, officially the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
: جمهورية اليمن الديمقراطية الشعبية
Jumhūriyat al-Yaman ad-Dīmuqrāṭīyah ash-Sha'bīyah
), also referred to as Democratic Yemen
or Yemen (Aden)
, was a socialist country
that existed from 1967 to 1990 as a state in the Middle East
in the southern and eastern provinces of the present-day Republic of Yemen
, including the island of Socotra
The Federation of South Arabia
and the Protectorate of South Arabia
merged to become the People's Republic of Southern Yemen
on 30 November 1967 and later changed its name to the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen
and became a Marxist–Leninist one-party state
in 1969 supported by Cuba
, East Germany
and the Soviet Union
. It was the only communist state
to be established in the Arab world
Despite its efforts to bring stability into the region, it was involved in a brief civil war
in 1986. With the collapse of communism
, South Yemen was unified with the Yemen Arab Republic
(commonly known as "North Yemen") on 22 May 1990 to form the present-day Yemen
. After three years, however, a political crisis arose between the South's YSP
and the North's GPC
parties after the parliamentary elections in 1993
. A year later, South Yemen declared its secession
from the North Yemen in 1994 and a new, unrecognised secessionist
state, the Democratic Republic of Yemen
, which ended with its dissolution and the North Yemen occupying South Yemen after the 1994 civil war
. 23 years later, another attempt to restore South Yemen
(as only a country, not a socialist state
) with the Southern Transitional Council
as its new government
began in 2017 and continues into the present day.
In 1963, Aden
and much of the Protectorate
were joined to form the Federation of South Arabia
with the remaining states that declined to join, mainly in Hadhramaut
, forming the separate Protectorate of South Arabia
. Both of these polities were still tied to Britain with promises of total independence
in 1968. Two nationalist
groups, the Front for the Liberation of Occupied South Yemen
) and the National Liberation Front
(NLF), began an armed struggle
known as the Aden Emergency
on 14 October 1963 against British control
and, with the temporary closure of the Suez Canal
in 1967, the British
began to withdraw
. One faction, NLF, was invited to the Geneva Talks to sign the independence agreement with the British. However, Britain - who during its occupation of Aden signed several treaties of protection with the local sheikhdoms and emirates of the Federation of South Arabia
- excluded them in the talks and thus the agreement stated "...the handover of the territory of South Arabia to the (Yemeni) NLF...". Southern Yemen became independent as the People's Republic of Southern Yemen on 30 November 1967, and the National Liberation Front consolidated its control in the country.
Disputes with North Yemen
However, these plans were put on hold in 1979, as the PDRY funded Red rebels in the YAR
, and war was only prevented by an Arab League
intervention. The goal of unity was reaffirmed by the northern and southern heads of state during a summit meeting in Kuwait
in March 1979.
On January 13, 1986, a violent struggle began in Aden
between Ali Nasir's supporters and supporters of the returned Ismail, who wanted power back. Fighting, known as the South Yemen Civil War
, lasted for more than a month and resulted in thousands of casualties, Ali Nasir's ouster
, and Ismail's death. Some 60,000 people, including the deposed Ali Nasir, fled to the YAR. Ali Salim al-Beidh
, an ally of Ismail who had succeeded in escaping the attack on pro-Ismail members of the Politburo
, then became General Secretary
of the Yemeni Socialist Party
Reforms and attempts for unification
Against the background of the perestroika
in the USSR
, the main backer of the PDRY
, political reforms
were started in the late 1980s. Political prisoners
were released, political parties were formed and the system of justice was reckoned to be more equitable than in the North. In May 1988, the YAR
governments came to an understanding that considerably reduced tensions including agreement to renew discussions concerning unification, to establish a joint oil exploration area along their undefined border, to demilitarize the border, and to allow Yemenis unrestricted border passage on the basis of only a national identification card. In 1990, the parties reached a full agreement on joint governing
of Yemen, and the countries were effectively merged as Yemen
Reviving South Yemen
Protesters in Aden
calling for reinstatement of South Yemen in October 2011
Since 2007, some Southerners have been actively protesting for independence, in a movement known as 'Al Hirak' or the Southern Movement
. During the Yemen Civil War 2015
, in response to incursions by the Houthis
and military forces loyal to deposed Yemeni president Ali Abdullah Saleh
, members of the Southern Movement formed 'Popular Resistance' militias. Since the Battle of Aden
, these armed groups have sought to defend the South against Houthi/Saleh attempts to take over the country and have taken the current state of civil war
as an opportunity to further their struggle for independence.
Politics and social life
South Yemen's ethnic groups are ethnic Yemeni Arabs
(3.7%), Afro-Arab 1.1%, Indians and Pakistanis (1%), and other (1.4%) (2000). The only recognised political party in South Yemen was the Yemeni Socialist Party
, which ran the country and the economy along self-described Marxist
lines, modeled on the Soviet Union
Women's rights under the socialist government were considered the best in the region. Women became legally equal to men and were encouraged to work in public; polygamy, child marriage, and arranged marriage were all banned; and equal rights in divorce received legal sanction.
