With an area of 505,990 km2
(195,360 sq mi), Spain is the largest country in Southern Europe
, the second-largest country in Western Europe
and the European Union
, and the fourth-largest country by area
on the European continent
. With a population exceeding 47.3 million, Spain is the sixth-most populous
country in Europe, and the fourth-most populous
country in the European Union. Spain's capital and largest city is Madrid
; other major urban areas
, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria
In the early eighth century, the Visigothic Kingdom was conquered by the Umayyad Caliphate
, ushering in over 700 years of Muslim rule.
During this period, Islamic Spain
became a major economic and intellectual center, with the city of Cordoba being among the largest and richest in Europe. Several Christian kingdoms emerged in the northern periphery of Iberia, chief among them León
, and Navarre. Over the next seven centuries, an intermittent southward expansion of these kingdoms—metahistorically framed as a reconquest, or Reconquista
—culminated with the Christian seizure of the last Muslim polity, the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada
, in 1492. That same year, Christopher Columbus
arrived in the New World
on behalf of the Catholic Monarchs
, whose dynastic union of Castile and Aragon is sometimes considered the emergent Spain as a unified country. From the 16th until the early 19th century, Spain ruled one of the largest empires in history
, which was among the first global empires
; its immense cultural and linguistic legacy includes over 570 million Hispanophones
making Spanish the world's second-most spoken native language
, after Mandarin Chinese. Spain hosts the world's third-largest
number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites
Spain is a secular parliamentary democracy
and a parliamentary monarchy
with King Felipe VI
as head of state
. It is a highly developed country
and a high income country
, with the world's fourteenth-largest economy by nominal GDP
and the sixteenth-largest by PPP
. Spain is a member of the United Nations
(UN), the European Union
(EU), the Eurozone
, the Council of Europe
(CoE), the Organization of Ibero-American States
(OEI), the Union for the Mediterranean
, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization
(NATO), the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe
(OSCE), the Schengen Area
, the World Trade Organization
(WTO) and many other international organisations. While not an official member, Spain has a "Permanent Invitation" to the G20
summits, participating in every summit, which makes it a de facto
member of the group.
The origins of the Roman
, and the modern España
, are uncertain, although the Phoenicians and Carthaginians referred to the region as Spania
, therefore the most widely accepted etymology is a Semitic
There have been a number of accounts and hypotheses of its origin:
Jesús Luis Cunchillos [es]
argued that the root of the term span
is the Phoenician
, meaning "to forge metals". Therefore, i-spn-ya
would mean "the land where metals are forged".
It may be a derivation of the Phoenician I-Shpania
, meaning "island of rabbits", "land of rabbits" or "edge", a reference to Spain's location at the end of the Mediterranean; Roman coins struck in the region from the reign of Hadrian
show a female figure with a rabbit at her feet,
called it the "land of the rabbits".
The word in question (compare modern Hebrew Shafan
) actually means "Hyrax
", possibly due to Phoenicians confusing the two animals.
may derive from the poetic use of the term Hesperia
, reflecting the Greek
perception of Italy as a "western land" or "land of the setting sun" (Hesperia
) and Spain, being still further west, as Hesperia ultima
There is the claim that "Hispania" derives from the Basque
meaning "edge" or "border", another reference to the fact that the Iberian Peninsula constitutes the southwest corner of the European continent.
Two 15th-century Spanish Jewish scholars, Don Isaac Abravanel
and Solomon ibn Verga
, gave an explanation now considered folkloric. Both men wrote in two different published works that the first Jews to reach Spain were brought by ship by Phiros who was confederate with the king of Babylon when he laid siege to Jerusalem. Phiros was a Grecian
by birth, but who had been given a kingdom in Spain. Phiros became related by marriage to Espan, the nephew of king Heracles, who also ruled over a kingdom in Spain. Heracles later renounced his throne in preference for his native Greece, leaving his kingdom to his nephew, Espan, from whom the country of España
(Spain) took its name. Based upon their testimonies, this eponym would have already been in use in Spain by c. 350 BCE.
Iberia enters written records as a land populated largely by the Iberians
. Early on its coastal areas were settled by Phoenicians
who founded Western Europe's most ancient cities Cádiz
. Phoenician influence expanded as much of the Peninsula was eventually incorporated into the Carthaginian Empire
, becoming a major theatre of the Punic Wars
against the expanding Roman Empire
. After an arduous conquest
, the peninsula came fully under Roman rule
. During the early Middle Ages it came under Visigothic
rule, and then much of it was conquered by Muslim
invaders from North Africa
. In a process that took centuries
, the small Christian kingdoms in the north gradually regained control of the peninsula. The last Muslim state fell in 1492
, the same year Columbus reached the Americas. A global empire
began which saw Spain become the strongest kingdom in Europe, the leading world power for one and a half centuries, and the largest overseas empire for three centuries.
Continued wars and other problems eventually led to a diminished status. The Napoleonic conflict in Spain
led to chaos, triggering independence movements that tore apart most of the empire and left the country politically unstable. Spain suffered a devastating civil war
in the 1930s and then came under the rule of an authoritarian government
, which oversaw a period of stagnation that was followed by a surge in the growth of the economy. Eventually, democracy was restored
in the form of a parliamentary constitutional monarchy. Spain joined the European Union, experiencing a cultural renaissance and steady economic growth until the beginning of the 21st century, that started a new globalised world with economic and ecological challenges.
Prehistory and pre-Roman peoples
Celtic castro in Galicia
Archaeological research at Atapuerca
indicates the Iberian Peninsula was populated by hominids
1.2 million years ago.
fossils have been found of the earliest known hominins
in Europe, the Homo antecessor
. Modern humans first arrived in Iberia, from the north on foot, about 35,000 years ago.[failed verification]
The best known artefacts of these prehistoric human settlements are the famous paintings in the Altamira cave
of Cantabria in northern Iberia, which were created from 35,600 to 13,500 BCE
Archaeological and genetic evidence suggests that the Iberian Peninsula acted as one of several major refugia from which northern Europe was repopulated following the end of the last ice age
The largest groups inhabiting the Iberian Peninsula before the Roman conquest were the Iberians
and the Celts
. The Iberians inhabited the Mediterranean side of the peninsula, from the northeast to the southeast. The Celts inhabited much of the inner and Atlantic sides of the peninsula, from the northwest to the southwest. Basques occupied the western area of the Pyrenees mountain range and adjacent areas, the Phoenician-influenced Tartessians
culture flourished in the southwest and the Lusitanians
occupied areas in the central west. Several cities were founded along the coast by Phoenicians
, and trading outposts and colonies were established by Greeks
in the East. Eventually, Phoenician-Carthaginians
expanded inland towards the meseta; however, due to the bellicose inland tribes, the Carthaginians got settled in the coasts of the Iberian Peninsula.
Roman Hispania and the Visigothic Kingdom
The cultures of the Celtic and Iberian populations were gradually Romanised
(Latinised) at different rates depending on what part of Hispania
they lived in, with local leaders being admitted into the Roman aristocratic class.[i]
Hispania served as a granary for the Roman market, and its harbours exported gold, wool
, olive oil
, and wine. Agricultural production increased with the introduction of irrigation projects, some of which remain in use. Emperors Hadrian
, Theodosius I
, and the philosopher Seneca
were born in Hispania.[j]
Christianity was introduced into Hispania in the 1st century AD and it became popular in the cities in the 2nd century AD.
Most of Spain's present languages and religion, and the basis of its laws, originate from this period.
The weakening of the Western Roman Empire's jurisdiction in Hispania began in 409, when the Germanic Suebi
, together with the Sarmatian Alans
entered the peninsula at the invitation of a Roman usurper. These tribes had crossed the Rhine
in early 407 and ravaged Gaul
. The Suebi established a kingdom in what is today modern Galicia
and northern Portugal
whereas the Vandals established themselves in southern Spain by 420 before crossing over to North Africa in 429 and taking
Carthage in 439. As the western empire disintegrated, the social and economic base became greatly simplified: but even in modified form, the successor regimes maintained many of the institutions and laws of the late empire, including Christianity and assimilation to the evolving Roman culture.
established an occidental province, Spania
, in the south, with the intention of reviving Roman rule throughout Iberia. Eventually, however, Hispania was reunited under Visigothic rule
. These Visigoths
, or Western Goths, after sacking Rome
under the leadership of Alaric
(410), turned towards the Iberian Peninsula
, with Athaulf
for their leader, and occupied the northeastern portion. Wallia
extended his rule over most of the peninsula, keeping the Suebians shut up in Galicia. Theodoric I
took part, with the Romans and Franks, in the Battle of the Catalaunian Plains
, where Attila
was routed. Euric
(466), who put an end to the last remnants of Roman power in the peninsula, may be considered the first monarch of Spain, though the Suebians still maintained their independence in Galicia. Euric was also the first king to give written laws to the Visigoths. In the following reigns the Catholic kings of France assumed the role of protectors of the Hispano-Roman Catholics against the Arianism of the Visigoths, and in the wars
which ensued Alaric II
lost their lives.
