-/ (listen) sloh-VEE-nee-ə
: Slovenija [slɔˈʋèːnija]
officially the Republic of Slovenia
(Slovene: Republika Slovenija
), is a country in Central Europe
It is bordered by Italy
to the west, Austria
to the north, Hungary
to the northeast, Croatia
to the southeast, and the Adriatic Sea
to the southwest.
Slovenia is mostly mountainous and forested,
covers 20,271 square kilometers (7,827 sq mi), and has a population of 2.1 million, of which 500,000 live in the capital
and largest city Ljubljana
form the vast majority of the country's population, while Serbs
are the largest minority. Slovene
, the South Slavic language
, is the official language.
Slovenia has a mainly continental climate
with the exception of the Slovene Littoral
, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate
, and of the Julian Alps
in the northwest, which have an Alpine climate
Additionally, the Dinaric Alps
and the Pannonian Plain
meet in Slovenia. Ljubljana
is the nation's capital and largest city
Slovenia has historically been the crossroads of Slavic
, and Romance
languages and cultures.
The territory of modern-day Slovenia has been part of many different states; the Roman Empire
, the Byzantine Empire
, the Carolingian Empire
, the Holy Roman Empire
, the Kingdom of Hungary
, the Republic of Venice
, the Illyrian Provinces
, the Austrian Empire
In October 1918, the Slovenes co-founded the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
In December 1918, they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia
into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
During World War II
, and Hungary
occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to Croatia
, a Nazi puppet state
at that time.
In 1945, It became a founding member of Yugoslavia
. Post-war, Yugoslavia was initially allied with the Eastern Bloc
, but after the Tito-Stalin split
of 1948, it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact
, and in 1961, it became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement
In June 1991, Slovenia became the first republic
that split from Yugoslavia
and became an independent sovereign state
The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ
is usually derived from the word slovo
("word"), originally denoting "people who speak (the same language)," i. e. people who understand each other. This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь
, meaning "silent, mute people" (from Slavic *němъ
, mumbling"). The word slovo
("word") and the related slava
("glory, fame") and slukh
("hearing") originate from the Proto-Indo-European
("be spoken of, glory"), cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος (kléos
"fame"), as in the name Pericles
, Latin clueo
("be called"), and English loud
The modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee
(SNOS) held on 19 February 1944. They officially named the state as Federal Slovenia
), a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia
(Ljudska republika Slovenija
It retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia
: Socialistična republika Slovenija
On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia
; it remained a part of the SFRY until 25 June 1991.
Prehistory to Slavic settlement
In 2002, remains of pile dwellings
over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes
, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site
, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel
, the oldest wooden wheel in the world.
It shows that wooden wheels appeared almost simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe.
In the transition period between the Bronze Age
to the Iron Age
, the Urnfield
culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period
have been found, particularly in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situlas
in Novo Mesto
, the "Town of Situlas".
In the Iron Age
, present-day Slovenia was inhabited by Illyrian
tribes until the 1st century BC.
's south wall (reconstruction) in present-day Ljubljana
The area that is present-day Slovenia was in Roman times shared between Venetia et Histria
(region X of Roman Italia
in the classification of Augustus
) and the provinces Pannonia
. The Romans established posts at Emona
(Ptuj), and Celeia
(Celje); and constructed trade and military roads that ran across Slovene territory from Italy to Pannonia. In the 5th and 6th centuries, the area was subject to invasions by the Huns
and Germanic tribes during their incursions into Italy. A part of the inner state was protected with a defensive line of towers and walls called Claustra Alpium Iuliarum
. A crucial battle
between Theodosius I
took place in the Vipava Valley
tribes migrated to the Alpine area after the westward departure of the Lombards
(the last Germanic tribe) in 568, and under pressure from Avars
established a Slavic settlement in the Eastern Alps
. From 623 to 624 or possibly 626 onwards, King Samo
united the Alpine and Western Slavs against the Avars and Germanic peoples and established what is referred to as Samo's Kingdom. After its disintegration following Samo's death in 658 or 659, the ancestors of the Slovenes
located in present-day Carinthia
formed the independent duchy of Carantania
, later duchy Carniola. Other parts of present-day Slovenia were again ruled by Avars before Charlemagne
's victory over them in 803.
, one of the ancestral groups of the modern Slovenes, particularly the Carinthian Slovenes
, were the first Slavic people to accept Christianity
. They were mostly Christianized by Irish missionaries, among them Modestus
, known as the "Apostle of Carantanians". This process, together with the Christianization of the Bavarians
, was later described in the memorandum known as the Conversio Bagoariorum et Carantanorum
, which is thought to have overemphasized the role of the Church of Salzburg in the Christianization process over similar efforts of the Patriarchate of Aquileia
A depiction of an ancient democratic ritual of Slovene-speaking tribes, which took place on the Prince's Stone
In the mid-8th century, Carantania became a vassal duchy under the rule of the Bavarians
, who began spreading Christianity
. Three decades later, the Carantanians
were incorporated, together with the Bavarians, into the Carolingian Empire
. During the same period Carniola
, too, came under the Franks, and was Christianised from Aquileia
. Following the anti-Frankish rebellion of Liudewit
at the beginning of the 9th century, the Franks
removed the Carantanian princes, replacing them with their own border dukes. Consequently, the Frankish feudal system
reached the Slovene territory.
By the 11th century, the Germanization of what is now Lower Austria
, effectively isolated the Slovene-inhabited territory from the other western Slavs
, speeding up the development of the Slavs of Carantania
and of Carniola into an independent Carantanian/Carniolans/Slovene ethnic group. By the late Middle Ages, the historic provinces of Carniola, Styria
, and Istria
developed from the border regions and were incorporated into the medieval German state. The consolidation and formation of these historical lands took place in a long period between the 11th and 14th centuries, and were led by a number of important feudal families, such as the Dukes of Spannheim
, the Counts of Gorizia
, the Counts of Celje
, and, finally, the House of Habsburg
. In a parallel process, an intensive German colonization significantly diminished the extent of Slovene-speaking areas. By the 15th century, the Slovene ethnic territory
was reduced to its present size.
In the 14th century, most of the territory of present-day Slovenia was taken over by the Habsburgs
. The counts of Celje
, a feudal family from this area who in 1436 acquired the title of state princes, were Habsburgs
' powerful competitors for some time. This large dynasty, important at a European political level, had its seat in Slovene territory but died out in 1456. Its numerous large estates subsequently became the property of the Habsburgs, who retained control of the area right up until the beginning of the 20th century. Patria del Friuli
ruled present western Slovenia until Venetian
takeover in 1420.
At the end of the Middle Ages, the Slovene Lands
suffered a serious economic and demographic setback because of the Turkish raids
. In 1515, a peasant revolt
spread across nearly the whole Slovene territory. In 1572 and 1573 the Croatian-Slovenian peasant revolt
wrought havoc throughout the wider region. Such uprisings, which often met with bloody defeats, continued throughout the 17th century.
