The Slavic languages are conventionally (that is, also on the basis of extralinguistic features) divided into three subgroups: East
, and South
, which together constitute more than 20 languages. Of these, 10 have at least one million speakers and official status as the national languages
of the countries in which they are predominantly spoken: Russian
(of the East group), Polish
(of the West group) and Bulgarian
(eastern dialects of the South group), and Serbo-Croatian
(western dialects of the South group). In addition, Aleksandr Dulichenko
recognizes a number of Slavic microlanguages
: both isolated ethnolects and peripheral dialects of more well-established Slavic languages.
The current geographic distribution of natively spoken Slavic languages includes Southern Europe
, Central Europe
, Eastern Europe
, and all the way from Siberia
to the Russian Far East
. Furthermore, the diasporas of many Slavic peoples have established isolated minorities of speakers of their languages all over the world. The number of speakers of all Slavic languages together was estimated to be 315 million at the turn of the twenty-first century.
It is the largest ethno-linguistic group in Europe.
Balto-Slavic language tree.
Ethnographic Map of Slavic and Baltic Languages
Since the interwar period scholars have conventionally divided Slavic languages, on the basis of geographical and genealogical principle, and with the use of the extralinguistic feature of script, into three main branches, that is, East, West and South. (From the vantage of linguistic features alone, there are only two branches of the Slavic languages, namely North and South.
These three conventional branches feature some of the following subbranches:
Some linguists speculate that a North Slavic
branch has existed as well. The Old Novgorod dialect
may have reflected some idiosyncrasies of this group. Mutual intelligibility
also plays a role in determining the West, East, and South branches. Speakers of languages within the same branch will in most cases be able to understand each other at least partially, but they are generally unable to across branches (which would be comparable to a native English
speaker trying to understand any other Germanic language
The most obvious differences between the East, West and South Slavic branches are in the orthography of the standard languages: West Slavic languages (and Western South Slavic languages – Croatian
) are written in the Latin script
, and have had more Western European
influence due to their proximity and speakers being historically Roman Catholic
, whereas the East Slavic and Eastern South Slavic languages are written in Cyrillic
and, with Eastern Orthodox
faith, have had more Greek
East Slavic languages such as Russian have, however, during and after Peter the Great
's Europeanization campaign, absorbed many words of Latin, French, German, and Italian origin.
The tripartite division of the Slavic languages does not take into account the spoken dialects
of each language. Of these, certain so-called transitional dialects and hybrid dialects often bridge the gaps between different languages, showing similarities that do not stand out when comparing Slavic literary (i.e. standard) languages. For example, Slovak (West Slavic) and Ukrainian (East Slavic) are bridged by the Rusyn language
/dialect of Eastern Slovakia and Western Ukraine.
Similarly, the Croatian Kajkavian
dialect is more similar to Slovene
than to the standard Croatian language.
Although the Slavic languages diverged from a common proto-language
later than any other group of the Indo-European language
family, enough differences exist between the various Slavic dialects and languages to make communication between speakers of different Slavic languages difficult. Within the individual Slavic languages, dialects may vary to a lesser degree, as those of Russian, or to a much greater degree, like those of Slovene.
Common roots and ancestry
Area of Balto-Slavic dialectic continuum (purple) with proposed material cultures correlating to speakers Balto-Slavic in Bronze Age (white). Red dots = archaic Slavic hydronyms
Slavic languages descend from Proto-Slavic
, their immediate parent language
, ultimately deriving from Proto-Indo-European
, the ancestor language of all Indo-European languages
, via a Proto-Balto-Slavic
stage. During the Proto-Balto-Slavic period a number of exclusive isoglosses
in phonology, morphology, lexis, and syntax developed, which makes Slavic and Baltic
the closest related of all the Indo-European branches. The secession of the Balto-Slavic dialect ancestral to Proto-Slavic is estimated on archaeological and glottochronological criteria to have occurred sometime in the period 1500–1000 BCE.