, having risen against King Agila
, called in the Byzantines and, in payment for the succour they gave him, ceded to them the maritime places of the southeast (554). Liuvigild
restored the political unity of the peninsula, subduing the Suebians, but the religious divisions of the country, reaching even the royal family, brought on a civil war. St. Hermengild
, the king's son, putting himself at the head of the Catholics, was defeated and taken prisoner, and suffered martyrdom for rejecting communion with the Arians. Recared
, son of Liuvigild and brother of St. Hermengild, added religious unity to the political unity achieved by his father, accepting the Catholic faith in the Third Council of Toledo
(589). The religious unity established by this council was the basis of that fusion of Goths with Hispano-Romans which produced the Spanish nation. Sisebut
completed the expulsion of the Byzantines from Spain.
Intermarriage between Visigoths and Hispano-Romans was prohibited, though in practice it could not be entirely prevented and was eventually legalised by Liuvigild.
The Spanish-Gothic scholars such as Braulio of Zaragoza
and Isidore of Seville
played an important role in keeping the classical Greek and Roman culture
. Isidore was one of the most influential clerics and philosophers in the Middle Ages
in Europe, and his theories were also vital to the conversion of the Visigothic Kingdom from an Arian
domain to a Catholic one in the Councils of Toledo
. Isidore created the first western encyclopedia
which had a huge impact during the Middle Ages.
Muslim era and Reconquista
In the 8th century, nearly all of the Iberian Peninsula
(711–718) by largely Moorish Muslim
armies from North Africa. These conquests were part of the expansion of the Umayyad Caliphate
. Only a small area in the mountainous north-west of the peninsula managed to resist the initial invasion. Legend has it that Count Julian
, the governor of Ceuta, in revenge for the violation of his daughter, Florinda
, by King Roderic
, invited the Muslims and opened to them the gates of the peninsula.
Under Islamic law
, Christians and Jews
were given the subordinate status of dhimmi
. This status permitted Christians and Jews to practice their religions as People of the Book
but they were required to pay a special tax and had legal and social rights inferior to those of Muslims.
Conversion to Islam
proceeded at an increasing pace. The muladíes
(Muslims of ethnic Iberian
origin) are believed to have formed the majority of the population of Al-Andalus by the end of the 10th century.
, the capital of the caliphate since Abd-ar-Rahman III
, was the largest, richest and most sophisticated city in western Europe. Mediterranean trade and cultural exchange flourished. Muslims imported a rich intellectual tradition from the Middle East and North Africa. Some important philosophers at the time were Averroes
, Ibn Arabi
. The Romanised
cultures of the Iberian Peninsula interacted with Muslim and Jewish cultures in complex ways, giving the region a distinctive culture.
Outside the cities, where the vast majority lived, the land ownership system from Roman times remained largely intact as Muslim leaders rarely dispossessed landowners and the introduction of new crops and techniques led to an expansion of agriculture introducing new produces which originally came from Asia or the former territories of the Roman Empire
In the 11th century, the Muslim holdings fractured into rival Taifa
states (Arab, Berber, and Slav),
allowing the small Christian states the opportunity to greatly enlarge their territories.
The arrival from North Africa of the Islamic ruling sects of the Almoravids
and the Almohads
restored unity upon the Muslim holdings, with a stricter, less tolerant application of Islam, and saw a revival in Muslim fortunes. This re-united Islamic state experienced more than a century of successes that partially reversed Christian gains.
(Reconquest) was the centuries-long period in which Christian rule was re-established over the Iberian Peninsula. The Reconquista is viewed as beginning with the Battle of Covadonga
won by Don Pelayo
in 722 and was concurrent with the period of Muslim rule on the Iberian Peninsula. The Christian army's victory over Muslim forces led to the creation of the Christian Kingdom of Asturias
along the northwestern coastal mountains. Shortly after, in 739, Muslim forces were driven from Galicia
, which was to eventually host one of medieval Europe's holiest sites, Santiago de Compostela
and was incorporated into the new Christian kingdom.
The Vikings invaded Galicia in 844, but were heavily defeated by Ramiro I of Asturias
at A Coruña
Many of the Vikings' casualties were caused by the Galicians' ballistas
– powerful torsion-powered projectile weapons that looked rather like giant crossbows.
70 Viking ships were captured and burned.
Vikings raided Galicia in 859, during the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias
. Ordoño was at the moment engaged against his constant enemies the Moors; but a count of the province, Don Pedro, attacked the Vikings and defeated them.
The Kingdom of León
was the strongest Christian kingdom for centuries. In 1188 the first modern parliamentary session in Europe was held in León
(Cortes of León
). The Kingdom of Castile
, formed from Leonese territory, was its successor as strongest kingdom. The kings and the nobility fought for power and influence in this period. The example of the Roman emperors influenced the political objective of the Crown, while the nobles benefited from feudalism
Muslim armies had also moved north of the Pyrenees but they were defeated by Frankish forces at the Battle of Poitiers
and pushed out of the very southernmost region of France along the seacoast by the 760s. Later, Frankish
forces established Christian counties
on the southern side of the Pyrenees. These areas were to grow into the kingdoms of Navarre
For several centuries, the fluctuating frontier between the Muslim and Christian controlled areas of Iberia was along the Ebro
The break-up of Al-Andalus
into the competing taifa kingdoms helped the long embattled Iberian Christian kingdoms gain the initiative. The capture of the strategically central city of Toledo
in 1085 marked a significant shift in the balance of power in favour of the Christian kingdoms. Following a great Muslim resurgence in the 12th century, the great Moorish strongholds in the south fell to Castile in the 13th century—Córdoba in 1236 and Seville
in 1248. The County of Barcelona
and the Kingdom of Aragon
entered in a dynastic union and gained territory and power in the Mediterranean. In 1229 Majorca
was conquered, so was Valencia
in 1238. In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Marinid
dynasty of Morocco
invaded and established some enclaves on the southern coast but failed in their attempt to re-establish North African rule in Iberia and were soon driven out.
Portrait of Alfonso X
of Castile and Leon from the codex Tumbo 'A' de Santiago (Dated between 1229 and 1255)
From the mid 13th century, literature and philosophy started to flourish again in the Christian peninsular kingdoms, based on Roman and Gothic traditions. An important philosopher from this time is Ramon Llull
. Abraham Cresques
was a prominent Jewish cartographer. Roman law
and its institutions were the model for the legislators. The king Alfonso X of Castile
focused on strengthening this Roman and Gothic past, and also on linking the Iberian Christian kingdoms with the rest of medieval European Christendom
. Alfonso worked for being elected emperor of the Holy Roman Empire
and published the Siete Partidas
code. The Toledo School of Translators
is the name that commonly describes the group of scholars who worked together in the city of Toledo during the 12th and 13th centuries, to translate many of the philosophical and scientific works from Classical Arabic
, Ancient Greek
, and Ancient Hebrew
The 13th century also witnessed the Crown of Aragon
, centred in Spain's north east, expand its reach across islands in the Mediterranean, to Sicily
Around this time the universities of Palencia
(1212/1263) and Salamanca
(1218/1254) were established. The Black Death
of 1348 and 1349 devastated Spain.
As in the rest of Europe during the Late Middle Ages, Antisemitism
greatly increased during the 14th century in the Christian kingdoms (a key event in that regard was the Black Death, as Jews were accused of poisoning the waters).
There were mass killings in Aragon in the mid-14th century, and 12,000 Jews were killed in Toledo. In 1391, Christian mobs went from town to town throughout Castile and Aragon, killing an estimated 50,000 Jews.
Women and children were sold as slaves to Muslims, and many synagogues were converted into churches. According to Hasdai Crescas
, about 70 Jewish communities were destroyed. St. Vincent Ferrer
converted innumerable Jews, among them the Rabbi Josuah Halorqui, who took the name of Jerónimo de Santa Fe
and in his town converted many of his former coreligionists in the famous Disputation of Tortosa
In 1469, the crowns of the Christian kingdoms of Castile
were united by the marriage
of Isabella I of Castile
and Ferdinand II of Aragon
. 1478 commenced the completion of the conquest of the Canary Islands
and in 1492, the combined forces of Castile and Aragon captured the Emirate of Granada
from its last ruler Muhammad XII
, ending the last remnant of a 781-year presence
of Islamic rule in Iberia. That same year, Spain's Jews
were ordered to convert
or face expulsion
from Spanish territories during the Spanish Inquisition
As many as 200,000 Jews were expelled from Spain
This was followed by expulsions in 1493 in Aragonese Sicily
and Portugal in 1497
. The Treaty of Granada
guaranteed religious tolerance towards Muslims,
for a few years before Islam was outlawed in 1502 in the Kingdom of Castile and 1527 in the Kingdom of Aragon, leading to Spain's Muslim population becoming nominally Christian Moriscos
. A few decades after the Morisco rebellion of Granada known as the War of the Alpujarras
, a significant proportion of Spain's formerly-Muslim population was expelled, settling primarily in North Africa.[l]
From 1609 to 1614, over 300,000 Moriscos were sent on ships to North Africa and other locations, and, of this figure, around 50,000 died resisting the expulsion
, and 60,000 died on the journey.