Early modern period
Due to limited opportunities, between 1880 and 1910 there was extensive emigration, and around 300,000 Slovenes (i.e. 1 in 6) emigrated to other countries,
mostly to the US
, but also to South America
(the main part to Argentina
), Germany, Egypt
, and to larger cities in Austria-Hungary, especially Vienna
. The area of the United States with the highest concentration of Slovenian immigrants is Cleveland
. The other locations in the United States where many Slovenians settled were areas with substantial industrial and mining activities: Pittsburgh
, northern Minnesota
, and the Salt Lake Valley
. The men were important as workers in the mining industry, because of some of the skills they brought from Slovenia. Despite this emigration, the population of Slovenia increased significantly.
Literacy was exceptionally high, at 80–90%.
World War I
World War I
brought heavy casualties to Slovenes, particularly the twelve Battles of the Isonzo
, which took place in present-day Slovenia's western border area with Italy. Hundreds of thousands of Slovene conscripts were drafted into the Austro-Hungarian Army
, and over 30,000 of them died. Hundreds of thousands of Slovenes from Princely County of Gorizia and Gradisca
were resettled in refugee camps
in Italy and Austria. While the refugees in Austria received decent treatment, the Slovene refugees in Italian camps were treated as state enemies, and several thousand died of malnutrition and diseases between 1915 and 1918.
Entire areas of the Slovene Littoral were destroyed.
Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes (later the Kingdom of Yugoslavia)
The proclamation of the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs at Congress Square
in Ljubljana on 20 October 1918
The Slovene People's Party
launched a movement for self-determination, demanding the creation of a semi-independent South Slavic
state under Habsburg
rule. The proposal was picked up by most Slovene parties, and a mass mobilization of Slovene civil society, known as the Declaration Movement
This demand was rejected by the Austrian political elites; but following the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the aftermath of the First World War
, the National Council of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs
took power in Zagreb
on 6 October 1918. On 29 October, independence was declared by a national gathering in Ljubljana, and by the Croatian parliament, declaring the establishment of the new State of Slovenes, Croats, and Serbs
The map showing the present territory of Slovenia, with traditional regional boundaries; the Slovene-speaking areas annexed by Italy after WWI are shown in stripes
On 1 December 1918, the State of Slovenes, Croats and Serbs merged with Serbia
, becoming part of the new Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes
; in 1929 it was renamed the Kingdom of Yugoslavia
. The main territory of Slovenia, being the most industrialized and westernized compared to other less developed parts of Yugoslavia, became the main center of industrial production: Compared to Serbia, for example, Slovenian industrial production was four times greater; and it was 22 times greater than in North Macedonia
. The interwar period brought further industrialization in Slovenia, with rapid economic growth in the 1920s, followed by a relatively successful economic adjustment to the 1929 economic crisis
and Great Depression
Slovenes living in territories that fell under the rule of the neighboring states—Italy, Austria, and Hungary—were subjected to assimilation
World War II
During World War II, Nazi Germany
annexed northern areas (brown and dark green areas, respectively), while Fascist Italy
annexed the vertically hashed black area (solid black western part having been annexed by Italy in 1920 with the Treaty of Rapallo
). Some villages were incorporated into the Independent State of Croatia
. After 1943, Germany took over the Italian occupational area, as well.
Axis forces invaded Yugoslavia
in April 1941 and defeated the country in a few weeks. The southern part, including Ljubljana
, was annexed to Italy, while the Nazis took over the northern and eastern parts of the country. The Nazis had a plan of ethnic cleansing
of these areas,
and they resettled or expelled the local Slovene civilian population to the puppet states of Nedić's Serbia
(7,500) and NDH
(10,000). In addition, some 46,000 Slovenes were expelled to Germany, including children who were separated from their parents and allocated to German families.
At the same time, the ethnic Germans in the Gottschee
enclave in the Italian annexation zone were resettled to the Nazi-controlled areas cleansed of their Slovene population.
Around 30,000 to 40,000 Slovene men were drafted to the German Army
and sent to the Eastern front. The Slovene language was banned from education, and its use in public life was limited to the absolute minimum.
Partisans fighting for Trieste and Primorje region, 1945
After the resistance started in summer 1941, Italian violence against the Slovene civilian population escalated, as well. The Italian authorities deported some 25,000 people to the concentration camps
, which equaled 7.5% of the population of their occupation zone. The most infamous ones were Rab
. To counter the Communist-led insurgence, the Italians sponsored local anti-guerrilla units, formed mostly by the local conservative Catholic Slovene population that resented the revolutionary violence of the partisans. After the Italian armistice
of September 1943, the Germans took over both the Province of Ljubljana and the Slovenian Littoral, incorporating them into what was known as the Operation Zone of Adriatic Coastal Region
. They united the Slovene anti-Communist counter-insurgence into the Slovene Home Guard
and appointed a puppet regime in the Province of Ljubljana. The anti-Nazi resistance however expanded, creating its own administrative structures as the basis for Slovene statehood within a new, federal and socialist Yugoslavia.
In 1945, Yugoslavia
was liberated by the partisan resistance and soon became a socialist federation known as the People's Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
. Slovenia joined the federation as a constituent republic, led by its own pro-Communist leadership.
Approximately 8% of the entire Slovene population died during World War II
. The small Jewish
community, mostly settled in the Prekmurje
region, perished in 1944 in the holocaust of Hungarian Jews
. The German speaking minority, amounting to 2.5% of the Slovenian population prior to WWII
, was either expelled or killed in the aftermath of the war. Hundreds of Istrian Italians
and Slovenes that opposed communism were killed in the foibe massacres
, and more than 25,000 fled or were expelled from Slovenian Istria
in the aftermath of the war.
Around 130 000 persons, mostly political and military opponents, were executed after the end of the Second World War in May and June 1945.
After the failure of forced collectivisation
that was attempted from 1949 to 1953, a policy of gradual economic liberalisation, known as workers self-management
, was introduced under the advice and supervision of the Slovene Marxist theoretician and Communist leader Edvard Kardelj
, the main ideologue of the Titoist
path to socialism. Suspected opponents of this policy both from within and outside the Communist party were persecuted and thousands were sent to Goli otok
The late 1950s saw a policy of liberalisation in the cultural sphere as well, and limited border crossing into neighboring Italy and Austria was allowed again. Until the 1980s, Slovenia
enjoyed relatively broad autonomy within the federation. In 1956, Josip Broz Tito
, together with other leaders, founded the Non-Aligned Movement
. Particularly in the 1950s, Slovenia's economy developed rapidly and was strongly industrialised. With further economic decentralisation of Yugoslavia in 1965–66, Slovenia's domestic product
was 2.5 times the average of Yugoslav republics.
Opposition to the regime was mostly limited to intellectual and literary circles, and became especially vocal after Tito's death in 1980, when the economic and political situation in Yugoslavia became very strained.
Political disputes around economic measures were echoed in the public sentiment, as many Slovenians felt they were being economically exploited, having to sustain an expensive and inefficient federal administration.