A minority of Baltists maintain the view that the Slavic group of languages differs so radically from the neighboring Baltic group (Lithuanian
, and the now-extinct Old Prussian
), that they could not have shared a parent language after the breakup of the Proto-Indo-European
continuum about five millennia ago. Substantial advances in Balto-Slavic accentology
that occurred in the last three decades, however, make this view very hard to maintain nowadays, especially when one considers that there was most likely no "Proto-Baltic" language and that West Baltic and East Baltic differ from each other as much as each of them does from Proto-Slavic.
The imposition of Old Church Slavonic
on Orthodox Slavs was often at the expense of the vernacular
. Says WB Lockwood, a prominent Indo-European linguist, "It (O.C.S
) remained in use to modern times but was more and more influenced by the living, evolving languages, so that one distinguishes Bulgarian, Serbian, and Russian varieties. The use of such media hampered the development of the local languages for literary purposes, and when they do appear the first attempts are usually in an artificially mixed style." (148)
Lockwood also notes that these languages have "enriched" themselves by drawing on Church Slavonic for the vocabulary of abstract concepts. The situation in the Catholic countries, where Latin was more important, was different. The Polish Renaissance poet Jan Kochanowski
and the Croatian Baroque
writers of the 16th century all wrote in their respective vernaculars (though Polish itself had drawn amply on Latin in the same way Russian would eventually draw on Church Slavonic).
Although Church Slavonic hampered vernacular literatures
, it fostered Slavonic literary activity and abetted linguistic independence from external influences. Only the Croatian vernacular literary tradition nearly matches Church Slavonic in age. It began with the Vinodol Codex
and continued through the Renaissance until the codifications of Croatian
in 1830, though much of the literature between 1300 and 1500 was written in much the same mixture of the vernacular and Church Slavonic as prevailed in Russia and elsewhere.
More recent foreign influences follow the same general pattern in Slavic languages as elsewhere and are governed by the political relationships of the Slavs. In the 17th century, bourgeois Russian (delovoi jazyk
) absorbed German words through direct contacts between Russians and communities of German settlers in Russia. In the era of Peter the Great
, close contacts with France
invited countless loan words
, many of which not only survived but also replaced older Slavonic loans. In the 19th century, Russian influenced most literary Slavic languages by one means or another.
The Proto-Slavic language
existed until around AD 500. By the 7th century, it had broken apart into large dialectal zones.
There are no reliable hypotheses about the nature of the subsequent breakups of West and South Slavic. East Slavic is generally thought to converge to one Old East Slavic
language, which existed until at least the 12th century.
Linguistic differentiation was accelerated by the dispersion of the Slavic peoples over a large territory, which in Central Europe
exceeded the current extent of Slavic-speaking majorities. Written documents of the 9th, 10th, and 11th centuries already display some local linguistic features. For example, the Freising manuscripts
show a language that contains some phonetic and lexical elements peculiar to Slovene dialects
, the word krilatec
). The Freising manuscripts are the first Latin-script
continuous text in a Slavic language.
The migration of Slavic speakers into the Balkans in the declining centuries of the Byzantine Empire
expanded the area of Slavic speech, but the pre-existing writing (notably Greek) survived in this area. The arrival of the Hungarians
in the 9th century interposed non-Slavic speakers between South and West Slavs. Frankish
conquests completed the geographical separation between these two groups, also severing the connection between Slavs in Moravia
and Lower Austria
) and those in present-day Styria
, East Tyrol
, and in the provinces of modern Slovenia
, where the ancestors of the Slovenes
settled during first colonisation.
Map and tree of Slavic languages, according to Kassian and A. Dybo
In September 2015, Alexei Kassian and Anna Dybo
as a part of interdisciplinary study of Slavic ethnogenesis, a lexicostatistical classification of Slavic languages. It was built using qualitative 110-word Swadesh lists that were compiled according to the standards of the Global Lexicostatistical Database project
and processed using modern phylogenetic algorithms.