The year 1492 also marked the arrival of Christopher Columbus
in the New World
, during a voyage funded by Isabella. Columbus's first voyage crossed the Atlantic and reached the Caribbean Islands, beginning the European exploration and conquest of the Americas, although Columbus remained convinced that he had reached the Orient
. Large numbers of indigenous Americans
died in battle against the Spaniards during the conquest,
while others died from various other causes. Some scholars consider the initial period of the Spanish conquest
— from Columbus's first landing in the Bahamas until the middle of the sixteenth century—as marking the most egregious case of genocide
in the history of mankind.
The death toll may have reached some 70 million indigenous people (out of 80 million) in this period, as diseases such as smallpox, measles, influenza, and typhus, brought to the Americas by the conquest, decimated the pre-Columbian population.
The Spanish colonisation of the Americas started with the colonisation of the Caribbean. It was followed by the conquest of powerful pre-columbian polities in Central Mexico and the Pacific Coast of South America. Miscegenation
was the rule between the native and the Spanish cultures and people. An expedition sponsored by the Spanish crown completed the first voyage around the world in human history, the Magellan-Elcano circumnavigation
. The tornaviaje
or return route from the Philippines to Mexico made possible the Manila galleon
trading route. The Spanish encountered Islam in Southeast Asia
and in order to incorporate the Philippines
, Spanish expeditions organised from newly Christianised Mexico
the Philippine territories of the Sultanate of Brunei
. The Spanish used the conflict between Pagan and Muslim Philippine kingdoms to pit them against each other thus using the "Divide and Conquer Principle".
The Spanish considered the war with the Muslims of Brunei and the Philippines
, a repeat of the Reconquista
A centralisation of royal power ensued in the Early Modern Period at the expense of local nobility, and the word España
, whose root is the ancient name Hispania
, began to be commonly used to designate the whole of the two kingdoms.
With their wide-ranging political, legal, religious and military reforms, the Hispanic Monarchy emerged as a world power
The unification of the crowns of Aragon and Castile by the marriage of their sovereigns laid the basis for modern Spain and the Spanish Empire, although each kingdom of Spain remained a separate country socially, politically, legally, and in currency and language.
Anachronous map of the Spanish Empire
Main Trade Routes of the Spanish Empire
Through exploration and conquest or royal marriage alliances and inheritance, the Spanish Empire
expanded to include vast areas in the Americas, islands in the Asia-Pacific area, areas of Italy, cities in Northern Africa, as well as parts of what are now France, Germany, Belgium
, and the Netherlands
. The first circumnavigation
of the world was carried out in 1519–1521. It was the first empire on which it was said that the sun never set
. This was an Age of Discovery
, with daring explorations by sea and by land, the opening-up of new trade routes
across oceans, conquests and the beginnings of European colonialism
. Spanish explorers brought back precious metals
, spices, luxuries, and previously unknown plants, and played a leading part in transforming the European understanding of the globe.
The cultural efflorescence witnessed during this period is now referred to as the Spanish Golden Age
. The expansion of the empire caused immense upheaval in the Americas as the collapse of societies and empires and new diseases from Europe devastated American indigenous populations. The rise of humanism
, the Counter-Reformation
and new geographical discoveries and conquests raised issues that were addressed by the intellectual movement now known as the School of Salamanca
, which developed the first modern theories of what are now known as international law
and human rights. Juan Luis Vives
was another prominent humanist during this period.
Spain's 16th-century maritime supremacy was demonstrated by the victory over the Ottomans at Lepanto
in 1571, and then after the setback of the Spanish Armada
in 1588, in a series of victories against England
in the Anglo-Spanish War of 1585–1604
. However, during the middle decades of the 17th century Spain's maritime power went into a long decline with mounting defeats against the United Provinces
and then England; that by the 1660s it was struggling grimly to defend its overseas possessions from pirates and privateers.
The Protestant Reformation
dragged the kingdom ever more deeply into the mire of religiously charged wars. The result was a country forced into ever-expanding military efforts across Europe and in the Mediterranean.
By the middle decades of a war- and plague
-ridden 17th-century Europe, the Spanish Habsburgs had enmeshed the country in continent-wide religious-political conflicts. These conflicts drained it of resources and undermined the economy generally. Spain managed to hold on to most of the scattered Habsburg empire
, and help the imperial forces of the Holy Roman Empire
reverse a large part of the advances made by Protestant forces, but it was finally forced to recognise the separation of Portugal
and the United Provinces, and eventually suffered some serious military reverses to France in the latter stages of the immensely destructive, Europe-wide Thirty Years' War
In the latter half of the 17th century, Spain went into a gradual decline, during which it surrendered several small territories to France and England; however, it maintained and enlarged its vast overseas empire, which remained intact until the beginning of the 19th century.
The decline culminated in a controversy over succession to the throne which consumed the first years of the 18th century. The War of the Spanish Succession
was a wide-ranging international conflict combined with a civil war, and was to cost the kingdom its European possessions and its position as one of the leading powers on the Continent.
During this war, a new dynasty originating in France, the Bourbons
, was installed. Long united only by the Crown, a true Spanish state was established when the first Bourbon king, Philip V
, united the crowns of Castile and Aragon into a single state, abolishing many of the old regional privileges and laws.
The 18th century saw a gradual recovery and an increase in prosperity through much of the empire. The new Bourbon monarchy drew on the French system of modernising the administration and the economy. Enlightenment
ideas began to gain ground among some of the kingdom's elite and monarchy. Bourbon reformers
created formal disciplined militias across the Atlantic. Spain needed every hand it could take during the seemingly endless wars of the eighteenth century—the Spanish War of Succession or Queen Anne's War
(1702–13), the War of Jenkins' Ear
(1739–42) which became the War of the Austrian Succession
(1740–48), the Seven Years' War
(1756–63) and the Anglo-Spanish War
(1779–83)—and its new disciplined militias served around the Atlantic as needed.
Liberalism and nation state
In 1793, Spain went to war against the revolutionary new French Republic
as a member of the first Coalition
. The subsequent War of the Pyrenees
polarised the country in a reaction against the gallicised
elites and following defeat in the field, peace was made with France in 1795 at the Peace of Basel
in which Spain lost control over two-thirds of the island of Hispaniola
. The Prime Minister, Manuel Godoy
, then ensured that Spain allied herself with France in the brief War of the Third Coalition
which ended with the British naval victory at the Battle of Trafalgar
in 1805. In 1807, a secret treaty between Napoleon and the unpopular prime minister led to a new declaration of war against Britain and Portugal. Napoleon's troops entered the country to invade Portugal but instead occupied Spain's major fortresses. The Spanish king abdicated in favour of Napoleon's
brother, Joseph Bonaparte
Joseph Bonaparte was seen as a puppet monarch
and was regarded with scorn by the Spanish. The 2 May 1808 revolt
was one of many nationalist uprisings across the country against the Bonapartist regime.
These revolts marked the beginning of a devastating war of independence
against the Napoleonic regime.
The most celebrated battles of this war were those of Bruch
, in the highlands of Montserrat, in which the Catalan peasantry routed a French army; Bailén
, where Castaños
, at the head of the army of Andalusia, defeated Dupont
; and the sieges of Zaragoza
, which were worthy of the ancient Spaniards of Saguntum
Napoleon was forced to intervene personally, defeating several Spanish armies and forcing a British army to retreat. However, further military action by Spanish armies, guerrillas
British-Portuguese forces, combined with Napoleon's disastrous invasion of Russia
, led to the ousting of the French imperial armies from Spain in 1814, and the return of King Ferdinand VII
During the war, in 1810, a revolutionary body, the Cortes of Cádiz
, was assembled to co-ordinate the effort against the Bonapartist regime and to prepare a constitution.
It met as one body, and its members represented the entire Spanish empire.
In 1812, a constitution
for universal representation under a constitutional monarchy was declared, but after the fall of the Bonapartist regime, Ferdinand VII
dismissed the Cortes Generales and was determined to rule as an absolute monarch
. These events foreshadowed the conflict between conservatives and liberals in the 19th and early 20th centuries.