Slovenian Spring, democracy and independence
In 1987 a group of intellectuals demanded Slovene independence in the 57th edition
of the magazine Nova revija
. Demands for democratisation and more Slovenian independence were sparked off. A mass democratic movement, coordinated by the Committee for the Defence of Human Rights
, pushed the Communists in the direction of democratic reforms.
Slovenian Territorial Defense Units counterattacking the Yugoslav National Army tank who entered Slovenia during the Ten-Day War
The initial revolutionary events in Slovenia pre-dated the Revolutions of 1989
in Eastern Europe by almost a year, but went largely unnoticed by international observers. On 23 December 1990, more than 88% of the electorate voted for a sovereign and independent Slovenia.
On 25 June 1991, Slovenia became independent
through the passage of appropriate legal documents.
On 27 June in the early morning, the Yugoslav People's Army
dispatched its forces to prevent further measures for the establishment of a new country, which led to the Ten-Day War
On 7 July, the Brijuni Agreement
was signed, implementing a truce and a three-month halt of the enforcement of Slovenia's independence.
At the end of the month, the last soldiers of the Yugoslav Army left Slovenia.
A topographic map of Slovenia
The term "Karst topography
" refers to that of southwestern Slovenia's Karst Plateau
, a limestone
region of underground rivers, gorges, and caves, between Ljubljana and the Mediterranean Sea. On the Pannonian plain
to the East and Northeast, toward the Croatian and Hungarian borders, the landscape is essentially flat. However, most of Slovenia is hilly or mountainous, with around 90% of its land surface 200 m (656 ft) or more above sea level
More than half of Slovenia, which is 11,823 km2
or 4,565 sq mi, is forested;
ranking it third in Europe, by percentage of area forested
, after Finland
. The areas are covered mostly by beech
-beech and beech-oak
forests and have a relatively high production capacity.
Remnants of primeval forests are still to be found, the largest in the Kočevje
area. Grassland covers 5,593 km2
(2,159 sq mi) and fields and gardens (954 km2
or 368 sq mi). There are 363 km2
(140 sq mi) of orchards and 216 km2
(83 sq mi) of vineyards.
Solution runnels (also known as rillenkarren) are a karst
feature on the Karst Plateau, as in many other karst areas of the world.
Slovenia is in a rather active seismic zone
because of its position on the small Adriatic Plate
, which is squeezed between the Eurasian Plate
to the north and the African Plate
to the south and rotates counter-clockwise.
Thus the country is at the junction of three important geotectonic
units: the Alps to the north, the Dinaric Alps to the south and the Pannonian Basin to the east.
Scientists have been able to identify 60 destructive earthquakes in the past. Additionally, a network of seismic stations is active throughout the country.
Many parts of Slovenia have a carbonate ground, and an extensive subterranean system has developed.
The first regionalisations of Slovenia were made by geographers Anton Melik
(1935–1936) and Svetozar Ilešič
(1968). The newer regionalisation by Ivan Gams
divided Slovenia in the following macroregions:
Slovenian coast with cliffs
According to a newer natural geographic regionalisation, the country consists of four macroregions
. These are the Alpine, the Mediterranean, the Dinaric, and the Pannonian
landscapes. Macroregions are defined according to major relief units (the Alps, the Pannonian plain, the Dinaric mountains) and climate types (submediterranean, temperate continental, mountain climate).
These are often quite interwoven.
Protected areas of Slovenia include national parks, regional parks, and nature parks, the largest of which is Triglav National Park
. There are 286 Natura 2000
designated protected areas, which include 36% of the country's land area, the largest percentage among European Union states.
Additionally, according to Yale University
's Environmental Performance Index
, Slovenia is considered a "strong performer" in environmental protection efforts.
Climate types of Slovenia 1970–2000 and climographs
for selected settlements.
Slovenia is located in temperate latitudes. The climate is also influenced by the variety of relief, and the influence of the Alps
and the Adriatic Sea
. In the northeast, the continental climate
type with greatest difference between winter and summer temperatures prevails. In the coastal region, there is sub-Mediterranean climate
. The effect of the sea on the temperature rates is also visible up the Soča
Valley, while a severe Alpine climate
is present in the high mountain regions. There is a strong interaction between these three climatic systems across most of the country.
, often coming from Gulf of Genoa
varies across the country as well, with over 3,500 mm (138 in) in some western regions and dropping down to 800 mm (31 in) in Prekmurje
. Snow is quite frequent in winter and the record snow cover in Ljubljana was recorded in 1952 at 146 cm (57 in).
Compared to Western Europe, Slovenia is not very windy, because it lies in the slipstream of the Alps. The average wind speeds are lower than in the plains of the nearby countries. Due to the rugged terrain, local vertical winds with daily periods are present. Besides these, there are three winds of particular regional importance: the bora
, the jugo
, and the foehn
. The jugo and the bora are characteristic of the Littoral. Whereas the jugo is humid and warm, the bora is usually cold and gusty. The foehn is typical of the Alpine regions in the north of Slovenia. Generally present in Slovenia are the northeast wind, the southeast wind and the north wind
, largest Slovenian lake, one of the two springs of the Sava
The territory of Slovenia mainly (16,423 square kilometers or 6,341 square miles, i.e. 81%) belongs to the Black Sea
basin, and a smaller part (3,850 square kilometers or 1,490 square miles, i.e. 19%) belongs to the Adriatic Sea
basin. These two parts are divided into smaller units in regard to their central rivers, the Mura
River basin, the Drava
River basin, the Sava
River basin with Kolpa
River basin, and the basin of the Adriatic rivers.
In comparison with other developed countries
, water quality in Slovenia is considered to be among the highest in Europe. One of the reasons is undoubtedly that most of the rivers rise on the mountainous territory of Slovenia. But this does not mean that Slovenia has no problems with surface water and groundwater quality, especially in areas with intensive farming
Slovenia is home to an exceptionally diverse number of cave species, with a few tens of endemic species
Among the cave vertebrates, the only known one is the olm
, living in Karst, Lower Carniola, and White Carniola.
There are 13 domestic animals native to Slovenia,
of eight species (hen, pig, dog, horse, sheep, goat, honey bee, and cattle).
Among these are the Karst Shepherd
the Carniolan honeybee
, and the Lipizzan
They have been preserved ex situ
and in situ
The marble trout
or marmorata (Salmo marmoratus
) is an indigenous Slovenian fish.
Extensive breeding programmes have been introduced to repopulate the marble trout into lakes and streams invaded by non-indigenous species of trout
. Slovenia is also home to the wels catfish
More than 2,400 fungal species have been recorded from Slovenia
and, since that figure does not include lichen-forming fungi, the total number of Slovenian fungi already known is undoubtedly much higher. Many more remain to be discovered.
Slovenia is the third most-forested country in Europe,
with 58.3% of the territory covered by forests.
The forests are an important natural resource, and logging is kept to a minimum.
In the interior of the country are typical Central European forests, predominantly oak
. In the mountains, spruce
, and pine
are more common. Pine trees grow on the Karst Plateau
, although only one-third of the region is covered by pine forest. The lime/linden
tree, common in Slovenian forests, is a national symbol. The tree line
is at 1,700 to 1,800 metres (5,600 to 5,900 feet).
