"Simyra" redirects here. For the genus of moths, see Simyra (moth)
is an oval-shaped tell
that measures 350 m × 325 m (1,150 ft × 1,070 ft) at its base, narrowing to 200 m × 200 m (660 ft × 660 ft) at its top. It is located in the Safita
district of the Tartus Governorate
in the north of the Akkar plain
on the north of the al-Abrash river approximately 18 km (11 mi) south of Tartus
Links to ancient Sumur
In 1985, new excavations began in partnership between the Archaeological Museum of the American University of Beirut
and the Directorate-General of Antiquities and Museums
in Syria under the directorship of Leila Badre
. A large amount of imported pottery
, known as Cypriot bichrome ware
, was found dating between the 14th and 12th centuries BC and contrasting to other sites in the Homs
gap. The city was destroyed during the Late Bronze Age, after which local Mycenaean
ceramics, Handmade burnished ware and Grey ware
replaced the imported pottery.
Architectural remains at the site include a palace
complex and temple
that were dated towards the end of the Late Bronze Age
. The temple contained a variety of amulets, seals and glazed ware that showed similarities with the culture of Ugarit
. A later Iron Age
settlement was detected between the 9th and 8th centuries BC which was brought to an end with evidence of burnt destruction caused by a currently unidentified Assyrian
invasion. A warehouse and defensive installation made out of ashlar
blocks were found dating to the Persian period with further evidence of Hellenistic occupation evidenced by a large cemetery in the northeast of the site.
- ^ a b c d Badre, Leila (August 2006). "Tell Kazel-Simyra: A Contribution to a Relative Chronological History in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research (343): 65–95. JSTOR 25066965.
- ^ Leila Badre (1990). Tell Kazel, Syria: excavations of the AUB Museum, 1985–1987 : preliminary reports. Faculty of Arts and Science, American University of Beirut. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- ^ Glenn Markoe (2000). Phoenicians. University of California Press. pp. 205–. ISBN 978-0-520-22614-2. Retrieved 16 December 2011.
- Dunand, Maurice, Bounni, A. and Saliby, N., Fouilles de Tell Kazel: Rapport préliminaire, AAAS 14, pp. 3–22, 1964.
- Sapin, Jean., Archäologische und geographische Geländebegehung im Grabenbruch von Homs, AfO 26, pp. 174–176, 1978–1979.
- Elayi, Josette., Les importations grecques à Tell Kazel (Symyra) à l'époque perse, AAAS 36-37, pp. 132–135, 1986–1987.
- Badre, L., Gubel, E., al-Maqdissi, M. and Sader, H. , "Tell Kazel, Syria. Excavations of the AUB Museum, 1985–1987. Preliminary Reports", Berytus 38, pp. 9–124, 1990.
- Badre, Leila et al., Tell Kazel, Syria. Excavations of the AUB Museum 1985-1987 - Preliminary Reports", Berytus 38, pp. 55–86, 1990.
- Stieglitz, Robert R., The Geopolitics of the Phoenician Littoral in the Early Iron Age, BASOR 279, pp. 9–12, 1990 and "The City of Amurru", JNES 50.1, pp. 45–48, 1991
- Badre, Leila., Tell Kazel. Rapport Préliminaire sur les 4ème-8ème Campagnes de Fouilles (1988–1992), Syria 71 (1994), pp. 259–359, 1994.
- Badre, L. and Gubel, E., Tell Kazel, Syria. Excavations of the AUB Museum, 1993–1998. Third Preliminary Report, Berytus 44, pp. 123–203, 1999–2000.
- Badre, Leila., Beirut and Tell Kazel: Two New Late Bronze Age Temples, in Proceedings of the First International Congress of Near Eastern Archaeology, 2001.
- Badre, Leila., Handmade Burnished Ware and Contemporary Imported Pottery from Tell Kazel", in Stampolidis, N.Ch. and Karageorghis, V. (eds), Sea Routes ... Interconnections in the Mediterranean 16th-6th Centuries BC. Proceedings of the International Symposium held at Rethymnon, Crete, in September 29-October 2, 2002, Athens, pp. 83–99, 2003.
- Capet, E., Tell Kazel (Syrie). Rapport préliminaire sur les 9e-17e campagnes de fouilles (1993–2001) du musée de l'Université américaine de Beyrouth. Chantier II", Berytus 47, pp. 63–121, 2003.
- Badre, L., Boileau, M.-C., Jung, R., Mommsen, H., The Provenance of Aegean- and Syrian-Type Pottery Found at Tell Kazel (Syria), Ä&L 15, pp. 15–47, 2005.
- Badre, Leila., Tell Kazel-Simyra: A Contribution to a Relative Chronological History in the Eastern Mediterranean during the Late Bronze Age, BASOR 343, pp. 65–95, 2006.
Last edited on 16 April 2021, at 15:50
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