The South Lebanon Army
or South Lebanese Army
: جيش لبنان الجنوبي
: Jayš Lubnān al-Janūbiyy
), also known as Lahad Army
( Arabic: جيش لحد
) and De Facto Forces
), was a Lebanese
which was active during the Lebanese Civil War
and its aftermath, until it was disbanded in the year 2000. It was originally named the Free Lebanon Army
, which split from the Army of Free Lebanon
. After 1979, the militia mainly operated in southern Lebanon
under the authority of Saad Haddad
's Government of Free Lebanon
It was supported by Israel
, and became its primary ally in Lebanon during the 1985–2000 South Lebanon conflict
to fight against Hezbollah
. The United Nations did not want to give them the status of a proper army so they were referred to by the UN as the De Facto Forces
The 1978 Israeli invasion
allowed the Free Lebanon Army to gain control over a much wider area in southern Lebanon. On April 18, 1979 Haddad proclaimed the area controlled by his force "Independent Free Lebanon".
The following day, he was branded a traitor by the Lebanese government and officially dismissed from the Lebanese Army under presidential decree No. 1924.
Part of the Free Lebanon Army returned to government control, while Haddad's part split away and was renamed the South Lebanon Army (SLA) in May 1980. Following Haddad's death from cancer in 1984, he was replaced as leader by retired Lieutenant General Antoine Lahad
The SLA was closely allied with Israel. It supported the Israelis by fighting the PLO in southern Lebanon until the 1982 invasion. After that, SLA support for the Israelis consisted mainly of fighting
other Lebanese guerrilla forces led by Hezbollah until 2000 in the "security zone
" (the area under occupation after a partial Israeli withdrawal in 1985). In return, Israel supplied the organization with arms, uniforms, and logistical equipment.
The SLA hosted the Christian radio station Voice of Hope (established and funded by George Otis, founder of High Adventure Ministries
). Beginning in 1982, the SLA played host to Middle East Television
(which was also established, funded and operated by High Adventure Ministries). Otis gave Middle East Television (METV) to Televangelist Pat Robertson
, founder of CBN
. On May 2, 2000 Middle East Television relocated to Cyprus
In 1985 the SLA opened the Khiam detention center
. Torture was a common tactic, and occurring on a large scale. Israel denies any involvement, and claims that Khiam was the sole responsibility of the SLA; this has been contested by human rights
organizations such as Amnesty International
The SLA also imposed military conscription, under which males over 18 living in the territory it controlled served one year as military recruits.
While the SLA received funding, weapons and logistics from Israel during its existence, the SLA did much fighting independent from Israeli forces. The SLA also handled all civilian governmental operations in Israel's zone of control.
Antoine Lahad in 1988.
During the 1990s Hezbollah carried out increasingly effective attacks on the SLA, aided in later years by Lebanese army intelligence which had infiltrated it. These changed circumstances led to a progressive loss of morale and members. In 1997, Israel maintained approximately 1,000 to 1,200 troops in southern Lebanon and supported another 2,000 in the SLA.
By 2000 the SLA was reduced to 1,500 soldiers, compared to 3,000 ten years earlier. At its peak during the early 1980s, the SLA was composed of over 5,000 soldiers.
Withdrawal, collapse and surrender The increase in Israeli casualties in Lebanon over the previous few years led to growing domestic pressure for an end to Israel’s military presence in Lebanon. Ehud Barak
’s Labor Party
pledged during his March 1999 election campaign for Prime Minister to withdraw Israeli troops from Lebanon by July 2000. Barak won a victory in the May 1999 elections
. On March 5, 2000 the Israeli cabinet voted unanimously for a full troop withdrawal from Lebanon by July. The expectation then was that such a withdrawal would be part of an agreement with Lebanon and Syria; however, negotiations with Syria broke down.
On May 22, Israeli forces unilaterally began handing over their forward positions in the occupied zone to the SLA. As the chaotic nature of the withdrawal became obvious, civilians from the zone overran SLA positions to return to their occupied villages while Hezbollah guerrillas quickly took control of areas previously controlled by the SLA. The SLA in the central sector of the security zone collapsed in the face of the civilians and Hezbollah's rapid advance.
The next day, SLA forward positions in the eastern sector collapsed and Israeli forces began their general withdrawal from the remaining areas of the security zone. With the Israeli withdrawal, the SLA collapsed totally. The withdrawal was complete on Wednesday, May 24, 2000; the sight of Saad Haddad's statue being dragged through the streets of the Lebanese town of Marjayoun
was a sure sign that the South Lebanon Army was gone.
As the Israeli withdrawal rapidly progressed, SLA militiamen were left with few choices. The Lebanese government, Hezbollah and many civilians in the area considered them traitors
. In addition, they were told that Israel's border would be closed after the withdrawal. Many were terrified of being captured (and possibly killed) by Hezbollah guerrillas or vengeful mobs, or being jailed or executed by the Lebanese government.
Many members of the SLA (including some with their families) fled to Israel; the Christian majority feared being suspected of serious offences committed by SLA members, and a number of members were reportedly granted asylum in European countries (primarily Germany
Others who remained in Lebanon surrendered to authorities or were captured by Hezbollah and handed over to the police. SLA members captured by Lebanon and Hezbollah were tried by Lebanese military courts for treason
Israeli prime minister Ehud Barak
was criticized in Israel by the Jewish settler
movement on the grounds that his decision to withdraw without consulting his SLA allies led to the speed and confusion of its collapse.
Hezbollah was criticized for preventing the arrest of some members of the SLA; it justified this on the grounds that it was in a position to know who among them had been informants.
By the next month (June 2000), 3,000 former SLA members were in the custody of the Lebanese government; by the end of the year, about 90 percent had been tried in military courts. It has been estimated that a third of the SLA members were sentenced to less than a month and another third received one-year sentences. Two members of the SLA accused of torture at Al-Khiam prison
received life sentences. The death penalty was recommended for 21 SLA members, but in each case the military reduced the sentence. Certain other individuals were barred from returning to Southern Lebanon
for a number of years.
Of those who initially fled to Israel, many SLA members and their families eventually chose to return to Lebanon after Hezbollah promised they would not be harmed. Others accepted Israel's offer of full citizenship and a financial package similar to that granted new immigrants, and settled permanently in Israel. On April 6, 2006 the Israeli Knesset
Finance Committee approved the payment of 40,000 shekels
per family to SLA veterans, payable over seven years.
Many of the SLA fighters who settled in Israel later moved to the United States
. Approximately 6,500 SLA fighters and family members moved to Israel, of whom 2,700 remained in the country permanently. They are mainly concentrated in Nahariya
, Kiryat Shmona
, and Haifa
Israel continues to host the Government of Free Lebanon, on whose behalf the SLA had operated. The Government of Free Lebanon has operated from Jerusalem since 2000, and still claims to be the true government of Lebanon.
The SLA was organized into two regions (western and eastern), each with its own infantry brigade. Each brigade consisted of three battalion-sized infantry regiments; the strength of support included several heavy-artillery batteries (155 and 130mm), subdivided into the infantry battalions as needed. There was also an armored regiment of 55 tanks.
This force manned 46 locations along the front (from Naqoura
in the west to the eastern slopes of Mount Hermon), while the Israeli Army had 11 centers, mostly in the rear lines.
The SLA Security Service consisted of 250 officers and men, tasked with:
- Counter-espionage by outside forces
- Border security
The service included field and intelligence officers, investigators, intelligence analysts, administrative personnel, security officers and guards.
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Last edited on 15 May 2021, at 19:08
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