Spain's conquest by France benefited Latin American anti-colonialists who resented the Imperial Spanish government's policies that favoured Spanish-born citizens (Peninsulars
) over those born overseas (Criollos
) and demanded retroversion of the sovereignty to the people
. Starting in 1809 Spain's American colonies began a series of revolutions and declared independence, leading to the Spanish American wars of independence
that ended Spanish control over its mainland colonies in the Americas. King Ferdinand VII's attempt to re-assert control
proved futile as he faced opposition not only in the colonies but also in Spain and army revolts
followed, led by liberal officers. By the end of 1826, the only American colonies Spain held were Cuba
and Puerto Rico
The Napoleonic War left Spain economically ruined, deeply divided and politically unstable. In the 1830s and 1840s, Carlism
(a reactionary legitimist movement supportive of the branch issued from Carlos María Isidro of Bourbon
, younger brother of Ferdinand VII), fought against the cristinos
(supportive of Queen Isabella II
, daughter of Ferdinand VII) in the Carlist Wars
forces prevailed, but the conflict between progressives
ended in a weak early constitutional period. After the Glorious Revolution
of 1868 and the short-lived First Spanish Republic
, the latter yielded to a stable monarchic period, the Restoration
, a rigid bipartisan regime fuelled up by the turnismo
(the prearranged rotation of government control between liberals and conservatives) and the form of political representation at the countryside (based on clientelism
) known as caciquismo [es]
In the late 19th century nationalist movements arose in the Philippines and Cuba. In 1895 and 1896 the Cuban War of Independence
and the Philippine Revolution
broke out and eventually the United States became involved. The Spanish–American War
was fought in the spring of 1898 and resulted in Spain losing the last of its once vast colonial empire outside of North Africa. El Desastre
(the Disaster), as the war became known in Spain, gave added impetus to the Generation of '98
who were analyzing the country.
Political corruption and repression weakened the democratic system of the constitutional monarchy of a two-parties system.
The Tragic Week
events and repression examples the social instability of the time.
After a period of dictatorship during the governments of Generals Miguel Primo de Rivera
and Dámaso Berenguer
and Admiral Aznar-Cabañas
(1923–1931), the first elections since 1923, largely understood as a plebiscite on Monarchy, took place: the 12 April 1931 municipal elections
. These gave a resounding victory to the Republican-Socialist candidacies in large cities and provincial capitals, with a majority of monarchist councilors in rural areas. The king left the country and the proclamation of the Republic on 14 April ensued, with the formation of a provisional government.
for the country was passed in October 1931 following the June 1931 Constituent general election
, and a series of cabinets presided by Manuel Azaña
supported by republican parties and the PSOE
followed. In the election held in 1933 the right triumphed and in 1936, the left. During the Second Republic
there was a great political and social upheaval, marked by a sharp radicalization of the left and the right. The violent acts during this period included the burning of churches, the 1932 failed coup d'état led by José Sanjurjo
, the Revolution of 1934
and numerous attacks against rival political leaders. On the other hand, it is also during the Second Republic when important reforms to modernize the country were initiated: a democratic constitution, agrarian reform, restructuring of the army, political decentralization and women's right to vote
Civil War and Francoist dictatorship
The civil war was viciously fought and there were many atrocities committed by all sides
. The war
claimed the lives of over 500,000 people and caused the flight of up to a half-million citizens from the country.
On 1 April 1939, five months before the beginning of World War II
, the rebel side led by Franco emerged victorious, imposing a dictatorship over the whole country.
Republican volunteers at Teruel
Restoration of democracy
In 1962, a group of politicians involved in the opposition to Franco's regime inside the country and in exile met in the congress of the European Movement
in Munich, where they made a resolution in favour of democracy.
In the Basque Country, moderate Basque nationalism
coexisted with a radical nationalist movement
led by the armed organisation ETA
until the latter's dissolution in May 2018.
The group was formed in 1959 during Franco's rule but had continued to wage its violent campaign even after the restoration of democracy and the return of a large measure of regional autonomy.
On 23 February 1981, rebel elements among the security forces seized the Cortes in an attempt to impose a military-backed government
. King Juan Carlos took personal command of the military and successfully ordered the coup plotters, via national television, to surrender.
On 1 January 2002, Spain fully adopted the euro
, and Spain experienced strong economic growth, well above the EU average during the early 2000s. However, well-publicised concerns issued by many economic commentators at the height of the boom warned that extraordinary property prices and a high foreign trade deficit were likely to lead to a painful economic collapse.
In 2002 the Prestige oil spill
occurred with big ecological consequences along Spain's Atlantic coastline. In 2003 José María Aznar
supported US president George W. Bush
in the Iraq War
, and a strong movement against war rose in Spanish society. On 11 March 2004 a local Islamist
terrorist group inspired by Al-Qaeda
carried out the largest terrorist attack in Spanish history when they killed 191 people and wounded more than 1,800 others by bombing commuter trains
Though initial suspicions focused on the Basque terrorist group ETA
, evidence soon emerged indicating Islamist involvement. Because of the proximity of the 2004 election
, the issue of responsibility quickly became a political controversy, with the main competing parties PP and PSOE exchanging accusations over the handling of the incident.
The elections on 14 March were won by the PSOE, led by José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero
The proportion of Spain's foreign born population
increased rapidly during its economic boom in the early 2000s, but then declined due to the financial crisis.
In 2005 the Spanish government legalised same sex marriage
Decentralisation was supported with much resistance of Constitutional Court and conservative opposition, so did gender politics like quotas or the law against gender violence. Government talks with ETA happened, and the group announced its permanent cease of violence in 2010.
Demonstration against the crisis and high youth unemployment in Madrid, 15 May 2011
On 31 January 2020, the COVID-19
virus was confirmed to have spread to Spain
, which as of March 2021 is the country with the eighth highest number of cases.
Topographic map of Spain
There are 11 major islands in Spain, all of them having their own governing bodies (Cabildos insulares
in the Canaries, Consells insulars
in Baleares). These islands are specifically mentioned by the Spanish Constitution, when fixing its Senatorial representation (Ibiza and Formentera are grouped, as they together form the Pityusic islands
, part of the Balearic archipelago). These islands are:
Mountains and rivers
Mainland Spain is a mountainous
country, dominated by high plateaus
and mountain chains. After the Pyrenees, the main mountain ranges are the Cordillera Cantábrica
(Cantabrian Range), Sistema Ibérico
(Iberian System), Sistema Central
(Central System), Montes de Toledo
, Sierra Morena
and the Sistema Bético
(Baetic System) whose highest peak, the 3,478-metre-high (11,411-foot) Mulhacén
, located in Sierra Nevada
, is the highest elevation in the Iberian Peninsula. The highest point in Spain is the Teide
, a 3,718-metre (12,198 ft) active volcano
in the Canary Islands. The Meseta Central
(often translated as "Inner Plateau") is a vast plateau in the heart of peninsular Spain.
The coast north of the Cantabrian Mountains features an humid oceanic climate
The southeasternmost end of the Iberian peninsula features an arid climate.
- The Mediterranean climate, characterised by warm/hot and dry summers, is dominant in the peninsula. It has two varieties: Csa and Csb according to the Köppen climate classification.
- The Csa zone is associated to areas with hot summers. It is predominant in the Mediterranean and Southern Atlantic coast and inland throughout Andalusia, Extremadura and much, if not most, of the centre of the country. The Csa zone covers climatic zones with both relatively warm and cold winters which are considered extremely different to each other at a local level, reason for which Köppen classification is often eschewed within Spain. Local climatic maps generally divide the Mediterranean zone (which covers most of the country) between warm-winter and cold-winter zones, rather than according to summer temperatures.
- The Csb zone has warm rather than hot summers, and extends to additional cool-winter areas not typically associated with a Mediterranean climate, such as much of central and northern-central of Spain (e.g. western Castile–León, northeastern Castilla-La Mancha and northern Madrid) and into much rainier areas (notably Galicia). Note areas with relatively high rainfall such as Galicia are not considered Mediterranean under local classifications, but classed as oceanic.
- The semi-arid climate (BSk, BSh), is predominant in the southeastern quarter of the country, but is also widespread in other areas of Spain. It covers most of the Region of Murcia, southern Valencia and eastern Andalusia, where true hot desert climates also exist. Further to the north, it is predominant in the upper and mid reaches of the Ebro valley, which crosses southern Navarre, central Aragon and western Catalonia. It also is found in Madrid, Extremadura, Castilla-La Mancha, and some locations of western Andalusia. The dry season extends beyond the summer and average temperature depends on altitude and latitude.
- The oceanic climate (Cfb), located in the northern quarter of the country, especially in the Atlantic region (Basque Country, Cantabria, Asturias, and partly Galicia and Castile–León). Additionally it is also found in northern Navarre, in most highlands areas along the Iberian System and in the Pyrenean valleys, where a humid subtropical variant (Cfa) also occurs. Winter and summer temperatures are influenced by the ocean, and have no seasonal drought.
Apart from these main types, other sub-types can be found, like the alpine climate
in areas with very high altitude, the humid subtropical climate
in areas of northeastern Spain and the continental climates
) in the Pyrenees
as well as parts of the Cantabrian Range
, the Central System
, Sierra Nevada
and the Iberian System
, and a typical desert climate
) in the zone of Almería, Murcia and eastern Canary Islands
. Low-lying areas of the Canary Islands average above 18.0 °C (64.4 °F) during their coldest month, thus having a tropical climate
Fauna and flora
presents a wide diversity that is due in large part to the geographical position of the Iberian peninsula between the Atlantic and the Mediterranean and between Africa and Eurasia
, and the great diversity of habitats and biotopes
, the result of a considerable variety of climates and well differentiated regions.