The resulting dated tree complies with the traditional expert views on the Slavic group structure. Kassian-Dybo's tree suggests that Proto-Slavic first diverged into three branches: Eastern, Western and Southern. The Proto-Slavic break-up is dated to around 100 A.D., which correlates with the archaeological assessment of Slavic population in the early 1st millennium A.D. being spread on a large territory
and already not being monolithic.
Then, in the 5th and 6th centuries A.D., these three Slavic branches almost simultaneously divided into sub-branches, which corresponds to the fast spread of the Slavs through Eastern Europe and the Balkans during the second half of the 1st millennium A.D. (the so-called Slavicization of Europe).
The Slovenian language was excluded from the analysis, as both Ljubljana koine and Literary Slovenian show mixed lexical features of Southern and Western Slavic languages (which could possibly indicate the Western Slavic origin of Slovenian, which for a long time was being influenced on the part of the neighboring Serbo-Croatian dialects),[original research?]
and the quality Swadesh lists were not yet collected for Slovenian dialects. Because of scarcity or unreliability of data, the study also did not cover the so-called Old Novgordian dialect, the Polabian language and some other Slavic lects.
The above Kassian-Dybo's research did not take into account the findings by Russian linguist Andrey Zaliznyak who stated that in the 11th century Novgorod language differed from Kiev language as well as from all other Slavic languages much more than in later centuries, meaning that there was no common Old East Slavic
language of Kievan Rus' from which Ukrainian, Russian and Belorussian languages diverged, but that the Russian language developed as the convergence of Novgorod language and other Russian dialects, whereas Ukrainian and Belorusian were continuation of the development of respective Kiev and Polotsk dialects of Kievan Rus'.
Also Russian linguist Sergey Nikolaev, analysing historical development of Slavic dialects’ accent system, concluded that a number of other tribes in Kievan Rus came from different Slavic branches and spoke distant Slavic dialects.
Zaliznyak and Nikolaev's points mean that there was a convergence stage before the divergence or simultaneously, which was not taken into consideration by Kassian-Dybo's research.
Ukrainian linguists (Stepan Smal-Stotsky
, Ivan Ohienko
, George Shevelov
, Yevhen Tymchenko, Vsevolod Hantsov, Olena Kurylo) deny the existence of a common Old East Slavic language at any time in the past.
According to them, the dialects of East Slavic tribes evolved gradually from the common Proto-Slavic language without any intermediate stages.
- PIE *ḱ, *ǵ, *ǵʰ → *ś, *ź, *źʰ (→ CS *s, *z, *z)
- PIE *kʷ, *gʷ, *gʷʰ → *k, *g, *gʰ
- Ruki rule: Following *r, *u, *k or *i, PIE *s → *š (→ CS *x)
- Loss of voiced aspirates: PIE *bʰ, *dʰ, *gʰ → *b, *d, *g
- Merger of *o and *a: PIE *a/*o, *ā/*ō → PS *a, *ā (→ CS *o, *a)
- Law of open syllables: All closed syllables (syllables ending in a consonant) are eventually eliminated, in the following stages:
- Nasalization: With *N indicating either *n or *m not immediately followed by a vowel: PIE *aN, *eN, *iN, *oN, *uN → *ą, *ę, *į, *ǫ, *ų (→ CS *ǫ, *ę, *ę, *ǫ, *y). (NOTE: *ą *ę etc. indicates a nasalized vowel.)
- In a cluster of obstruent (stop or fricative) + another consonant, the obstruent is deleted unless the cluster can occur word-initially.
- (occurs later, see below) Monophthongization of diphthongs.
- (occurs much later, see below) Elimination of liquid diphthongs (e.g. *er, *ol when not followed immediately by a vowel).
- First palatalization: *k, *g, *x → CS *č, *ž, *š (pronounced [tʃ], [ʒ], [ʃ] respectively) before a front vocalic sound (*e, *ē, *i, *ī, *j).
