Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests
The ecoregion lies mainly in the Taurus Mountains
, which run through southern Anatolia
roughly parallel to the coast. The Taurus is divided into three sub-ranges – the Western, or Isaurian, Taurus (highest peak Mt. Kizlarsivrisi
3,086 m (10,125 ft)); the Central, or Lycian, Taurus (highest peak Medetsiz
3,524 m (11,562 ft)); and the Eastern, or Cilician, Taurus (highest peak Demirkazık
3,756 m (12,323 ft)).
The ecoregion also includes the higher-elevation portions of the Nur Mountains
(or Amanos) along the western Turkey-Syria border, and the Levantine Syrian Coastal Mountains
, Lebanon Mountains
, and Anti-Lebanon Mountains
, which run parallel to the eastern Mediterranean shore in Syria, Lebanon, and northernmost Israel. The highest peak in the Nur mountains is Bozdağ (2,262 m (7,421 ft)), and the highest peak in the Levantine mountains is Qurnat as Sawda'
in Lebanon (3,088 m (10,131 ft)).
The ecoregion has a montane Mediterranean climate
. Average annual precipitation ranges from 800 to 2000 mm. Winter is the wettest season, and summer is the driest. Rain-bearing winds generally come from the southwest winds, and south and west-facing slopes generally have higher rainfall than north and east-facing ones. Average temperatures vary with elevation, and higher elevations experience cool temperatures and regular winter frosts and snows. Proximity to the sea moderates winter temperatures, and interior regions have a more continental climate with colder winters.
The main plant communities are conifer forests, broadleaf deciduous forests, and alpine meadows and shrublands.
Deciduous forests are concentrated in areas with higher rainfall (1,500-2,000 mm) facing the prevailing southwest winds, notably the Geyik Mountains
in the Western Taurus and the Nur Mountains in the east. Deciduous broadleaf trees are predominant, including Oriental hornbeam
), European hop-hornbeam
), oaks (Quercus cerris, Q. libani, Q. trojana
, and Q. petraea ssp. pinnatiloba
), and maples
(Acer hyrcanum, A. platanoides, A. campestre
, and A. monspessulanum
The dry alpine meadows are characterized by low-growing subshrubs, tufted herbaceous plants, grasses, and geophytes, including many species of Astragalus
Protected areas in the Western Taurus include Çığlıkara Nature Reserve
, near Elmalı
, Antalya Province
, which protects 15,889 ha of Cedrus libani
forest. The protected area around the coastal mountain of Babadağ, near Fethiye
in Muğla Province
, includes montane forests of Acer undulatum
, which is endemic to the mountain, along with Cedrus libani, Abies cilicica, Pinus brutia
, and junipers, and maquis at lower elevations.
Other protected areas in the Western Taurus include Sarıkara National Park
in the Bey Mountains
, Köprülü Canyon National Park
on the Köprüçay River
, and Üzümdere National Park
, Altınbeşik Cave National Park
, and Dim Çayı National Park
in the mountains above Alanya
- ^ a b c d e f "Southern Anatolian montane conifer and deciduous forests". Terrestrial Ecoregions. World Wildlife Fund.
- ^ Eric Dinerstein, David Olson, et al. (2017). An Ecoregion-Based Approach to Protecting Half the Terrestrial Realm, BioScience, Volume 67, Issue 6, June 2017, Pages 534–545; Supplemental material 2 table S1b. 
- ^ Mansourian, Stephanie & Rossi, Magali & Vallauri, Daniel. (2013). Ancient Forests in the Northern Mediterranean: Neglected High Conservation Value Areas. 10.13140/2.1.5170.4640.
Last edited on 23 April 2021, at 08:13
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