The vegetation of Spain is varied due to several factors including the diversity of the terrain, the climate and latitude
. Spain includes different phytogeographic
regions, each with its own floral characteristics resulting largely from the interaction of climate, topography, soil type and fire, and biotic
factors. The country had a 2019 Forest Landscape Integrity Index
mean score of 4.23/10, ranking it 130th globally out of 172 countries.
As a result, Spain is now composed of 17 autonomous communities
and two autonomous cities
with varying degrees of autonomy thanks to its Constitution, which nevertheless explicitly states the indivisible unity of the Spanish nation. The constitution also specifies that Spain has no state religion and that all are free to practice and believe as they wish.
The legislative branch
is made up of the Congress of Deputies
(Congreso de los Diputados
), a lower house with 350 members, elected by popular vote on block lists by proportional representation to serve four-year terms, and the Senate
), an upper house with 259 seats of which 208 are directly elected by popular vote, using a limited voting
method, and the other 51 appointed by the regional legislatures to also serve four-year terms.
The executive branch consists of a Council of Ministers
presided over by the Prime Minister, who is nominated as candidate
by the monarch
after holding consultations with representatives from the different parliamentary groups, voted in by the members of the lower house during an investiture session and then formally appointed by the monarch.
- Head of State (King)
The Prime Minister, deputy prime ministers and the rest of ministers convene at the Council of Ministers
Spain is organisationally structured as a so-called Estado de las Autonomías
("State of Autonomies"); it is one of the most decentralised
countries in Europe, along with Switzerland, Germany and Belgium;
for example, all autonomous communities have their own elected parliaments, governments, public administrations
, budgets, and resources. Health and education systems among others are managed by the Spanish communities, and in addition, the Basque Country and Navarre also manage their own public finances based on foral
provisions. In Catalonia, the Basque Country, Navarre and the Canary Islands, a full-fledged autonomous police corps replaces some of the State police functions (see Mossos d'Esquadra
, Policía Foral/Foruzaingoa
and Policía Canaria
As a member of NATO
since 1982, Spain has established itself as a participant in multilateral international security activities. Spain's EU membership represents an important part of its foreign policy. Even on many international issues beyond western Europe, Spain prefers to coordinate its efforts with its EU partners through the European political co-operation mechanisms.[vague]
Spain has maintained its special relations with Hispanic America
and the Philippines
. Its policy emphasises the concept of an Ibero-American
community, essentially the renewal of the concept of "Hispanidad"
, as it is often referred to in English, which has sought to link the Iberian Peninsula with Hispanic America through language, commerce, history and culture. It is fundamentally "based on shared values and the recovery of democracy."
The legal situation concerning Gibraltar was settled in 1713 by the Treaty of Utrecht
, in which Spain ceded the territory in perpetuity to the British Crown
stating that, should the British abandon this post, it would be offered to Spain first. Since the 1940s Spain has called for the return of Gibraltar. The overwhelming majority of Gibraltarians
strongly oppose this, along with any proposal of shared sovereignty.
UN resolutions call on the United Kingdom and Spain to reach an agreement over the status of Gibraltar.
The Spanish claim makes a distinction between the isthmus
that connects the Rock to the Spanish mainland on the one hand, and the Rock and city of Gibraltar on the other. While the Rock and city were ceded by the Treaty of Utrecht, Spain asserts that the "occupation of the isthmus is illegal and against the principles of International Law
The United Kingdom relies on de facto
arguments of possession by prescription
in relation to the isthmus,
as there has been "continuous possession [of the isthmus] over a long period".
Another claim by Spain is about the Savage Islands
, part of Portugal
. In clash with the Portuguese position, Spain claims that they are rocks rather than islands, and therefore Spain does not accept any extension of the Portuguese Exclusive Economic Zone
(200 nautical miles) generated by the islands, while acknowledging the Selvagens
having territorial waters
(12 nautical miles). On 5 July 2013, Spain sent a letter to the UN expressing these views.
Spain claims the sovereignty over the Perejil Island
, a small, uninhabited rocky islet
located in the South shore of the Strait of Gibraltar
. The island lies 250 metres (820 ft) just off the coast of Morocco, 8 kilometres (5.0 mi) from Ceuta
and 13.5 kilometres (8.4 mi) from mainland Spain. Its sovereignty is disputed between Spain and Morocco. It was the subject of an armed incident between the two countries in 2002. The incident ended when both countries agreed to return to the status quo ante which existed prior to the Moroccan occupation of the island. The islet is now deserted and without any sign of sovereignty.
Besides the Perejil Island, the Spanish-held territories claimed by other countries are two: Morocco claims the Spanish cities of Ceuta and Melilla
and the plazas de soberanía
islets off the northern coast of Africa. Portugal does not recognise Spain's sovereignty over the territory of Olivenza
which was annexed by Spain in 1801 after the War of the Oranges
. Portugal stance has been the territory being de iure
Portuguese territory and de facto
Military conscription was suppressed in 2001.
The Spanish Constitution of 1978
"protect all Spaniards and all the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions".
According to Amnesty International
(AI), government investigations of alleged police abuses are often lengthy and punishments were light.
Violence against women was a problem, which the Government took steps to address.
Spain provides one of the highest degrees of liberty in the world for its LGBT
community. Among the countries studied by Pew Research Center
in 2013, Spain is rated first in acceptance of homosexuality, with 88% of those surveyed saying that homosexuality should be accepted.
The Spanish State is divided into 17 autonomous communities and 2 autonomous cities, both groups being the highest or first-order administrative division in the country. Autonomous communities are divided into provinces, of which there are 50 in total, and in turn, provinces are divided into municipalities. In Catalonia, two additional divisions exist, the comarques (sing. comarca) and the vegueries (sing. vegueria) both of which have administrative powers; comarques being aggregations of municipalities, and the vegueries being aggregations of comarques. The concept of a comarca exists in all autonomous communities, however, unlike Catalonia, these are merely historical or geographical subdivisions.
Spain's autonomous communities are the first level administrative divisions of the country. They were created after the current constitution came into effect (in 1978) in recognition of the right to self-government of the "nationalities and regions of Spain
The autonomous communities were to comprise adjacent provinces with common historical, cultural, and economic traits. This territorial organisation, based on devolution
, is known in Spain as the "State of Autonomies".
The basic institutional law of each autonomous community is the Statute of Autonomy
. The Statutes of Autonomy establish the name of the community according to its historical and contemporary identity, the limits of its territories, the name and organisation of the institutions of government and the rights they enjoy according to the constitution.
The governments of all autonomous communities must be based on a division of powers and comprise
- a legislative assembly whose members must be elected by universal suffrage according to the system of proportional representation and in which all areas that integrate the territory are fairly represented;
- a government council, with executive and administrative functions headed by a president, elected by the Legislative Assembly and nominated by the King of Spain;
- a supreme court, under the supreme court of Spain, which heads the judiciary in the autonomous community.
Catalonia, Galicia and the Basque Country, which identified themselves as nationalities
, were granted self-government through a rapid process. Andalusia also took that denomination in its first Statute of Autonomy, even though it followed the longer process stipulated in the constitution for the rest of the country. Progressively, other communities in revisions to their Statutes of Autonomy have also taken that denomination in accordance to their historical and modern identities, such as the Valencian Community,
the Canary Islands,
the Balearic Islands,
The autonomous communities have wide legislative and executive autonomy, with their own parliaments and regional governments. The distribution of powers may be different for every community, as laid out in their Statutes of Autonomy, since devolution was intended to be asymmetrical. Only two communities—the Basque Country and Navarre—have full fiscal autonomy. Beyond fiscal autonomy, the nationalities
—Andalusia, the Basque Country, Catalonia, and Galicia—were devolved more powers than the rest of the communities, among them the ability of the regional president to dissolve the parliament and call for elections at any time. In addition, the Basque Country, Catalonia and Navarre have police corps of their own: Ertzaintza
, Mossos d'Esquadra
and the Policía Foral
respectively. Other communities have more limited forces or none at all, like the Policía Autónoma Andaluza
or the BESCAM
Nonetheless, recent amendments to existing Statutes of Autonomy or the promulgation of new Statutes altogether, have reduced the asymmetry between the powers originally granted to the nationalities and the rest of the regions.
Finally, along with the 17 autonomous communities, two autonomous cities are also part of the State of Autonomies and are first-order territorial divisions: Ceuta
. These are two exclaves located in the northern African coast.
Provinces and municipalities
Autonomous communities are divided into provinces
, which served as their territorial building blocks. In turn, provinces are divided into municipalities
. The existence of both the provinces and the municipalities is guaranteed and protected by the constitution, not necessarily by the Statutes of Autonomy themselves. Municipalities are granted autonomy to manage their internal affairs, and provinces are the territorial divisions designed to carry out the activities of the State.
