silver certificate was not accepted for all transactions.[26] The Bland–Allison Act established that they were “receivable for customs, taxes, and all public dues,”[20] and could be included in bank reserves,[22] but silver certificates were not explicitly considered legal tender for private interactions (i.e., between individuals).[22] Congress used the National Banking Act of July 12, 1882 to clarify the legal tender status of silver certificates[27] by clearly authorizing them to be included in the lawful reserves of national banks.[28] A general appropriations act of 4 August 1886 authorized the issue of $1, $2, and $5 silver certificates.[6][29] The introduction of low-denomination currency (as denominations of U.S. Notes under $5 were put on hold) greatly increased circulation.[30] Over the 12-year lifespan of the Bland–Allison Act, the United States government would receive a seigniorage amounting to roughly $68 million (between $3 and $9 million per year),[31] while absorbing over 60% of U.S. silver production.[31]
Small-size silver certificates
Treasury Secretary Franklin MacVeagh (1909–13) appointed a committee to investigate possible advantages (e.g., reduced cost, increased production speed) to issuing smaller sized United States banknotes.[32] Due in part to the outbreak of World War I and the end of his appointed term, any recommendations may have stalled. On August 20, 1925, Treasury Secretary Andrew W. Mellon appointed a similar committee and in May 1927 accepted their recommendations for the size reduction and redesign of U.S. banknotes.[32] On July 10, 1929 the new small-size currency was issued.[33]
In keeping with the verbiage on large-size silver certificates, all the small-size Series 1928 certificates carried the obligation "This certifies that there has (or have) been deposited in the Treasury of the United States of America X silver dollar(s) payable to the bearer on demand" or "X dollars in silver coin payable to the bearer on demand". This required that the Treasury maintain stocks of silver dollars to back and redeem the silver certificates in circulation. Beginning with the Series 1934 silver certificates the wording was changed to "This certifies that there is on deposit in the Treasury of the United States of America X dollars in silver payable to the bearer on demand." This freed the Treasury from storing bags of silver dollars in its vaults, and allowed it to redeem silver certificates with bullion or silver granules, rather than silver dollars. Years after the government stopped the redemption of silver certificates for silver, large quantities of silver dollars intended specifically to satisfy the earlier obligation for redemption in silver dollars were found in Treasury vaults.
As was usual with currency during this period, the year date on the bill did not reflect when it was printed, but rather a major design change. Under the Silver Purchase Act of 1934, the authority to issue silver certificates was given to the U.S. Secretary of Treasury.[34] Additional changes, particularly when either of the two signatures was altered, led to a letter being added below the date. One notable exception was the Series 1935G $1 silver certificate, which included notes both with and without the motto "In God We Trust" on the reverse. 1935 dated one dollar certificates lasted through the letter "H", after which new printing processes began the 1957 series.[35] In some cases printing plates were used until they wore out, even though newer ones were also producing notes, so the sequencing of signatures may not always be chronological. Thus some of the 1935 dated one dollar certificates were issued as late as 1963.[36]
World War II Issues
In response to the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the Hawaii overprint note was ordered from the Bureau of Engraving and Printing on June 8, 1942 (all were made-over 1934–1935 bills).[33] Issued in denominations of $1, $5, $10, and $20, only the $1 was a silver certificate, the others were Federal Reserve Notes.[37] Stamped “HAWAII” (in small solid letters on the obverse and large letters on the reverse), with the Treasury seal and serial numbers in brown instead of the usual blue, these notes could be demonetized in the event of a Japanese invasion.[38] Additional World War II emergency currency was issued in November 1942 for circulation in Europe and Northern Africa.[33] Printed with a bright yellow seal, these notes ($1, $5, and $10) could be demonetized should the United States lose its position in the European or North African campaigns.[37]
"Star notes"