- Iotation: Consonants are palatalized by an immediately following *j:
- sj, *zj → CS *š, *ž
- nj, *lj, *rj → CS *ň, *ľ, *ř (pronounced [nʲ lʲ rʲ] or similar)
- tj, *dj → CS *ť, *ď (probably palatal stops, e.g. [c ɟ], but developing in different ways depending on the language)
- bj, *pj, *mj, *wj → *bľ, *pľ, *mľ, *wľ (the lateral consonant *ľ is mostly lost later on in West Slavic)
- Vowel fronting: After *j or some other palatal sound, back vowels are fronted (*a, *ā, *u, *ū, *ai, *au → *e, *ē, *i, *ī, *ei, *eu). This leads to hard/soft alternations in noun and adjective declensions.
- Prothesis: Before a word-initial vowel, *j or *w is usually inserted.
- Monophthongization: *ai, *au, *ei, *eu, *ū → *ē, *ū, *ī, *jū, *ȳ [ɨː]
- Second palatalization: *k, *g, *x → CS *c [ts], *dz, *ś before new *ē (from earlier *ai). *ś later splits into *š (West Slavic), *s (East/South Slavic).
- Progressive palatalization (or "third palatalization"): *k, *g, *x → CS *c, *dz, *ś after *i, *ī in certain circumstances.
- Vowel quality shifts: All pairs of long/short vowels become differentiated as well by vowel quality:
- a, *ā → CS *o, *a
- e, *ē → CS *e, *ě (originally a low-front sound [æ] but eventually raised to [ie] in most dialects, developing in divergent ways)
- i, *u → CS *ь, *ъ (also written *ĭ, *ŭ; lax vowels as in the English words pit, put)
- ī, *ū, *ȳ → CS *i, *u, *y
- Elimination of liquid diphthongs: Liquid diphthongs (sequences of vowel plus *l or *r, when not immediately followed by a vowel) are changed so that the syllable becomes open:
- or, *ol, *er, *el → *ro, *lo, *re, *le in West Slavic.
- or, *ol, *er, *el → *oro, *olo, *ere, *olo in East Slavic.
- or, *ol, *er, *el → *rā, *lā, *re, *le in South Slavic.
- Possibly, *ur, *ul, *ir, *il → syllabic *r, *l, *ř, *ľ (then develops in divergent ways).
- Development of phonemic tone and vowel length (independent of vowel quality): Complex developments (see History of accentual developments in Slavic languages).
The Slavic languages are a relatively homogeneous family, compared with other families of Indo-European languages
, and Indo-Iranian
). As late as the 10th century AD, the entire Slavic-speaking area still functioned as a single, dialectally differentiated language, termed Common Slavic
. Compared with most other Indo-European languages, the Slavic languages are quite conservative, particularly in terms of morphology
(the means of inflecting nouns and verbs to indicate grammatical differences). Most Slavic languages have a rich, fusional
morphology that conserves much of the inflectional morphology of Proto-Indo-European
The following table shows the inventory of consonants of Late Common Slavic:
Consonants of Late Proto-Slavic
1The sound /sʲ/ did not occur in West Slavic, where it had developed to /ʃ/.
This inventory of sounds is quite similar to what is found in most modern Slavic languages. The extensive series of palatal consonants
, along with the affricates
*ts and *dz, developed through a series of palatalizations
that happened during the Proto-Slavic
period, from earlier sequences either of velar consonants
followed by front vowels
(e.g. *ke, *ki, *ge, *gi, *xe, and *xi), or of various consonants followed by *j (e.g. *tj, *dj, *sj, *zj, *rj, *lj, *kj, and *gj, where *j is the palatal approximant
([j], the sound of the English letter "y" in "yes" or "you").
The biggest change in this inventory results from a further general palatalization
occurring near the end of the Common Slavic period, where all
consonants became palatalized before front vowels. This produced a large number of new palatalized (or "soft") sounds, which formed pairs with the corresponding non-palatalized (or "hard") consonants
and absorbed the existing palatalized sounds *lʲ *rʲ *nʲ *sʲ. These sounds were best preserved in Russian but were lost to varying degrees in other languages (particularly Czech and Slovak). The following table shows the inventory of modern Russian:
Consonant phonemes of Russian
This general process of palatalization did not occur in Serbo-Croatian and Slovenian. As a result, the modern consonant inventory of these languages is nearly identical to the Late Common Slavic inventory.