The current provincial division structure is based—with minor changes—on the 1833 territorial division
by Javier de Burgos
, and in all, the Spanish territory is divided into 50 provinces. The communities of Asturias, Cantabria, La Rioja, the Balearic Islands, Madrid, Murcia and Navarre are the only communities that comprise a single province, which is coextensive with the community itself. In these cases, the administrative institutions of the province are replaced by the governmental institutions of the community.
The centre-right government of former prime minister José María Aznar
worked successfully to gain admission to the group of countries launching the euro
in 1999. Unemployment
stood at 17.1% in June 2017,
below Spain's early 1990s unemployment rate of at over 20%. The youth unemployment
rate (35% in March 2018) is extremely high compared to EU standards.
Perennial weak points of Spain's economy include a large informal economy
and an education system which OECD reports place among the poorest for developed countries, together with the United States and UK.
By the mid-1990s the economy had commenced the growth that had been disrupted by the global recession of the early 1990s. The strong economic growth helped the government to reduce the government debt as a percentage of GDP and Spain's high unemployment rate began to steadily decline. With the government budget in balance and inflation under control Spain was admitted into the Eurozone in 1999.
Since the 1990s some Spanish companies have gained multinational status, often expanding their activities in culturally close Latin America. Spain is the second biggest foreign investor there, after the United States. Spanish companies have also expanded into Asia, especially China and India.
This early global expansion is a competitive advantage over its competitors and European neighbours. The reason for this early expansion is the booming interest towards Spanish language and culture in Asia and Africa and a corporate culture that learned to take risks in unstable markets.
Spanish companies invested in fields like renewable energy commercialisation
was the world's largest renewable energy operator
), technology companies like Telefónica
, Mondragon Corporation
(which is the world's largest worker-owned cooperative
, train manufacturers like CAF
, global corporations such as the textile company Inditex
, petroleum companies like Repsol
and infrastructure, with six of the ten biggest international construction firms specialising in transport being Spanish, like Ferrovial
The automotive industry is one of the largest employers in the country. In 2015 Spain was the 8th largest automobile producer country in the world and the 2nd largest car manufacturer in Europe after Germany.
By 2016, the automotive industry was generating 8.7 percent of Spain's gross domestic product
, employing about nine percent of the manufacturing industry.
By 2008 the automobile industry was the 2nd most exported industry
while in 2015 about 80% of the total production was for export.
German companies poured €4.8 billion into Spain in 2015, making the country the second-largest destination for German foreign direct investment
behind only the U.S. The lion's share of that investment—€4 billion—went to the country's auto industry.
Crop areas were farmed in two highly diverse manners. Areas relying on non-irrigated cultivation (secano
), which made up 85% of the entire crop area, depended solely on rainfall as a source of water. They included the humid regions of the north and the northwest, as well as vast arid zones that had not been irrigated. The much more productive regions devoted to irrigated cultivation (regadío
) accounted for 3 million hectares in 1986, and the government hoped that this area would eventually double, as it already had doubled since 1950. Particularly noteworthy was the development in Almería
—one of the most arid and desolate provinces of Spain—of winter crops of various fruits and vegetables for export to Europe.
Though only about 17% of Spain's cultivated land was irrigated, it was estimated to be the source of between 40 and 45% of the gross value of crop production and of 50% of the value of agricultural exports. More than half of the irrigated area was planted in corn
, fruit trees
, and vegetables. Other agricultural products that benefited from irrigation included grapes, cotton, sugar beets
, potatoes, legumes
, olive trees
, mangos, strawberries
, tomatoes, and fodder
grasses. Depending on the nature of the crop, it was possible to harvest two successive crops in the same year on about 10% of the country's irrigated land.
, vegetables, cereal grains
, olive oil
, and wine—Spain's traditional agricultural products—continued to be important in the 1980s. In 1983 they represented 12%, 12%, 8%, 6%, and 4%, respectively, of the country's agricultural production. Because of the changed diet of an increasingly affluent population, there was a notable increase in the consumption of livestock, poultry, and dairy products
. Meat production for domestic consumption became the single most important agricultural activity, accounting for 30% of all farm-related production in 1983. Increased attention to livestock was the reason that Spain became a net importer of grains. Ideal growing conditions, combined with proximity to important north European markets, made citrus fruits Spain's leading export. Fresh vegetables and fruits produced through intensive irrigation farming also became important export commodities, as did sunflower seed oil
that was produced to compete with the more expensive olive oils in oversupply throughout the Mediterranean countries of the European Community
, one of Europe's largest coastal tourist destinations
In 2017, Spain was the second most visited country in the world, recording 82 million tourists which marked the fifth consecutive year of record-beating numbers.
The headquarters of the World Tourism Organization
are located in Madrid
Spain's geographic location, popular coastlines, diverse landscapes, historical legacy, vibrant culture, and excellent infrastructure has made the country's international tourist industry among the largest in the world. In the last five decades, international tourism in Spain has grown to become the second largest in the world in terms of spending, worth approximately 40 billion Euros or about 5% of GDP in 2006.
In 2010 Spain became the solar power
world leader when it overtook the United States with a massive power station plant called La Florida
, near Alvarado, Badajoz
Spain is also Europe's main producer of wind energy.
In 2010 its wind turbines generated 42,976 GWh, which accounted for 16.4% of all electrical energy produced in Spain.
On 9 November 2010, wind energy reached an instantaneous historic peak covering 53% of mainland electricity demand
and generating an amount of energy that is equivalent to that of 14 nuclear reactors
Other renewable energies used in Spain are hydroelectric
(2 power plants under construction).
Non-renewable energy sources used in Spain are nuclear
(8 operative reactors), gas
, and oil
. Fossil fuels together generated 58% of Spain's electricity in 2009, just below the OECD mean of 61%. Nuclear power generated another 19%, and wind and hydro about 12% each.
Spain has the most extensive high-speed rail network in Europe, and the second-most extensive in the world after China.
As of 2019, Spain has a total of over 3,400 km (2,112.66 mi) of high-speed tracks
, with the trains operated at commercial speeds up to 310 km/h (190 mph).
On average, the Spanish high-speed train is the fastest one in the world, followed by the Japanese bullet train
and the French TGV
Regarding punctuality, it is second in the world (98.5% on-time arrival) after the Japanese Shinkansen (99%).
Should the aims of the ambitious AVE
programme (Spanish high speed trains) be met, by 2020 Spain will have 7,000 km (4,300 mi) of high-speed trains linking almost all provincial cities to Madrid in less than three hours and Barcelona within four hours.
There are 47 public airports in Spain. The busiest one is the airport of Madrid
(Barajas), with 50 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 15th busiest airport
, as well as the European Union's fourth busiest. The airport of Barcelona
(El Prat) is also important, with 35 million passengers in 2011, being the world's 31st-busiest airport. Other main airports are located in Majorca
(23 million passengers), Málaga
(13 million passengers), Las Palmas (Gran Canaria)
(11 million passengers), Alicante
(10 million passengers) and smaller, with the number of passengers between 4 and 10 million, for example Tenerife
(two airports), Valencia
. Also, more than 30 airports with the number of passengers below 4 million.
Science and technology
The Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
(CSIC) is the leading public agency dedicated to scientific research in the country. It ranked as the 5th top governmental scientific institution worldwide (and 32nd overall) in the 2018 SCImago Institutions Rankings.
In 2019, the population of Spain officially reached 47 million people, as recorded by the Padrón municipal
(Spain's Municipal Register).
Spain's population density, at 91/km2
(235/sq mi), is lower than that of most Western European countries and its distribution across the country is very unequal. With the exception of the region surrounding the capital, Madrid
, the most populated areas lie around the coast. The population of Spain has risen 2 1/2 times since 1900, when it stood at 18.6 million, principally due to the spectacular demographic boom in the 1960s and early 1970s.
In 2017, the average total fertility rate
(TFR) across Spain was 1.33 children born per woman,
one of the lowest in the world, below the replacement rate of 2.1, it remains considerably below the high of 5.11 children born per woman in 1865.
Spain subsequently has one of the oldest populations in the world, with the average age of 43.1 years.
make up 88% of the total population of Spain. After the birth rate
plunged in the 1980s and Spain's population growth rate dropped, the population again trended upward initially upon the return of many Spaniards who had emigrated to other European countries during the 1970s, and more recently, fuelled by large numbers of immigrants who make up 12% of the population. The immigrants originate mainly in Latin America (39%), North Africa (16%), Eastern Europe (15%), and Sub-Saharan Africa
In 2005, Spain instituted a three-month amnesty programme through which certain hitherto undocumented aliens were granted legal residency.
In 2008, Spain granted citizenship to 84,170 persons, mostly to people from Ecuador, Colombia and Morocco.
A sizeable portion of foreign residents in Spain also comes from other Western and Central European countries. These are mostly British, French, German, Dutch, and Norwegian. They reside primarily on the Mediterranean coast and the Balearic islands, where many choose to live their retirement or telecommute
Substantial populations descended from Spanish colonists and immigrants exist in other parts of the world, most notably in Latin America. Beginning in the late 15th century, large numbers of Iberian colonists settled in what became Latin America and at present most white Latin Americans
(who make up about one-third of Latin America's population) are of Spanish or Portuguese origin. Around 240,000 Spaniards emigrated in the 16th century, mostly to Mexico
Another 450,000 left in the 17th century.