When a bill is damaged in printing it is normally replaced by another one (the star replaces a letter at the edge of the note). To keep the amounts issued consistent, these replacement banknotes are normally indicated by a star in the separately sequenced serial number. For silver certificates this asterisk appears at the beginning of the serial number.[39]
End of the silver certificates
In the nearly three decades since passage of the Silver Purchase Act of 1934, the annual demand for silver bullion rose steadily from roughly 11 million ounces (1933) to 110 million ounces (1962).[40] The Acts of 1939 and 1946 established floor prices for silver of 71 cents and 90.5 cents (respectively) per ounce.[40] Predicated on an anticipated shortage of silver bullion,[41][42] Public Law 88-36 (PL88-36) was enacted on 4 June 1963 which repealed the Silver Purchase Act of 1934, and the Acts of July 6, 1939 and July 31, 1946,[43] while providing specific instruction regarding the disposition of silver held as reserves against issued certificates and the price at which silver may be sold.[nb 5] It also amended the Federal Reserve Act to authorize the issue of lower denomination notes (i.e., $1 and $2),[43] allowing for the gradual retirement (or swapping out process) of $1 silver certificates and releasing silver bullion from reserve.[42] In repealing the earlier laws, PL88-36 also repealed the authority of the Secretary of the Treasury to control the issue of silver certificates. By issuing Executive Order 11110, President John F. Kennedy was able to continue the Secretary's authority.[44] While retaining their status as legal tender, the silver certificate had effectively been retired from use.[33]
In March 1964, Secretary of the Treasury C. Douglas Dillon halted redemption of silver certificates for silver dollar coins; during the following four years, silver certificates were redeemable in uncoined silver "granules".[41] All redemption in silver ceased on 24 June 1968.[1] While there are some exceptions (particularly for some of the very early issues as well as the experimental bills) the vast majority of small sized one dollar silver certificates, especially non-star or worn bills of the 1935 and 1957 series, are worth little or nothing above their face values. They can still occasionally be found in circulation.
Issue
Series and varieties
Series and varieties of large-size silver certificates[45]
SeriesValueFeatures/varieties
1878 and
1880
$10
$20
$50
$100
$500
$1,000
In addition to the two engraved signatures customary on United States banknotes (the Register of the Treasury and Treasurer of the United States), the first issue of the Series 1878 notes (similar to the early Gold Certificate) included a third signature of one of the Assistant Treasurers of the United States (in New York, San Francisco, or Washington DC).[47] Known as a countersigned or triple-signature note, this feature existed for the first run of notes issued in 1880, but was then removed from the remaining 1880 issues.[5]
1886$1
$2
$5
$10
$20
The Act of August 4, 1886 authorized the issue of lower denomination ($1, $2, and $5) silver certificates.[6] Similar to the Series 1878/1880 notes, the Treasury seal characteristics (size, color, and style) varies with the change of the Treasury signatures.[48] The series is known for the ornate engraving on the reverse of the note.
1891$1, $2
$5, $10
$20, $50
$100
$1,000
The Bureau of Engraving and Printing introduced the process of “resizing” paper for Series 1891 notes.[49]
1896$1
$2
$5
The Educational Series is considered to be the most artistically designed bank notes printed by the United States.[5]
1899$1
$2
$5
Large-size silver certificates from the Series of 1899 forward have a blue Treasury seal and serial numbers.[50]
1908$10
1923$1
$5
Large-size United States silver certificates (1878–1923)
Complete typeset of large-size United States silver certificates (1878–1923)[51]
ValueSeriesFr.[nb 7]ImagePortraitSignature & seal varieties[nb 8]
$11886Fr.217
Martha Washington215 – Rosecrans and Jordan – small red, plain
216 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – small red, plain
217 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
218 – Rosecrans and Huston – large red
219 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
220 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – large brown
221 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red, scalloped
$11891Fr.223
Martha Washington222 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red, scalloped
223 – Tillman and Morgan – small red, scalloped
$11896Fr.224
Allegory History Instructing Youth (obv); George Washington & Martha Washington (rev)224 – Tillman and Morgan – small red, rays
225 – Bruce and Roberts – small red, rays
$11899Fr.226
Abraham Lincoln & Ulysses Grant226 – Lyons and Roberts – blue
227 – Lyons and Treat – blue
228 – Vernon and Treat – blue
229 – Vernon and McClung – blue