Government and politics
The executive and administrative
authority in Slovenia is held by the Government of Slovenia
(Vlada Republike Slovenije
headed by the Prime Minister
and the council of ministers or cabinet, who are elected by the National Assembly
(Državni zbor Republike Slovenije
). The legislative authority is held by the bicameralParliament of Slovenia
, characterised by an asymmetric duality.[clarification needed]
The bulk of power is concentrated in the National Assembly, which consists of ninety members. Of those, 88 are elected by all the citizens in a system of proportional representation
, whereas two are elected by the registered members of the autochthonous
Hungarian and Italian minorities
. Election takes place every four years. The National Council
(Državni svet Republike Slovenije
), consisting of forty members, appointed to represent social, economic, professional and local interest groups, has a limited advisory and control power.
The 1992–2004 period was marked by the rule of the Liberal Democracy of Slovenia
, which was responsible for gradual transition from the Titoist
economy to the capitalist market economy. It later attracted much criticism by neo-liberal economists, who demanded a less gradual approach. The party's president Janez Drnovšek
, who served as prime minister between 1992 and 2002, was one of the most influential Slovenian politicians of the 1990s,
alongside President Milan Kučan
(who served between 1990 and 2002).
The 2005–2008 period was characterized by over-enthusiasm after joining the EU. During the first term of Janez Janša
's government, for the first time after independence, the Slovenian banks saw their loan-deposit ratios
veering out of control. There was over-borrowing from foreign banks and then over-crediting of customers, including local business magnates
After the onset of the financial crisis of 2007–2010
and European sovereign-debt crisis
, the left-wing coalition that replaced Janša's government in the 2008 elections, had to face the consequences of the 2005–2008 over-borrowing. Attempts to implement reforms that would help economic recovery were met by student protesters, led by a student who later became a member of Janez Janša
, and by the trade unions. The proposed reforms were postponed in a referendum. The left-wing government was ousted with a vote of no confidence. Janez Janša attributed the boom of spending and overborrowing to the period of left-wing government; he proposed harsh austerity reforms which he had previously helped postpone. Generally, some economists estimate that both left and right parties contributed to over-loaning and managers' takeovers; the reason behind this was that each bloc tried to establish an economic elite which would support its political forces.
Judicial powers in Slovenia are executed by judges, who are elected by the National Assembly. Judicial power in Slovenia is implemented by courts with general responsibilities and specialised courts that deal with matters relating to specific legal areas. The State Prosecutor
is an independent state authority responsible for prosecuting cases brought against those suspected of committing criminal offences. The Constitutional Court
, composed of nine judges elected for nine-year terms, decides on the conformity of laws with the Constitution; all laws and regulations must also conform with the general principles of international law and with ratified international agreements.
Administrative divisions and traditional regions
Traditional regions of Slovenia
Officially, Slovenia is subdivided into 212 municipalities (eleven of which have the status of urban municipalities). The municipalities are the only bodies of local autonomy in Slovenia. Each municipality is headed by a mayor (župan
), elected every four years by popular vote, and a municipal council (občinski svet
). In the majority of municipalities, the municipal council is elected through the system of proportional representation
; only a few smaller municipalities use the plurality voting system
. In the urban municipalities, the municipal councils are called town (or city) councils.
Every municipality also has a Head of the Municipal Administration (načelnik občinske uprave
), appointed by the mayor, who is responsible for the functioning of the local administration.
Statistical regions: 1. Gorizia, 2. Upper Carniola, 3. Carinthia, 4. Drava, 5. Mura, 6. Central Slovenia, 7. Central Sava, 8. Savinja, 9. Coastal–Karst, 10. Inner Carniola–Karst, 11. Southeast Slovenia, 12. Lower Sava
There is no official intermediate unit between the municipalities and the Republic of Slovenia. The 62 administrative districts, officially called "Administrative Units" (upravne enote), are only subdivisions of the national government administration and are named after their respective bases of government offices. They are headed by a Manager of the Unit (načelnik upravne enote), appointed by the Minister of Public Administration.
Traditional regions and identities
Traditional regions were based on the former Habsburg crown lands
that included Carniola
, and the Littoral
. Stronger than with either the Carniola as a whole, or with Slovenia as the state, Slovenes historically tend to identify themselves with the traditional regions of Slovene Littoral
, and even traditional (sub)regions, such as Upper, Lower and, to a lesser extent, Inner Carniola.
- Eastern Slovenia (Vzhodna Slovenija – SI01), which groups the Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Central Sava, Lower Sava, Southeast Slovenia, and Inner Carniola–Karst statistical regions.
- Western Slovenia (Zahodna Slovenija – SI02), which groups the Central Slovenia, Upper Carniola, Gorizia, and Coastal–Karst statistical regions.
Since 2007 Slovenia has been part of the Eurozone
In 2004–06, the economy grew on average by nearly 5% a year in Slovenia; in 2007, it expanded by almost 7%. The growth surge was fuelled by debt, particularly among firms, and especially in construction. The financial crisis of 2007–2010
and European sovereign-debt crisis
had a significant impact on the domestic economy.
The construction industry was severely hit in 2010 and 2011.
In 2009, Slovenian GDP per capita
shrank by 8%, the biggest decline in the European Union after the Baltic countries
and Finland. An increasing burden for the Slovenian economy has been its rapidly aging population.
In August 2012, the year-on-year contraction was 0.8%; however, 0.2% growth was recorded in the first quarter (in relation to the quarter before, after data was adjusted according to season and working days).
Year-on-year contraction has been attributed to the fall in domestic consumption and the slowdown in export growth. The decrease in domestic consumption has been attributed to the fiscal austerity
, to the freeze on budget expenditure in the final months of 2011,
to the failure of the efforts to implement economic reforms
, to inappropriate financing, and to the decrease in exports.
Due to the effects of the crisis, it was expected that several banks had to be bailed out by EU funds in 2013; however, needed capital was able to be covered by the country's own funds. Fiscal actions and legislations aiming on the reduction of spendings as well as several privatisations supported an economic recovery as from 2014.
The real economic growth rate was at 2.5% in 2016 and accelerated to 5% in 2017.
The construction sector has seen a recent increase,
and the tourism industry is expected to have continuous rising numbers.
Slovenia's total national debt
rose substantially during the Great Recession
and was decreasing as of 2019; at the end of 2018 amounted to 32,223 million euros, 70% of the GDP.
Services and industry
A graphical depiction of Slovenia's product exports in 28 color-coded categories.
Almost two-thirds of people are employed in services, and over one-third in industry and construction.
Slovenia benefits from a well-educated workforce, well-developed infrastructure, and its location at the crossroads of major trade routes.
The level of foreign direct investment
(FDI) per capita in Slovenia is one of the lowest in the EU,
and the labor productivity and the competitiveness of the Slovenian economy is still significantly below the EU average.
Taxes are relatively high, the labor market
is seen by business interests as being inflexible, and industries are losing sales to China, India, and elsewhere.
High level of openness makes Slovenia extremely sensitive to economic conditions in its main trading partners and changes in its international price competitiveness.