The estimate between 1492 and 1832 is 1.86 million.
Between 1846 and 1932 it is estimated that nearly 5 million Spaniards emigrated to the Americas, especially to Argentina
Approximately two million Spaniards migrated to other Western European countries between 1960 and 1975. During the same period perhaps 300,000 went to Latin America.
Geographical distribution of the Spanish population in 2008
Spain has been described as a de factoplurinational state
The identity of Spain rather accrues of an overlap of different territorial and ethnolinguistic identities than of a sole Spanish identity. In some cases some of the territorial identities may conflict with the dominant Spanish culture. Distinct traditional identities within Spain include the Basques
although to some extent all of the 17 autonomous communities may claim a distinct local identity.
It is this last feature of "shared identity" between the more local level or autonomous community and the Spanish level which makes the identity question in Spain complex and far from univocal.
Celebration of the Romani Day on 24 May 2018 in Madrid
Spain has a number of descendants of populations from former colonies, especially Latin America and North Africa. Smaller numbers of immigrants from several Sub-Saharan
countries have recently been settling in Spain. There are also sizeable numbers of Asian immigrants, most of whom are of Middle Eastern, South Asian
and Chinese origin. The single largest group of immigrants are European; represented by large numbers of Romanians, Britons, Germans
, French and others.
Historically, Sephardi Jews
are the main minority groups originated in Spain and with a contribution to Spanish culture.
The Spanish government is offering Spanish nationality to Sephardi Jews.
Distribution of the foreign population in Spain in 2005 by percentage
According to the official Spanish statistics (INE
) there were 5.4 million foreign residents in Spain in 2020 (11.4%)
while all citizens born outside of Spain were 7.2 million in 2020, 15.23% of the total population.
According to residence permit data for 2011, more than 860,000 were Romanian, about 770,000 were Moroccan
, approximately 390,000 were British, and 360,000 were Ecuadorian
Other sizeable foreign communities are Colombian, Bolivian, German, Italian, Bulgarian
, and Chinese. There are more than 200,000 migrants from Sub-Saharan Africa living in Spain, principally Senegaleses
Since 2000, Spain has experienced high population growth
as a result of immigration flows, despite a birth rate that is only half the replacement level. This sudden and ongoing inflow of immigrants, particularly those arriving illegally by sea, has caused noticeable social tension.
Within the EU, Spain had the 2nd highest immigration rate in percentage terms after Cyprus
, but by a great margin, the highest in absolute numbers, up to 2008.
The number of immigrants in Spain had grown up from 500,000 people in 1996 to 5.2 million in 2008 out of a total population of 46 million.
In 2005 alone, a regularisation programme increased the legal immigrant population by 700,000 people.
There are a number of reasons for the high level of immigration, including Spain's cultural ties with Latin America, its geographical position, the porosity of its borders, the large size of its underground economy and the strength of the agricultural and construction sectors, which demand more low cost labour than can be offered by the national workforce.
Another statistically significant factor is the large number of residents of EU origin typically retiring to Spain's Mediterranean coast. In fact, Spain was Europe's largest absorber of migrants from 2002 to 2007, with its immigrant population more than doubling as 2.5 million people arrived.
In 2008, prior to the onset of the economic crisis, the Financial Times
reported that Spain was the most favoured destination for Western Europeans considering a move from their own country and seeking jobs elsewhere in the EU.
In 2008, the government instituted a "Plan of Voluntary Return" which encouraged unemployed immigrants from outside the EU to return to their home countries and receive several incentives, including the right to keep their unemployment benefits and transfer whatever they contributed to the Spanish Social Security.
The programme had little effect; during its first two months, just 1,400 immigrants took up the offer.
What the programme failed to do, the sharp and prolonged economic crisis has done from 2010 to 2011 in that tens of thousands of immigrants have left the country due to lack of jobs. In 2011 alone, more than half a million people left Spain.
For the first time in decades the net migration rate was expected to be negative, and nine out of 10 emigrants were foreigners.
Languages of Spain
Spain is legally multilingual,
and the constitution establishes that the nation will protect "all Spaniards and the peoples of Spain in the exercise of human rights, their cultures and traditions, languages and institutions.
)— recognised in the constitution as Castilian
)—is the official language of the entire country, and it is the right and duty of every Spaniard to know the language. The constitution also establishes that "the other Spanish languages"—that is, the other languages of Spain—will also be official in their respective autonomous communities in accordance to their Statutes
, their organic regional legislations, and that the "richness of the distinct linguistic modalities of Spain represents a patrimony which will be the object of special respect and protection."
The other official languages of Spain, co-official with Spanish are:
As a percentage of the general population of all Spain, Spanish is natively spoken by 74%, Catalan by 17%, Galician by 7% and Basque by 2% of all Spaniards. Occitan is spoken by less than 5,000 people, only in the small region of Val d'Aran
In the North African Spanish autonomous city of Melilla
, Riff Berber
is spoken by a significant part of the population. Similarly, in Ceuta Darija Arabic
is spoken by a significant percentage of the population. In the tourist areas of the Mediterranean coast and the islands, English and German are widely spoken by tourists, foreign residents, and tourism workers.
State education in Spain is free and compulsory from the age of six to sixteen. The current education system is regulated by the 2006 educational law, LOE (Ley Orgánica de Educación
), or Fundamental Law for the Education.
In 2014, the LOE was partially modified by the newer and controversial LOMCE law (Ley Orgánica para la Mejora de la Calidad Educativa
), or Fundamental Law for the Improvement of the Education System, commonly called Ley Wert
Since 1970 to 2014, Spain has had seven different educational laws (LGE, LOECE, LODE, LOGSE, LOPEG, LOE and LOMCE).
The levels of education are preschool education, primary education,
and post-16 education.
In regards to the professional development education or the vocational education, there are three levels besides the university degrees: the Formación Profesional Básica
(basic vocational education); the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Medio
(medium level vocation education) which can be studied after studying the secondary education, and the Ciclo Formativo de Grado Superior
(higher level vocational education), which can be studied after studying the post-16 education level.
The health care system of Spain (Spanish National Health System
) is considered one of the best in the world, in 7th position in the ranking elaborated by the World Health Organization
The health care is public, universal and free for any legal citizen of Spain.
The total health spending is 9.4% of the GDP, slightly above the average of 9.3% of the OECD
, which has a long history in Spain, remains the dominant religion. Although it no longer has official status by law, in all public schools in Spain students have to choose either a religion or ethics class. Catholicism is the religion most commonly taught, although the teaching of Islam,
and evangelical Christianity
is also recognised in law. According to a 2020 study by the Spanish Centre for Sociological Research, about 61% of Spaniards self-identify as Catholics
, 3% other faiths, and about 35% identify with no religion
Most Spaniards do not participate regularly in religious services. A 2019 study shows that of the Spaniards who identify themselves as religious, 62% hardly ever or never go to church, 16% go to church some times a year, 7% some time per month and 13% every Sunday or multiple times per week.
Recent polls and surveys suggest that 20% to 27% of the Spanish population is irreligious.
The Spanish constitution enshrines secularism
in governance, as well as freedom of religion or belief for all, saying that no religion should have a "state character," while allowing for the state to "cooperate" with religious groups.
There have been four Spanish Popes. Damasus I
, Calixtus III
, Alexander VI
and Benedict XIII
. Spanish mysticism provided an important intellectual resource against Protestantism with Carmelites
like Teresa of Ávila
, a reformist
nun and John of the Cross
, a priest, taking the lead in their reform movement. Later, they became Doctors of the Church
. The Society of Jesus
was co-founded by Ignatius of Loyola
, whose Spiritual Exercises
and movement led to the establishment of hundreds of colleges and universities in the world, including 28 in the United States alone. The Society's co-founder, Francis Xavier
, was a missionary who reached India and later Japan. In the 1960s, Jesuits Pedro Arrupe
and Ignacio Ellacuría
supported the movement of Liberation Theology
A study made by the Union of Islamic Communities of Spain
demonstrated that there were more than 2,100,000 inhabitants of Muslim background living in Spain as of 2019, accounting for 4–5% of the total population of Spain. The vast majority was composed of immigrants and descendants originating from the Maghreb
) and other African countries. More than 879,000 (42%) of them had Spanish nationality.
The recent waves of immigration have also led to an increasing number of Hindus
. After the Reconquista in 1492, Muslims did not live in Spain for centuries. Late 19th-century colonial expansion in northwestern Africa gave a number of residents in Spanish Morocco
and Western Sahara
full citizenship. Their ranks have since been bolstered by recent immigration, especially from Morocco and Algeria.
was practically non-existent in Spain from the 1492 expulsion until the 19th century, when Jews were again permitted to enter the country. Currently there are around 62,000 Jews in Spain, or 0.14% of the total population. Most are arrivals in the past century, while some are descendants of earlier Spanish Jews. Approximately 80,000 Jews
are thought to have lived in Spain prior to its expulsion.