230 – Napier and McClung – blue
231 – Napier and Thompson – blue
232 – Parker and Burke – blue
233 – Teehee and Burke – blue
234 – Elliott and Burke – blue
235 – Elliott and White – blue
236 – Speelman and White – blue
$11923Fr.239
George Washington237Speelman and White – blue
238 – Woods and White – blue
239 – Woods and Tate – blue
$21886Fr.242
Winfield Scott Hancock240 – Rosecrans and Jordan – small red
241 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – small red
242 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
243 – Rosecrans and Huston – large red
244 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
$21891Fr.246
William Windom245 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
246 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
$21896Fr.247
Allegory of Science Presenting Steam and Electricity to Commerce and Manufacture (obv); Robert Fulton & Samuel F.B. Morse (rev)247 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
248 – Bruce and Roberts – small red
$21899Fr.249
George Washington249 – Lyons and Roberts – blue
250 – Lyons and Treat – blue
251 – Vernon and Treat – blue
252 – Vernon and McClung – blue
253 – Napier and McClung – blue
254 – Napier and Thompson – blue
255Parker and Burke – blue
256 – Teehee and Burke – blue
257 – Elliott and Burke – blue
258 – Speelman and White – blue
$51886Fr.264
Ulysses Grant259 – Rosecrans and Jordan – small red, plain
260 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – small red, plain
261 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
262 – Rosecrans and Huston – large red
263 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
264 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – large brown
265 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red, scalloped
$51891Fr.267
Ulysses Grant266Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red, scalloped
267 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
$51896Fr.270
Allegory of Electricity Presenting Light to the World (obv); Ulysses Grant & Philip Sheridan (rev)268 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
269 – Bruce and Roberts – small red
270 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
$51899Fr.271
Running Antelope271 – Lyons and Roberts – blue
272 – Lyons and Treat – blue
273 – Vernon and Treat – blue
274 – Vernon and McClung – blue
275 – Napier and McClung – blue
276 – Napier and Thompson – blue
277 – Parker and Burke – blue
278 – Teehee and Burke – blue
279 – Elliott and Burke – blue
280 – Elliott and White – blue
281 – Speelman and White – blue
$51923Fr.282
Abraham Lincoln282 – Speelman and White – blue
$101878Fr.285a*
Robert Morris283 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by W.G. White – large red
284 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by J.C. Hopper – large red
284a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse* – large red
284b – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse – large red
284c – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by R.M. Anthony* – large red
285 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman* – large red
285a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman – large red
$101880Fr.287
Robert Morris286 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse – large brown with X
286a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman – large brown with X
287 – Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown with X
288 – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown with X
289 – Bruce and Wyman – large brown with X
290 – Bruce and Wyman – large red without X
$101886Fr.291
Thomas Hendricks291 – Rosecrans and Jordan – small red, plain
292 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – small red, plain
293 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
294 – Rosecrans and Huston – large red
295 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
296 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – large brown
297 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red, scalloped
$101891Fr.298
Thomas Hendricks298 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
299 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
300 – Bruce and Roberts – small red
301 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
$101908Fr.302
Thomas Hendricks302 – Vernon and Treat – blue
303 – Vernon and McClung – blue
304Parker and Burke – blue
$201878Fr.307
Stephen Decatur305 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by J.C. Hopper – large red
306 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse – large red
306a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by R.M. Anthony – large red
306b – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman* – large red