The main industries are motor vehicles, electric and electronic equipment, machinery, pharmaceuticals
, and fuels.
Examples of major Slovenian companies operating in Slovenia include the home appliance manufacturer Gorenje
, the pharmaceutical companies Krka
and Lek (Novartis
' subsidiary), the oil distributing company Petrol Group
, energy distribution company GEN-I and Revoz
, a manufacturing subsidiary of Renault
In 2018, the net energy production was 12,262 GWh and consumption was 14,501 GWh. Hydroelectric plants produced 4,421 GWh, thermal plants produced 4,049 GWh, and the Krško Nuclear Power Plant
produced 2,742 GWh (50% share that goes to Slovenia; other 50% goes to Croatia due to joint ownership). Domestic electricity consumption was covered 84.6% by domestic production; percentage is decreasing from year to year meaning Slovenia is more and more depending on electricity import.
A new 600 MW block of Šoštanj thermal power plant
finished construction and went online in the autumn of 2014.
The new 39.5 MW HE Krško hydro power plant was finished in 2013, and has since been the largest sole energy producer, accounting for of the gross energy production in 2018.
The 41.5 MW HE Brežice and 30.5 MW HE Mokrice hydro power plants were built on the Sava
River in 2018 and the construction of ten more hydropower plants with a cumulative capacity of 338 MW is planned to be finished by 2030. A large pumped-storage hydro power plant
Kozjak on the Drava
River is in the planning stage.
At the end of 2018, at least 295 MWp of photovoltaic modules
and 31,4 MW of biogas powerplants
were installed. Compared to 2017, renewable energy sources contributed 5,6 percentage points more into whole energy consumption. There is interest to add more production in the area of solar and wind energy sources (subsidising schemes are increasing economic feasibility), but microlocation settlement procedures take enormous toll on the efficiency of this intitiatve (nature preservation vs. energy production facilities dilemma).
Slovenia offers tourists a wide variety of natural and cultural amenities. Different forms of tourism have developed. The tourist gravitational area is considerably large, however the tourist market is small. There has been no large-scale tourism and no acute environmental pressures;
in 2017, National Geographic
Traveller's Magazine declared Slovenia as the country with the world's most sustainable tourism
Old town of Piran
on Slovenian coast
The nation's capital, Ljubljana, has many important Baroque
and Vienna Secession
buildings, with several important works of the native born architect Jože Plečnik
and also his pupil, architect Edo Ravnikar.
Important parts of tourism in Slovenia include congress and gambling tourism
. Slovenia is the country with the highest percentage of casinos
per 1,000 inhabitants in the European Union.Perla
in Nova Gorica
is the largest casino in the region.
Most of foreign tourists to Slovenia come from the key European markets: Italy, Austria
, Germany, Croatia
, Russia and Ukraine
, followed by UK and Ireland.
European tourists create more than 90% of Slovenia's tourist income. In 2016, Slovenia was declared the world's first green country by the Netherlands-based organization Green Destinations.
On being declared the most sustainable country in 2016, Slovenia had a big part to play at the ITB Berlin
to promote sustainable tourism.
Since Antiquity, geography has dictated transport routes in Slovenia. Significant mountain ranges, major rivers and proximity to the Danube played roles in the development of the area's transportation corridors. One recent particular advantage are the Pan-European transport corridors V
(the fastest link between the North Adriatic, and Central and Eastern Europe) and X
(linking Central Europe with the Balkans). This gives it a special position in the European social, economic and cultural integration and restructuring.
Motorways in Slovenia in August 2020
The road freight and passenger transport constitutes the largest part of transport in Slovenia at 80%.
Personal cars are much more popular than public road passenger transport, which has significantly declined.
Slovenia has a very high highway and motorway density
compared to the European Union average.
The highway system, the construction of which was accelerated after 1994,
has slowly but steadily transformed Slovenia into a large conurbation
Other state roads have been rapidly deteriorating because of neglect and the overall increase in traffic.
The existing Slovenian railways are out-of-date and have difficulty competing with the motorway network; partially also as a result of dispersed population settlement.
Due to this fact and the projected increase in traffic through the port of Koper
, which is primarily by train, a second rail on the Koper-Divača route is in early stages of starting construction.
With a lack of financial assets, maintenance and modernisation of the Slovenian railway network have been neglected.
Due to the out-of-date infrastructure, the share of the railway freight transport has been in decline in Slovenia.
The railway passenger transport has been recovering after a large drop in the 1990s.
The Pan-European railway corridors V and X, and several other major European rail lines intersect in Slovenia.
All international transit trains in Slovenia serve the Ljubljana Railway Hub
The major Slovenian port is the Port of Koper
. It is the largest Northern Adriatic port in terms of container transport,
with almost 590,000 TEUs
and lines to all major world ports.
It is much closer to destinations east of the Suez
than the ports of Northern Europe.
In addition, the maritime passenger traffic mostly takes place in Koper.
Two smaller ports used for the international passenger transport as well as cargo transport are located in Izola
. Passenger transport mainly takes place with Italy and Croatia. Splošna plovba
the only Slovenian shipping company, transports freight and is active only in foreign ports.
Population density in Slovenia by municipality
. The four main urban areas are visible: Ljubljana and Kranj (center), Maribor (northeast) and the Slovene Istria
Slovenia is among the European countries with the most pronounced ageing of its population, ascribable to a low birth rate and increasing life expectancy.
Almost all Slovenian inhabitants older than 64 are retired, with no significant difference between the genders.
The working-age group is diminishing in spite of immigration.
The proposal to raise the retirement age from the current 57 for women and 58 for men was rejected in a referendum in 2011
In addition, the difference among the genders regarding life expectancy is still significant.
The total fertility rate
(TFR) in 2014 was estimated at 1.33 children born/woman, which is lower than the replacement rate of 2.1.
The majority of children are born to unmarried women (in 2016, 58.6% of all births were outside of marriage).
In 2018, life expectancy at birth was 81.1 years (78.2 years male, and 84 years female).
In 2009, the suicide rate
in Slovenia was 22 per 100,000 persons per year, which places Slovenia among the highest ranked European countries in this regard.
Nonetheless, from 2000 until 2010, the rate has decreased by about 30%. The differences between regions and the genders are pronounced.
Depending on definition, between 65% and 79% of people live in wider urban areas.
According to OECD
definition of rural areas none of the Slovene statistical regions
is mostly urbanised, meaning that 15% or less of the population lives in rural communities. According to this definition statistical regions are classified:
- mostly rural regions: Mura, Drava, Carinthia, Savinja, Lower Sava, Littoral–Inner Carniola, Gorizia, Southeast Slovenia
- moderately rural regions: Central Sava, Upper Carniola, Coastal–Karst, Central Slovenia.
The only large town is the capital, Ljubljana. Other (medium-sized) towns include Maribor, Celje, and Kranj.
Overall, there are eleven urban municipalities in Slovenia.
Municipalities by population
212 municipalities in total. Hodoš
, the smallest, has 354 inhabitants.