Income equality improved, corruption was reduced, and health and educational services expanded.
There was no housing crisis in South Yemen. Surplus housing built by the British
meant that there were few homeless people in Aden, and people built their own houses out of adobe
in the rural areas
, South Yemen was divided into six governorates
), with roughly natural boundaries
, each given a name by numeral
. From 1967 to 1978, they were named officially by numerals only; from 1979 to 1990, they were given new official names. The islands: Kamaran
(until 1972, when it was seized by North Yemen), Perim (Meyun), Socotra
, Abd-el-Kuri, Samha (inhabited), Darsah and others uninhabited from the Socotra
archipelago were districts (mudiriyah
) of the First/Aden Governorate being under Prime-Minister of the state supervision.
The following airlines had operated from the PDRY:
- ^ Clark, Victoria. Yemen: Dancing on the Heads of Snakes, Yale University Press: 2010, page 112-130.
- ^ Saudi Arabia and the Civil War within Yemen's Civil War
- ^ "Yearbook of the United Nations 1970". United Nations Office of Public Information. 31 December 1970. Retrieved 31 October 2020.
- ^ Müller, Miriam M. (2015). A Spectre is haunting Arabia - How the Germans brought their Marxism to Yemen. Bielefeld: Transcript. pp. 257ff. ISBN 978-3-8376-3225-5. Archived from the original on 2016-05-30. Retrieved 2016-05-30.
- ^ Bayat, Asef (2017). Revolution without Revolutionaries: Making Sense of the Arab Spring. California, US: Stanford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 9780804799027.
- ^ Molyneux, Maxine; Yafai, Aida; Mohsen, Aisha; Ba'abaad, Noor (1979). "Women and Revolution in the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen". Feminist Review (1): 4–20.
- ^ "North and South Yemen: In Search of Unity", CIA Study on Yemeni Unification, Central Intelligence Agency, January 19, 1990, archived from the original on March 5, 2016, retrieved September 14, 2017 – via Scribd
- ^ Gause, Gregory (1990). Saudi-Yemeni relations: domestic structures and foreign influence. Columbia University Press. p. 98. ISBN 9780231070447.
- ^ Halliday, Fred (2002). Revolution and Foreign Policy: The Case of South Yemen, 1967–1987. Cambridge University Press. p. 35.
- ^ Katz, Mark (Fall 1986). "Civil Conflict in South Yemen" (PDF). Middle East Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-18.
- ^ "Separatist clashes flare in south Yemen". 30 January 2018. Archived from the original on 29 January 2018. Retrieved 30 January 2018 – via www.BBC.com.
- ^ "Yémen: les séparatistes sudistes, à la recherche de l'indépendance perdue". Le Point. 28 January 2018. Archived from the original on 28 January 2018. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- ^ "Middle East :: Yemen — The World Factbook - Central Intelligence Agency". www.cia.gov. Retrieved 2020-06-23.
- ^ a b Press, Stanford University. "Revolution without Revolutionaries: Making Sense of the Arab Spring | Asef Bayat". www.sup.org. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
- ^ Times, Marvine Howe; Special to The New York (1979-05-26). "Marxist Regime in South Yemen Showing Improvement in Quality of Life in Villages (Published 1979)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
- ^ "Women's rights in Yemen". Offiziere.ch. 2017-07-04. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
- ^ "How Yemen's Dream of Unity Turned Sour". jacobinmag.com. Retrieved 2020-12-17.
- ^ Wadekar, Neha (2018-11-20). "'We Are Willing to Die Here': The Fight for Women's Rights in Yemen (Published 2018)". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- ^ Laessing, Ulf (January 22, 2010). "Women of southern Yemen port remember better times". Reuters. Archived from the original on September 24, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2017.
- ^ Gart, Murray (January 9, 1989). "South Yemen New Thinking in a Marxist Land". Time. Archived from the original on August 25, 2013. Retrieved June 23, 2017.
- ^ Müller, Miriam Manuela. A Spectre Is Haunting Arabia: How the Germans Brought Their Communism to Yemen. Transcript, 2015.In-text Citation
- ^ Stokes, Lee. “East German Security Quit South Yemen.” United Press Agency, 11 May 1990.In-text Citation
- ^ Ismael, Tareq Y.; Jacqueline S. Ismael (October 1986). The People's Democratic Republic of Yemen: Politics, Economics, and Society; The Politics of Socialist Transformation. Lynne Rienner Pub. ISBN 978-0-931477-96-6.
- ^ "Airlines - South Yemen". The World's Airlines. David Lyall. Archived from the original on 2009-06-27. Retrieved 2009-07-13.
- ^ "History". Aden Airways. Peter Pickering. Archived from the original on 2009-04-27. Retrieved 13 July 2009.
Last edited on 9 April 2021, at 19:12
Content is available under CC BY-SA 3.0
unless otherwise noted.