Late Common Slavic tolerated relatively few consonant clusters
. However, as a result of the loss of certain formerly present vowels (the weak yers
the modern Slavic languages allow quite complex clusters, as in the Russian word взбл
("flash"). Also present in many Slavic languages are clusters rarely found cross-linguistically, as in Russian рт
("mercury") or Polish mchu [mxu]
("moss", gen. sg.). The word for "mercury" with the initial rt-
cluster, for example, is also found in the other East and West Slavic languages, although Slovak retains an epenthetic vowel (ortuť
A typical vowel inventory is as follows:
The sound [ɨ
] occurs only in some languages (Russian and Belarusian), and even in these languages, it is unclear whether it is its own phoneme
or an allophone
of /i/. Nonetheless, it is a quite prominent and noticeable characteristic of the languages in which it is present.
Common Slavic also had two nasal vowels
: *ę [ẽ] and *ǫ [õ]. However, these are preserved only in modern Polish (along with a few lesser-known dialects and microlanguages; see Yus
for more details).
Other phonemic vowels are found in certain languages (e.g. the schwa
/ə/ in Bulgarian and Slovenian, distinct high-mid
vowels in Slovenian, and the lax front vowel /ɪ/ in Ukrainian).
- All vowels could occur either short or long, and this was phonemic (it could not automatically be predicted from other properties of the word).
- There was (at most) a single accented syllable per word, distinguished by higher pitch (as in modern Japanese) rather than greater dynamic stress (as in English).
- Vowels in accented syllables could be pronounced with either a rising or falling tone (i.e. there was pitch accent), and this was phonemic.
- The accent was free in that it could occur on any syllable and was phonemic.
- The accent was mobile in that its position could potentially vary among closely related words within a single paradigm (e.g. the accent might land on a different syllable between the nominative and genitive singular of a given word).
- Even within a given inflectional class (e.g. masculine i-stem nouns), there were multiple accent patterns in which a given word could be inflected. For example, most nouns in a particular inflectional class could follow one of three possible patterns: Either there was a consistent accent on the root (pattern A), predominant accent on the ending (pattern B), or accent that moved between the root and ending (pattern C). In patterns B and C, the accent in different parts of the paradigm shifted not only in location but also type (rising vs. falling). Each inflectional class had its own version of patterns B and C, which might differ significantly from one inflectional class to another.
The modern languages vary greatly in the extent to which they preserve this system. On one extreme, Serbo-Croatian preserves the system nearly unchanged (even more so in the conservative Chakavian dialect
); on the other, Macedonian has basically lost the system in its entirety. Between them are found numerous variations:
- Slovenian preserves most of the system but has shortened all unaccented syllables and lengthened non-final accented syllables so that vowel length and accent position largely co-occur.
- Russian and Bulgarian have eliminated distinctive vowel length and tone and converted the accent into a stress accent (as in English) but preserved its position. As a result, the complexity of the mobile accent and the multiple accent patterns still exists (particularly in Russian because it has preserved the Common Slavic noun inflections, while Bulgarian has lost them).
- Czech and Slovak have preserved phonemic vowel length and converted the distinctive tone of accented syllables into length distinctions. The phonemic accent is otherwise lost, but the former accent patterns are echoed to some extent in corresponding patterns of vowel length/shortness in the root. Paradigms with mobile vowel length/shortness do exist but only in a limited fashion, usually only with the zero-ending forms (nom. sg., acc. sg., and/or gen. pl., depending on inflectional class) having a different length from the other forms. (Czech has a couple of other "mobile" patterns, but they are rare and can usually be substituted with one of the "normal" mobile patterns or a non-mobile pattern.)
- Old Polish had a system very much like Czech. Modern Polish has lost vowel length, but some former short-long pairs have become distinguished by quality (e.g. [o oː] > [o u]), with the result that some words have vowel-quality changes that exactly mirror the mobile-length patterns in Czech and Slovak.