Municipalities by area
, the smallest, measures 6.9 km2
The official language in Slovenia is Slovene
, which is a member of the South Slavic language group
. In 2002, Slovene was the native language of around 88% of Slovenia's population according to the census, with more than 92% of the Slovenian population speaking it in their home environment.
This statistic ranks Slovenia among the most homogeneous countries in the EU in terms of the share of speakers of the predominant mother tongue.
Slovene is a highly diverse Slavic language in terms of dialects
with different degrees of mutual intelligibility. Accounts of the number of dialects range from as few as seven
dialects, often considered dialect groups or dialect bases that are further subdivided into as many as 50 dialects.
Other sources characterize the number of dialects as nine
or as eight.
Front cover of a bilingual passport in Slovene and Italian
, spoken by the respective minorities, enjoy the status of official languages in the ethnically mixed regions along the Hungarian and Italian borders, to the extent that even the passports issued in those areas are bilingual. In 2002 around 0.2% of the Slovenian population spoke Italian and around 0.4% spoke Hungarian as their native language. Hungarian is co-official with Slovene in 30 settlements in 5 municipalities (whereof 3 are officially bilingual). Italian is co-official with Slovene in 25 settlements in 4 municipalities (all of them officially bilingual).
spoken in 2002 as the native language by 0.2% of people, is a legally protected language in Slovenia. Romani-speakers mainly belong to the geographically dispersed and marginalized Roma community.
German, which used to be the largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (around 4% of the population in 1921), is now the native language of only around 0.08% of the population, the majority of whom are more than 60 years old. Gottscheerish
, the traditional German dialect of Gottschee
County, faces extinction.
A significant number of people in Slovenia speak a variant of Serbo-Croatian
, or Montenegrin
) as their native language. These are mostly immigrants who moved to Slovenia from other former Yugoslav
republics from the 1960s to the late 1980s, and their descendants. In 2002, 0.4% of the Slovenian population declared themselves to be native speakers of Albanian
and 0.2% native speakers of Macedonian
, the fourth-largest minority language in Slovenia prior to World War II (after German, Hungarian, and Serbo-Croatian), is now the native language of a few hundred residents of Slovenia.
Regarding the knowledge of foreign languages, Slovenia ranks among the top European countries. The most taught foreign languages are English, German, Italian, French and Spanish. As of 2007, 92% of the population between the age of 25 and 64 spoke at least one foreign language and around 71.8% of them spoke at least two foreign languages, which was the highest percentage in the European Union.
According to the Eurobarometer
survey, as of 2005 the majority of Slovenes could speak Croatian
(61%) and English (56%).:21
A reported 42% of Slovenes could speak German, which was one of the highest percentages outside German-speaking countries.
Italian is widely spoken on the Slovenian Coast
and in some other areas of the Slovene Littoral
. Around 15% of Slovenians can speak Italian, which is (according to the Eurobarometer pool) the third-highest percentage in the European Union, after Italy and Malta
By the beginning of 2017, there were about 114,438 people with foreign citizenship residing in the country making up 5.5% of the total population. Of these foreigners, 76% had citizenships of the other countries from former Yugoslavia (excluding Croatia). Additionally 16.4% had EU-citizenships and 7.6% had citizenships of other countries.
The number of people immigrating into Slovenia rose steadily from 1995
and has been increasing even more rapidly in recent years. After Slovenia joined the EU in 2004, the annual number of immigrants doubled by 2006 and increased by half yet again by 2009.
In 2007, Slovenia had one of the fastest growing net migration rates
in the European Union.
As to emigration, between 1880 and 1918 (World War I) many men left Slovenia to work in mining areas in other nations. The United States in particular has been a common choice for emigration, with the 1910 US Census showing that there were already "183,431 persons in the USA of Slovenian mother tongue".[dubious – discuss]
But there may have been many more, because a good number avoided anti-Slavic prejudice and "identified themselves as Austrians." Favorite localities before 1900 were Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, as well as Omaha, Nebraska
, Joliet, Illinois
, Ohio, and rural areas of Iowa. After 1910, they settled in Utah (Bingham Copper Mine), Colorado (especially Pueblo), and Butte, Montana. These areas attracted first many single men (who often boarded with Slovenian families). After locating work and having sufficient money, the men sent back for their wives and families to join them.
The National Shrine Mary Help of Christians at Brezje
Before World War II, 97% of the population declared itself Catholic
), around 2.5% as Lutheran, and around 0.5% of residents identified themselves as members of other denominations.
After 1945, the country underwent a process of gradual but steady secularization
. After a decade of persecution of religions, the Communist regime adopted a policy of relative tolerance towards churches. After 1990, the Catholic Church regained some of its former influence, but Slovenia remains a largely secularized society. According to the 2002 census, 57.8% of the population is Catholic. In 1991, 71.6% were self-declared Catholics which means a drop of more than 1% annually.
The vast majority of Slovenian Catholics belong to the Latin Rite
. A small number of Greek Catholics
live in the White Carniola
The 2018 Eurobarometer data shows 73.4% of population identifying as Catholic
that fell to 72.1% in the 2019 Eurobarometer survey.
According to the Catholic Church data, the Catholic population fell from 78.04% in 2009 to 72.11% in 2019
Religion in Slovenia (2019)
Despite a relatively small number of Protestants
(less than 1% in 2002), the Protestant legacy is historically significant given that the Slovene standard language and Slovene literature were established by the Protestant Reformation
in the 16th century. Primoz Trubar
, a theologian in the Lutheran
tradition, was one of the most influential Protestant Reformers
in Slovenia. Protestantism was extinguished in the Counter-Reformation
implemented by the Habsburg dynasty
, which controlled the region. It only survived in the easternmost regions due to protection of Hungarian nobles, who often happened to be Calvinist
themselves. Today, a significant Lutheran
minority lives in the easternmost region of Prekmurje
, where they represent around a fifth of the population and are headed by a bishop with the seat in Murska Sobota
According to the 2002 census, Islam
is the second largest religious denomination in the country, with around 2.4% of the population. Most Slovenian Muslims came from Bosnia
Slovenia has long been home to a Jewish community
. Despite the losses suffered during the Holocaust
, Judaism still numbers a few hundred adherents, mostly living in Ljubljana, site of the sole remaining active synagogue in the country.
In the 2002, around 10% of Slovenes declared themselves as atheists
, another 10% professed no specific denomination, and around 16% decided not to answer the question about their religious affiliation. According to the Eurobarometer
32% of Slovenian citizens responded that "they believe there is a god", whereas 36% answered that "they believe there is some sort of spirit or life force" and 26% that "they do not believe there is any sort of spirit, god, or life force".
University of Ljubljana administration building
University of Maribor administration building
Slovenia's education ranks as the 12th best in the world and 4th best in the European Union
, being significantly higher than the OECD
average, according to the Programme for International Student Assessment
Among people age 25 to 64, 12% have attended higher education, while on average Slovenes have 9.6 years of formal education. According to an OECD report, 83% of adults ages 25–64 have earned the equivalent of a high school degree, well above the OECD average of 74%; among 25- to 34-year-olds, the rate is 93%.