307 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman – large red
$201880Fr.311
Stephen Decatur308 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse – large brown
309 – Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown
310 – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown
311 – Bruce and Wyman – large brown
312 – Bruce and Wyman – small red
$201886Fr.316
Daniel Manning313 – Rosecrans and Hyatt – large red
314 – Rosecrans and Huston – large brown
315 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – large brown
316 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
$201891Fr.317
Daniel Manning317 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
318 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
319 – Bruce and Roberts – small red
320 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
321Parker and Burke – blue
322 – Teehee and Burke – blue
$501878Fr.324
Edward Everett323 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by W.C. White* or J.C. Hopper* – large red
324 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by T. Hillhouse – large red
324a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by R.M. Anthony – large red
324b – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman* – large red
324c – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman – large red
$501880Fr.327
Edward Everett325 – Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown, rays
326 – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown, rays
327 – Bruce and Wyman – large brown, rays
328Rosecrans and Huston – large brown, spikes
329 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
$501891Fr.331
Edward Everett330 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
331 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
332 – Bruce and Roberts – small red
333 – Lyons and Roberts – small red
334 – Vernon and Treat – small red
335 – Parker and Burke – blue
$1001878Fr.337b
James Monroe336 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by W.G. White – large red
336a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by J.C. Hopper or T. Hillhouse – large red
337 – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by R.M. Anthony* – large red
337a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman* – large red
337b – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman – large red
$1001880Fr.340
James Monroe338– Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown, rays
339 – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown, rays
340 – Bruce and Wyman – large brown, rays
341Rosecrans and Huston – large brown, spikes
342 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
$1001891Fr.344
James Monroe343 – Rosecrans and Nebecker – small red
344 – Tillman and Morgan – small red
$5001878Fr.345a
Charles Sumner345a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS by A.U. Wyman* – large red, rays
$5001880Fr.345c
Charles Sumner345b – Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown
345c – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown
345d – Bruce and Wyman – large brown
$1,0001878Fr.346a
William Marcy346a – Scofield and Gilfillan, CS unknown – large red, rays
$1,0001880Fr.346d
William Marcy346b – Scofield and Gilfillan – large brown
346c – Bruce and Gilfillan – large brown
346d – Bruce and Wyman – large brown
$1,0001891Fr.346e
William Marcy346e – Tillman and Morgan – small red

Small-size United States silver certificates (1928–1957)
Complete typeset of small-size United States silver certificates (1928–1957)[52]
ValueSeriesFr.[nb 9]ImagePortraitSignature & seal varieties
$11928 to 1928-EFr.1600
George Washington1600 – Tate and Mellon (1928) – blue
1601 – Woods and Mellon (1928A) – blue[nb 10]
1602 – Woods and Mills (1928B) – blue
1603 – Woods and Woodin (1928C) – blue
1604 – Julian and Woodin (1928D) – blue
1605 – Julian and Morgenthau (1928E) – blue
$11934Fr.1606
George Washington1606 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934) – blue
$11935 to 1935-GFr.1607
George Washington1607 – Julian and Morgenthau (1935) – blue
1608 – Julian and Morgenthau (1935A)– blue
1609 – Julian and Morgenthau (1935A) R-Exp – blue.[nb 11]
1610 – Julian and Morgenthau (1935A) S-Exp – blue
1611 – Julian and Vinson (1935B) – blue
1612 – Julian and Snyder (1935C) – blue
1613W – Clark and Snyder (1935D) Wide – blue[nb 12]
1613N – Clark and Snyder (1935D) Narrow – blue
1614 – Priest and Humphrey (1935E) – blue
1615 – Priest and Anderson (1935F) – blue
1616 – Smith and Dillon (1935G) – blue
$11935-G to 1957-BFr.1619
George Washington1617 – Smith and Dillon (1935G) – blue[nb 13]
1618 – Granahan and Dillon (1935H) – blue
1619 – Priest and Anderson (1957) – blue
1620 – Smith and Dillon (1957A) – blue
1621 – Granahan and Dillon (1957B) – blue