This section needs expansion
. You can help by adding to it
. (February 2013)
Similarly, Slavic languages have extensive morphophonemic alternations in their derivational and inflectional morphology,
including between velar and postalveolar consonants, front and back vowels, and a vowel and no vowel.
The following is a very brief selection of cognates in basic vocabulary across the Slavic language family, which may serve to give an idea of the sound changes involved. This is not a list of translations: cognates have a common origin, but their meaning may be shifted and loanwords may have replaced them.
Influence on neighboring languages
Most languages of the former Soviet Union
and of some neighbouring countries (for example, Mongolian
) are significantly influenced by Russian
, especially in vocabulary. The Romanian
, and Hungarian
languages show the influence of the neighboring Slavic nations, especially in vocabulary pertaining to urban life, agriculture, and crafts and trade—the major cultural innovations at times of limited long-range cultural contact. In each one of these languages, Slavic lexical borrowings represent at least 15% of the total vocabulary. This is potentially because Slavic tribes crossed and partially settled the territories inhabited by ancient Illyrians
on their way to the Balkans
, a specialist in Slavic etymology, has claimed that there were no Slavic loans into Proto-Germanic
. However, there are isolated Slavic loans (mostly recent) into other Germanic languages. For example, the word for "border" (in modern German Grenze
, Dutch grens
) was borrowed from the Common Slavic granica
. There are, however, many cities and villages of Slavic origin in Eastern Germany, the largest of which are Berlin
. English derives quark
(a kind of cheese and subatomic particle
) from the German Quark
, which in turn is derived from the Slavic tvarog
, which means "curd". Many German surnames, particularly in Eastern Germany and Austria, are Slavic in origin. Swedish
also has torg
(market place) from Old Russian tъrgъ (trŭgŭ
) or Polish targ
(shrimp, prawn), 
and, via Middle Low German tolk
(interpreter) from Old Slavic tlŭkŭ
(barge) from West Slavonic pramŭ
and Slavic languages have many words in common. According to Petri Kallio, this suggests Slavic words being borrowed into Finnish languages, as early as Proto-Finnic.
Many loanwords have acquired a Finnicized form, making it difficult to say whether such a word is natively Finnic or Slavic.
is now found in most languages worldwide, and the word pistol
, probably also from Czech,
is found in many European languages.
A well-known Slavic word in almost all European languages is vodka
, a borrowing from Russian водка (vodka
) – which itself was borrowed from Polish wódka
(lit. "little water"), from common Slavic voda
to the English word) with the diminutive
Owing to the medieval fur trade
with Northern Russia, Pan-European loans from Russian include such familiar words as sable
The English word "vampire
" was borrowed (perhaps via French vampire
) from German Vampir
, in turn derived from Serbian вампир (vampir
), continuing Proto-Slavic
scholar K. Stachowski has argued that the origin of the word is early Slavic *vąpěrь, going back to Turkic oobyr
Several European languages, including English
, have borrowed the word polje
(meaning "large, flat plain") directly from the former Yugoslav
languages (i.e. Slovene
, and Serbian
). During the heyday of the USSR
in the 20th century, many more Russian words became known worldwide: da
, etc. Another borrowed Russian term is samovar
The following tree for the Slavic languages derives from the Ethnologue
report for Slavic languages.
It includes the ISO 639-1
and ISO 639-3
codes where available.
Linguistic maps of Slavic languages
Map of all areas where the Russian language
is the language spoken by the majority of the population.
- Sorbian section (also known as Wendish): ISO 639-3 code: wen
- Lechitic section
- Czech-Slovak section
- Czech: ISO 639-1 code: cs; ISO 639-3 ces
- Knaanic or Judeo Slavic—extinct: ISO 639-3 code: czk
- Slovak: ISO 639-1 code: sk; ISO 639-3 code: slk
- Western Section
- Eastern Section
Para- and supranational languages
- Church Slavonic language, variations of Old Church Slavonic with significant replacement of the original vocabulary by forms from the Old East Slavic and other regional forms. The Bulgarian Orthodox Church, Russian Orthodox Church, Polish Orthodox Church, Macedonian Orthodox Church, Serbian Orthodox Church, and even some Roman Catholic Churches in Croatia continue to use Church Slavonic as a liturgical language. While not used in modern times, the text of a Church Slavonic Roman Rite Mass survives in Croatia and the Czech Republic, which is best known through Janáček's musical setting of it (the Glagolitic Mass).