According to the 1991 census there is 99.6% literacy
in Slovenia. Lifelong learning
is also increasing.
Responsibility for education oversight at primary and secondary level in Slovenia lies with the Ministry of Education and Sports. After non-compulsory pre-school education, children enter the nine-year primary school at the age of six.
Primary school is divided into three periods, each of three years. In the academic year 2006–2007 there were 166,000 pupils enrolled in elementary education and more than 13,225 teachers, giving a ratio of one teacher per 12 pupils and 20 pupils per class.
After completing elementary school, nearly all children (more than 98%) go on to secondary education, either vocational, technical or general secondary programmes (gimnazija
). The latter concludes with matura
, the final exam that allows the graduates to enter a university. 84% of secondary school graduates go on to tertiary education.
Slovenia's architectural heritage includes 2,500 churches, 1,000 castles, ruins, and manor houses, farmhouses, and special structures for drying hay, called hayracks
The most picturesque church for photographers is the medieval and Baroque building on Bled Island
. The castle above the lake is a museum and restaurant with a view. Near Postojna
there is a fortress called Predjama Castle
, half hidden in a cave. Museums in Ljubljana and elsewhere feature unique items such as the Divje Babe Flute
and the oldest wheel in the world
. Ljubljana has medieval, Baroque, Art Nouveau, and modern architecture. The architect Plečnik
's architecture and his innovative paths and bridges along the Ljubljanica are notable and on UNESCO tentative list.
as part of traditional Slovenian Easter breakfast
Slovenian cuisine is a mixture of Central European cuisine (especially Austrian
), Mediterranean cuisine
and Balkan cuisine
. Historically, Slovenian cuisine was divided into town, farmhouse, cottage, castle, parsonage and monastic cuisines. Due to the variety of Slovenian cultural and natural landscapes, there are more than 40 distinct regional cuisines.
Each year since 2000, the Roasted Potato Festival
has been organized by the Society for the Recognition of Roasted Potatoes as a Distinct Dish
, attracting thousands of visitors. Roasted potatoes, which have been traditionally served in most Slovenian families only on Sundays—preceded by a meat-based soup, such as beef or chicken soup—have been depicted on a special edition of post marks
by the Post of Slovenia
on 23 November 2012.
The best known sausage is kranjska klobasa
Historically the most notable Slovenian ballet dancers and choreographers were Pino Mlakar
who in 1927 graduated from the Rudolf Laban
Choreographic Institute, and there met his future wife, balerina Maria Luiza Pia Beatrice Scholz
(1908‒2000). Together they worked as a leading dancer and a choreographer in Dessau
(1934–1938), and State opera in München
Their plan to build a Slovenian dance center at Rožnik Hill
after the World War II was supported by the minister of culture, Ferdo Kozak, but was cancelled by his successor.
Pino Mlakar was also a full professor at the Academy for Theatre, Radio, Film and Television
(AGRFT) of the University of Ljubljana
. Between 1952 in 1954 they again led State opera ballet in Munich
A Mary Wigman modern dance
school was founded in the 1930s by her student, Meta Vidmar
, in Ljubljana.
Festivals, book fairs, and other events
The most notable music festival of Slovene music was historically the Slovenska popevka
festival. Between 1981 and 2000 the Novi Rock
festival was notable for bringing rock music across Iron curtain
from the West to the Slovenian and then Yugoslav audience. The long tradition of jazz festivals in Titoist
Yugoslavia began with the Ljubljana Jazz Festival which has been held annually in Slovenia since 1960.
Slovene film actors and actresses historically include Ida Kravanja
, who played her roles as Ita Rina
in the early European films, and Metka Bučar
After the WW II, one of the most notable film actors was Polde Bibič
, who played a number of roles in many films that were well received in Slovenia, including Don't Cry, Peter
(1964), On Wings of Paper
(1968), Kekec's Tricks
(1968), Flowers in Autumn
(1973), The Widowhood of Karolina Žašler
(1986), Primož Trubar
(1985), and My Dad, The Socialist Kulak
(1987). Many of these were directed by Matjaž Klopčič
. He also performed in television and radio drama.
Altogether, Bibič played over 150 theatre and over 30 film roles.
Feature film and short film production in Slovenia historically includes Karol Grossmann
, František Čap
, France Štiglic
, Igor Pretnar
, Jože Pogačnik
, Peter Zobec
, Matjaž Klopčič
, Boštjan Hladnik
, Dušan Jovanović
, Vitan Mal
, Franci Slak
, and Karpo Godina
as its most established filmmakers. Contemporary film directors Filip Robar - Dorin
, Jan Cvitkovič
, Damjan Kozole
, Janez Lapajne
, Mitja Okorn
, and Marko Naberšnik
are among the representatives of the so-called "Renaissance of Slovenian cinema". Slovene screenwriters, who are not film directors, include Saša Vuga
and Miha Mazzini
. Women film directors include Polona Sepe
, Hanna A. W. Slak
, and Maja Weiss
History of Slovene literature
began in the 16th century with Primož Trubar
and other Protestant Reformers
. Poetry in the Slovene language
achieved its highest level with the Romantic
poet France Prešeren
(1800–1849). In the 20th century, the Slovene literary fiction went through several periods: the beginning of the century was marked by the authors of the Slovene Modernism
, with the most influential Slovene writer and playwright, Ivan Cankar
; it was then followed by expressionism
), avantgardism (Anton Podbevšek
, Ferdo Delak
) and social realism
, Prežihov Voranc
) before World War II, the poetry of resistance and revolution
(Karel Destovnik Kajuh
, Matej Bor
) during the war, and intimism
(Poems of the Four
, 1953), post-war modernism
), and existentialism
) after the war.
authors include Boris A. Novak
, Marko Kravos
, Drago Jančar
, Evald Flisar
, Tomaž Šalamun
, and Brina Svit
. Among the post-1990 authors best known are Aleš Debeljak
, Miha Mazzini
, and Alojz Ihan
. There are several literary magazines
that publish Slovene prose, poetry, essays, and local literary criticism.
" (A Toast
; part) with rejection mark from Austrian
censorship (due to potential revolutionary content); the music of Zdravljica is now the Slovenian national anthem
In the early 20th century, impressionism
was spreading across Slovenia, which soon produced composers Marij Kogoj
and Slavko Osterc
. Avant-garde classical music
arose in Slovenia in the 1960s, largely due to the work of Uroš Krek
, Dane Škerl
, Primož Ramovš
and Ivo Petrić
, who also conducted the Slavko Osterc Ensemble
. Jakob Jež
, Darijan Božič
, Lojze Lebič
and Vinko Globokar
have since composed enduring works, especially Globokar's L'Armonia
, an opera.