$51934 to 1934-DFr.1650
Abraham Lincoln1650 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934) – blue
1651 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934A) – blue
1652 – Julian and Vinson (1934B) – blue
1653 – Julian and Snyder (1934C) – blue
1654 – Clark and Snyder (1934D) – blue
$51953 to 1953-CFr.1655
Abraham Lincoln1655 – Priest and Humphrey (1953) – blue
1656 – Priest and Anderson (1953A) – blue
1657 – Smith and Dillon (1953B) – blue
1658 – Granahan and Dillon (1953C) – blue[nb 14]
$101933 to 1933-AFr.1700
Alexander Hamilton1700 – Julian and Woodin (1933) – blue[nb 15]
1700a – Julian and Morgenthau (1933A) – blue[nb 14]
$101934 to 1934-DFr.1701
Alexander Hamilton1701 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934) – blue
1702 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934A) – blue
1703 – Julian and Vinson (1934B) – blue
1704 – Julian and Snyder (1934C) – blue
1705 – Clark and Snyder (1934D) – blue
$101953 to 1953-BFr.1706
Alexander Hamilton1706 – Priest and Humphrey (1953) – blue
1707 – Priest and Anderson (1953A) – blue
1708 – Smith and Dillon (1953B) – blue
$11935-AFr.2300
George Washington2300 – Julian and Morgenthau – brown
$11935-AFr.2306
George Washington2306 – Julian and Morgenthau (1935A) – yellow
$51934-AFr.2307
Abraham Lincoln2307 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934A) – yellow
$101934 to 1934-AFr.2309
Alexander Hamilton2308 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934) – yellow
2309 – Julian and Morgenthau (1934A) – yellow
See also
Footnotes
  1. ^ Large size notes represent the earlier types or series of U.S. banknotes. Their "average" dimension is 7.375 × 3.125 inches (187 × 79 mm). Small size notes (described as such due to their size relative to the earlier large size notes) are an "average" 6.125 × 2.625 inches (156 × 67 mm), the size of modern U.S. currency. "Each measurement is +/- 0.08 inches (2mm) to account for margins and cutting".[3]
  2. ^ Some have suggested that the bimetallic standard was actually initiated by Thomas Jefferson.[14]
  3. ^ Although the exact monthly purchase was left to the discretion of the Secretary of the Treasury, the $2 million minimum was never exceeded.[23]
  4. ^ “The act of February 28, 1878, also authorized the holder of these silver dollars to deposit: the same with the Treasurer, or any Assistant Treasurer, of the United States, in sums not less than ten dollars, and receive therefor certificates of not less than ten dollars each, corresponding with the denominations of the United States notes.”[24]
  5. ^ “SEC. 2. The Secretary of the Treasury shall maintain the ownership and the possession or control within the United States of an amount of silver of a monetary value equal to the face amount of all outstanding silver certificates. Unless the market price of silver exceeds its monetary value, the Secretary of the Treasury shall not dispose of any silver held or owned by the United States in excess of that required to be held as reserves against outstanding silver certificates, but any such excess silver may be sold to other departments and agencies of the Government or used for the coinage of standard silver dollars and subsidiary silver coins. Silver certificates shall be exchangeable on demand at the Treasury of the United States for silver dollars or, at the option of the Secretary of the Treasury, at such places as he may designate, for silver bullion of a monetary value equal to the face amount of the certificates”.[43]
  6. ^ Notes issued under a given Series (e.g., Series 1880, Series 1899) are, in some cases, released over a period of years, as reflected in the Friedberg number signature and seal varieties. For example, based on dates of the signature combinations,[46] the Series 1899 $1 silver certificate was first issued with the signature combination of Lyons and Robert (in office together from 1898 to 1905) and last issued with the Speelman and White signatures (in office together from 1922 to 1927). Therefore, a Series 1899 note could have been issued as late as 1927.
  7. ^ "Fr" numbers refer to the numbering system in the widely used Friedberg reference book. Fr. numbers indicate varieties existing within a larger type design.[48]
  8. ^ Varieties are presented by Fr. number followed by the specific differences in signature combination, seal (color, size, and style), and minor design changes, if applicable. For Series 1878 notes, an asterisk following the Assistant Treasurer's name indicates it is hand-signed versus engraved.
  9. ^ Because small-size silver certificates are presented in ascending Friedberg number, World War II emergency issue notes (2300, 2306, 2307, and 2309) are presented out of chronological order at the end of the table.