- Interslavic language, a modernized and simplified form of Old Church Slavonic, largely based on material that the modern Slavic languages have in common. Its purpose is to facilitate communication between representatives of different Slavic nations and to allow people who do not know any Slavic language to communicate with Slavs. Because Old Church Slavonic had become too archaic and complex for everyday communication, Pan-Slavic language projects have been created from the 17th century onwards in order to provide the Slavs with a common literary language. Interslavic in its current form was standardized in 2011 after the merger of several older projects.
- ^ Dulichenko A.D., Малые славянские литературные языки (микроязыки). Языки мира: Славянские языки. М.: Academia, 2005.
- ^ Dulichenko A.D., Славянские литературные микроязыки. Вопросы формирования и развития. Tallinn, 1981.
- ^ Duličenko А.D., Kleinschriftsprachen in der slawischen Sprachenwelt. Zeitschrift für Slawistik, 1994, Bd. 39.
- ^ Browne, Wayles; Ivanov, Vyacheslav Vsevolodovich (17 October 2019). "Slavic languages". Encyclopedia Britannica.
- ^ "Slavic Countries". WorldAtlas.
- ^ Peter Trudgill. 2003. A Glossary of Sociolinguistics. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp 36, 95–96, 124–125.
- ^ Kamusella (2005:77)
- ^ Encyclopedia of Rusyn history and culture, p 274, Paul R. Magocsi, Ivan Ivanovich Pop, University of Toronto Press, 2002
- ^ cf. Novotná & Blažek (2007) with references. "Classical glottochronology" conducted by Czech Slavist M. Čejka in 1974 dates the Balto-Slavic split to −910±340 BCE, Sergei Starostin in 1994 dates it to 1210 BCE, and "recalibrated glottochronology" conducted by Novotná & Blažek dates it to 1400–1340 BCE. This agrees well with Trziniec-Komarov culture, localized from Silesia to Central Ukraine and dated to the period 1500–1200 BCE.
- ^ Kapović (2008:94) "Kako rekosmo, nije sigurno je li uopće bilo prabaltijskoga jezika. Čini se da su dvije posvjedočene, preživjele grane baltijskoga, istočna i zapadna, različite jedna od druge izvorno kao i svaka posebno od praslavenskoga".
- ^ Kassian, Alexei, Anna Dybo, «Supplementary Information 2: Linguistics: Datasets; Methods; Results» in: Kushniarevich, A; Utevska, O; Chuhryaeva, M; Agdzhoyan, A; Dibirova, K; Uktveryte, I; et al. (2015). "Genetic Heritage of the Balto-Slavic Speaking Populations: A Synthesis of Autosomal, Mitochondrial and Y-Chromosomal Data". PLOS ONE. 10 (9): e0135820. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1035820K. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0135820. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC 4558026. PMID 26332464.
- ^ "The Global Lexicostatistical Database". Russian State University for the Humanities, Moscow.
- ^ Sussex, Roland, Paul Cubberley. 2006. The Slavic languages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. P.19.
- ^ Седов, В. В. 1995. Славяне в раннем средневековье. Москва: Фонд археологии. P. 5
- ^ Седов, В. В. 1979. Происхождение и ранняя история славян. Москва: Наука.
- ^ Barford, P.M. 2001. The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
- ^ Curta F. 2001. The Making of the Slavs: History and Archaeology of the Lower Danube Region, c. 500–700. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- ^ Heather P. 2010. Empires and Barbarians: The Fall of Rome and the Birth of Europe. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- ^ Zaliznyak, Andrey Anatolyevich. "About Russian Language History". elementy.ru. Mumi-Trol School. Retrieved 21 May 2020.
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