Traditional folk music
singing is a deep rooted tradition in Slovenia, and is at least three-part singing (four voices), while in some regions even up to eight-part singing (nine voices). Slovenian folk songs, thus, usually resounds soft and harmonious, and are very seldom in minor. Traditional Slovenian folk music is performed on Styrian harmonica (the oldest type of accordion), fiddle, clarinet, zithers
, flute, and by brass bands of alpine type. In eastern Slovenia
, fiddle and cimbalon bands are called velike goslarije
Modern folk (Slovenian country) music
From 1952 on, the Slavko Avsenik
's band began to appear in broadcasts, movies, and concerts all over the West Germany
, inventing the original "Oberkrainer
" country sound that has become the primary vehicle of ethnic musical expression not only in Slovenia, but also in Germany, Austria
, and in the Benelux
, spawning hundreds of Alpine
orchestras in the process. The band produced nearly 1000 original compositions, an integral part of the Slovenian-style polka
legacy. Many musicians followed Avsenik's steps, including Lojze Slak
Among pop, rock, industrial, and indie musicians the most popular in Slovenia include Laibach
, an early 1980s industrial music
group as well as Siddharta
, an alternative rock band formed in 1995.
With more than 15 million views for the official a cappella
" performance video since its publishing on YouTube in May 2009 until September 2013
that earned them kudos from the song's co-writer, David Paich
is the group from Slovenia that is internationally most listened online. Other Slovenian bands include a historically progressive rock
ones that were also popular in Titoist
Yugoslavia, such as Buldožer
and Lačni Franz
, which inspired later comedy rock
bands including Zmelkoow
, Slon in Sadež
With exception of Terrafolk
that made appearances worldwide, other bands, such as Avtomobili
, Zaklonišče Prepeva
, Šank Rock
, Big Foot Mama
, Dan D
, and Zablujena generacija
, are mostly unknown outside the country. Slovenian metal bands include Noctiferia
), Naio Ssaion
), and Within Destruction (deathcore
Slovenian post-WWII singer-songwriters include Frane Milčinski
(1914–1988), Tomaž Pengov
whose 1973 album Odpotovanja
is considered to be the first singer-songwriter album in former Yugoslavia
, Tomaž Domicelj
, Marko Brecelj
, Andrej Šifrer
, Eva Sršen
, Neca Falk
, and Jani Kovačič
. After 1990, Adi Smolar
, Iztok Mlakar
, Vita Mavrič
, Vlado Kreslin
, Zoran Predin
, Peter Lovšin
, and Magnifico
have been popular in Slovenia, as well. In the 21st century
, there have been many successful artsists from Slovenia. They include country musician Manu
, Nika Zorjan
, Omar Naber
Visual arts, architecture and design
Slovenia's visual arts, architecture, and design are shaped by a number of architects, designers, painters, sculptors, photographers, graphics artists, as well as comics, illustration and conceptual artists. The most prestigious institutions exhibiting works of Slovene visual artists are the National Gallery of Slovenia
and the Museum of Modern Art
A number of conceptual visual art
groups formed, including OHO
, Group 69
, and IRWIN
. Nowadays, the Slovene visual arts are diverse, based on tradition, reflect the influence of neighboring nations and are intertwined with modern European movements.
The sculpture of the poet Valentin Vodnik
(1758–1819) was created by Alojz Gangl in 1889 as part of Vodnik Monument
, the first Slovene national monument.
Historically, painting and sculpture in Slovenia was in the late 18th and the 19th century marked by Neoclassicism
) and Romanticism
). The first art exhibition in Slovenia was organized in the late 19th century by Ivana Kobilica
, a woman-painter who worked in realistic
artists include Matej Sternen
, Matija Jama
, Rihard Jakopič
, Ivan Grohar
whose The Sower
(Slovene: Sejalec) was depicted on the €0.05 Slovenian euro coins
, and Franc Berneker
, who introduced the impressionism to Slovenia. Espressionist
painters include Veno Pilon
and Tone Kralj
whose picture book, reprinted thirteen times, is now the most recognisable image of the folk hero Martin Krpan
Some of the best known painters in the second half of the 20th century were Zoran Mušič
, Gabrijel Stupica
and Marij Pregelj
In 1841, Janez Puhar
(1814–1864) invented a process for photography on glass, recognized on 17 June 1852 in Paris by the Académie Nationale Agricole, Manufacturière et Commerciale.Gojmir Anton Kos
was a notable realist
painter and photographer between First World War and WW II.
Alpine skier Tina Maze
, a double Olympic gold medalist and the overall winner of the 2012–13 World Cup season
Slovenia is a natural sports venue, with many Slovenians actively practicing sports.
A variety of sports are played in Slovenia on a professional level,
with top international successes in handball
, association football, ice hockey
, swimming, tennis
, road cycling and athletics
. Prior to World War II, gymnastics
used to be the most popular sports in Slovenia, with athletes like Leon Štukelj
and Miroslav Cerar
gaining gold Olympic medals.
Association football gained popularity in the interwar period. After 1945, basketball, handball and volleyball have become popular among Slovenians, and from the mid-1970s onward, winter sports
have, as well. Since 1992, Slovenian sportspeople have won 40 Olympic medals
, including seven gold medals, and 22 Paralympic medals
with four golds.
Individual sports are also very popular in Slovenia, including tennis and mountaineering
, which are two of the most widespread sporting activities in Slovenia. Several Slovenian extreme
and endurance sportsmen
have gained an international reputation, including the mountaineer Tomaž Humar
, the mountain skier Davo Karničar
, the ultramarathon swimmer Martin Strel
and the ultracyclist Jure Robič
Past and current winter sports athletes include alpine skiers
, such as Mateja Svet
, Bojan Križaj
, Ilka Štuhec
and double Olympic gold medalist Tina Maze
the cross-country skier Petra Majdič
and ski jumpers
, such as Primož Peterka
and Peter Prevc
Boxing has gained popularity since Jan Zaveck
won the IBF Welterweight World Champion
title in 2009.
Prominent team sports in Slovenia include football, basketball, handball, volleyball, and ice hockey. The men's national football team
has qualified for one European Championship
(2000) and two World Cups
(2002 and 2010).
Of Slovenian clubs, NK Maribor
played three times in the group stages of the UEFA Champions League
The men's national basketball team
has participated at 13 EuroBaskets
, winning the gold medal in the 2017 edition,
and at three FIBA World Championships
Slovenia also hosted the EuroBasket 2013
The men's national handball team
has qualified for three Olympics, nine IHF World Championships
, including their third-place finish in 2017,
and twelve European Championships
. Slovenia was the hosts of the 2004 European Championship
, where the national team won the silver medal.
Slovenia's most prominent handball team, RK Celje
, won the EHF Champions League
in the 2003–04 season.
In women's handball, RK Krim
won the Champions League
in 2001 and 2003.
The national volleyball team
has won the silver medal in the 2015 and 2019 editions of the European Volleyball Championship
The national ice hockey team
has played at 27 Ice Hockey World Championships
(with 9 appearances in top division), and has participated in the 2014 and 2018 Winter Olympic Games
- ^ a b "Census 2002: 7. Population by ethnic affiliation, Slovenia, Census 1953, 1961, 1971, 1981, 1991 and 2002". Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia. Retrieved 2 February 2011.
- ^ "Prebivalstvo: demografsko stanje, jeziki in veroizpovedi". 10 October 2017.
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