  10. ^ Serial blocks of the 1928A and 1928B silver certificates that were lettered XB or YB were made of experimental paper, and ZB of regular paper as a control.[53]
  11. ^ Series 1935A "Experimental" bills were stamped with either a red "R" or "S" while testing regular and synthetic papers.[8]
  12. ^ For 1935D - narrow and wide refer to the width of design features on the reverse of the note. The wide variety is 0.0625 in (1.5875 mm) larger and has a 4-digit reverse plate number less than 5016.[54]
  13. ^ The motto (“In God We Trust”) was added to the Series of 1935G notes midway through the issue.[8]
  14. ^ a b Printed but not issued.[55]
  15. ^ Very few Series 1933 $10 Silver Certificates were released before they were replaced by Series 1934 and most of those remaining were consigned to destruction; only a few dozen are known to collectors today.[56]
Notes
  1. ^ a b c d "Silver Certificates". Bureau of Engraving and Printing/Treasury Website. Archived from the original on 3 April 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
  2. ^ a b Leavens, p. 24.
  3. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 7.
  4. ^ Blake, p. 18.
  5. ^ a b c d Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 74.
  6. ^ a b c Knox, p. 155.
  7. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 185.
  8. ^ a b c Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 187.
  9. ^ Friedman, p. 1166.
  10. ^ O'Leary, p. 392.
  11. ^ a b Barnett, p. 178.
  12. ^ Friedman, p. 1165.
  13. ^ Lee, p. 388.
  14. ^ Carothers, p. 5.
  15. ^ O'Leary, p. 388.
  16. ^ Leavens, p. 36.
  17. ^ Taussig, 1892, p. 11.
  18. ^ Leavens, p. 38.
  19. ^ Lee, p. 393.
  20. ^ a b Lee, p. 396.
  21. ^ Agger, p. 262.
  22. ^ a b c Knox, p. 153.
  23. ^ Taussig, 1892, p. 8.
  24. ^ Knox, p. 152.
  25. ^ Taussig, 1892, p. 15.
  26. ^ Taussig, 1892, p. 10.
  27. ^ Taussig, 1892, p. 16.
  28. ^ Champ & Thomson, p. 12.
  29. ^ McVey, p. 438.
  30. ^ Champ & Thomson, p. 14.
  31. ^ a b Leavens, p. 39.
  32. ^ a b Schwartz & Lindquist, p. 9.
  33. ^ a b c d "BEP History". Bureau of Engraving and Printing/ Treasury Website. Archived from the original on 14 January 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  34. ^ https://www.loc.gov/law/help/statutes-at-large/73rd-congress/session-2/c73s2ch674.pdf
  35. ^ Series of 1935 $1 Silver Certificate - Values and Pricing Archived 2014-05-07 at the Wayback Machine
  36. ^ Delivery Dates by Series
  37. ^ a b Schwartz & Lindquist, p. 24.
  38. ^ Cuhaj, p. 133.
  39. ^ A Guide To Values and Pricing for Star NotesArchived 2013-11-26 at the Wayback Machine
  40. ^ a b Dillon, p.401.
  41. ^ a b Ascher, p. 99.
  42. ^ a b Dillon, p.400.
  43. ^ a b c Public Law 88-36 (An Act to repeal certain legislation relating to the purchase of silver, and for other purposes) (PDF) (Report). U.S. Government Printing Office. 1963. Retrieved 14 February 2014.
  44. ^ Grey, p. 83.
  45. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 70–90 and 188–90.
  46. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 303.
  47. ^ Blake, p. 19.
  48. ^ a b Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 6–7.
  49. ^ Annual Report of the Secretary of the Treasury on the State of the Finances (Report). United States Department of the Treasury. 1892. p. 475. Retrieved 16 February 2014.
  50. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 74–81.
  51. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 70–90.
  52. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, pp. 188–90.
  53. ^ Schwartz & Lindquist, p. 31.
  54. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 170.
  55. ^ Friedberg & Friedberg, p. 190.
  56. ^ Schwartz & Lindquist, p. 156.
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