However the Jewish Encyclopedia states the number over 800,000 to be too large and 235,000 as too small: 165,000 is given as expelled as possibly too small in favour of 200,000, and the numbers of converts after the 1391 pogroms as less. Other sources suggest 200,000 converts mostly after the pogroms of 1391 and upwards of 100,000 expelled. Descendants of these Sephardic Jews expelled in 1492 are given Spanish nationality if they request it.
Procession with statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary of the Love of Saint Ferdinand (Maria santísima del amor de San Fernando
Spain is a Western country
. Almost every aspect of Spanish life is permeated by its Roman heritage, making Spain one of the major Latin countries
of Europe. Spanish culture is marked by strong historic ties to Catholicism, which played a pivotal role in the country's formation and subsequent identity. Spanish art, architecture, cuisine, and music have been shaped by successive waves of foreign invaders, as well as by the country's Mediterranean climate and geography. The centuries-long colonial era globalised Spanish language and culture, with Spain also absorbing the cultural and commercial products of its diverse empire.
World Heritage Sites
Bronze statues of Don Quixote and Sancho Panza, at the Plaza de España in Madrid
The earliest recorded examples of vernacular Romance-based literature date from the same time and location, the rich mix of Muslim, Jewish, and Christian cultures in Muslim Spain, in which Maimonides, Averroes, and others worked, the kharjas
The group that has become known as the Generation of 1898
was marked by the destruction of Spain's fleet in Cuba by US gunboats in 1898, which provoked a cultural crisis in Spain. The "Disaster" of 1898 led established writers to seek practical political, economic, and social solutions in essays grouped under the literary heading of Regeneracionismo
. For a group of younger writers, among them Miguel de Unamuno
, Pío Baroja
, and José Martínez Ruiz
(Azorín), the Disaster and its cultural repercussions inspired a deeper, more radical literary shift that affected both form and content. These writers, along with Ramón del Valle-Inclán
, Antonio Machado
, Ramiro de Maeztu
, and Ángel Ganivet, came to be known as the Generation of '98.
The Generation of 1914 or Novecentismo
. The next supposed "generation" of Spanish writers following those of '98 already calls into question the value of such terminology. By the year 1914—the year of the outbreak of the First World War and of the publication of the first major work of the generation's leading voice, José Ortega y Gasset
—a number of slightly younger writers had established their own place within the Spanish cultural field.
Leading voices include the poet Juan Ramón Jiménez
, the academics and essayists Ramón Menéndez Pidal
, Gregorio Marañón
, Manuel Azaña
, Maria Zambrano
, Eugeni d'Ors
, Clara Campoamor
and Ortega y Gasset, and the novelists Gabriel Miró, Ramón Pérez de Ayala
, and Ramón Gómez de la Serna
. While still driven by the national and existential questions that obsessed the writers of '98, they approached these topics with a greater sense of distance and objectivity. Salvador de Madariaga
, another prominent intellectual and writer, was one of the founders of the College of Europe
and the composer of the constitutive manifest of the Liberal International
The Generation of 1927, where poets Pedro Salinas, Jorge Guillén
, Federico García Lorca
, Vicente Aleixandre
, Dámaso Alonso
. All were scholars of their national literary heritage, again evidence of the impact of the calls of regeneracionistas
and the Generation of 1898 for Spanish intelligence to turn at least partially inwards.
The Generation of '50
are also known as the children of the civil war. Rosa Chacel
, Gloria Fuertes
, Jaime Gil de Biedma
, Juan Goytisolo
, Carmen Martín Gaite
, Ana María Matute
, Juan Marsé
, Blas de Otero
, Gabriel Celaya
, Antonio Gamoneda
, Rafael Sánchez Ferlosio
or Ignacio Aldecoa
The Plateresque style extended from beginnings of the 16th century until the last third of the century and its stylistic influence pervaded the works of all great Spanish artists of the time. Alonso Berruguete
School) is called the "Prince of Spanish sculpture". His main works were the upper stalls of the choir of the Cathedral of Toledo
, the tomb of Cardinal Tavera in the same Cathedral, and the altarpiece of the Visitation in the church of Santa Úrsula in the same locality. Other notable sculptors were Bartolomé Ordóñez
, Diego de Siloé
, Juan de Juni
and Damián Forment
Due to its historical and geographical diversity, Spanish architecture has drawn from a host of influences. An important provincial city founded by the Romans and with an extensive Roman era
became the cultural capital, including fine Arabic style architecture, during the time of the Islamic Umayyad dynasty
Later Arab style architecture continued to be developed under successive Islamic dynasties, ending with the Nasrid
, which built its famed palace complex in Granada
Simultaneously, the Christian kingdoms gradually emerged and developed their own styles; developing a pre-Romanesque
style when for a while isolated from contemporary mainstream European architectural influences during the earlier Middle Ages, they later integrated the Romanesque
streams. There was then an extraordinary flowering of the Gothic style that resulted in numerous instances being built throughout the entire territory. The Mudéjar
style, from the 12th to 17th centuries, was developed by introducing Arab style motifs, patterns and elements into European architecture.
Music and dance
Spanish music is often considered abroad to be synonymous with flamenco
, a West Andalusian musical genre, which, contrary to popular belief, is not widespread outside that region. Various regional styles of folk music
abound in Aragon, Catalonia, Valencia, Castile, the Basque Country, Galicia, Cantabria and Asturias. Pop, rock, hip hop and heavy metal are also popular.
In the field of classical music, Spain has produced a number of noted composers such as Isaac Albéniz
, Manuel de Falla
and Enrique Granados
and singers and performers such as Plácido Domingo
, José Carreras
, Montserrat Caballé
, Alicia de Larrocha
, Alfredo Kraus
, Pablo Casals
, Ricardo Viñes
, José Iturbi
, Pablo de Sarasate
, Jordi Savall
and Teresa Berganza
. In Spain there are over forty professional orchestras, including the Orquestra Simfònica de Barcelona
, Orquesta Nacional de España
and the Orquesta Sinfónica de Madrid
. Major opera houses
include the Teatro Real
, the Gran Teatre del Liceu
, Teatro Arriaga
and the El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía
Thousands of music fans also travel to Spain each year for internationally recognised summer music festivals Sónar
which often features the top up and coming pop and techno acts, and Benicàssim
which tends to feature alternative rock and dance acts.
Both festivals mark Spain as an international music presence and reflect the tastes of young people in the country.Vitoria-Gasteiz jazz festival
is one of the main ones on its genre.
The most popular traditional musical instrument
, the guitar, originated in Spain.
Typical of the north are the traditional bag pipers or gaiteros
, mainly in Asturias and Galicia.
Spanish cuisine consists of a great variety of dishes which stem from differences in geography, culture and climate. It is heavily influenced by seafood available from the waters that surround the country, and reflects the country's deep Mediterranean
roots. Spain's extensive history with many cultural influences has led to a unique cuisine. In particular, three main divisions are easily identified:
Spain – all such coastal regions, from Catalonia to Andalusia – heavy use of seafood, such as pescaíto frito
(fried fish); several cold soups like gazpacho
; and many rice-based dishes like paella
and arròs negre
(black rice) from Catalonia.
Spain – Castile – hot, thick soups such as the bread and garlic-based Castilian soup
, along with substantial stews such as cocido madrileño
. Food is traditionally conserved by salting, such as Spanish ham
, or immersed in olive oil
, such as Manchego cheese
, cycling, handball
and, lately, Formula One
also can boast of Spanish champions. Today, Spain is a major world sports powerhouse, especially since the 1992 Summer Olympics
that were hosted in Barcelona
, which stimulated a great deal of interest in sports in the country. The tourism industry has led to an improvement in sports infrastructure, especially for water sports
. In their respective regions, the traditional games of Basque pelota
and Valencian pilota
both are popular.
Public holidays and festivals
Public holidays celebrated in Spain include a mix of religious (Roman Catholic
), national and local observances. Each municipality is allowed to declare a maximum of 14 public holidays per year; up to nine of these are chosen by the national government and at least two are chosen locally. Spain's National Day
(Fiesta Nacional de España
) is celebrated on 12 October, the anniversary of the Discovery of America
and commemorate Our Lady of the Pillar
feast, patroness of Aragon
and throughout Spain.
There are many festivals and festivities in Spain. Some of them are known worldwide, and millions of tourits from all over the world go to Spain annually to experience one of these festivals. One of the most famous is San Fermín
, in Pamplona
. While its most famous event is the encierro
, or the running of the bulls
, which happens at 8:00 am from 7 July to 14 July, the seven days-long celebration involves many other traditional and folkloric events. The events were central to the plot of The Sun Also Rises, by Ernest Hemingway
, which brought it to the general attention of English-speaking people. As the result, it has become one of the most internationally renowned fiestas in Spain, with over 1,000,000 people attending every year.
- ^ a b The Spanish Constitution does not establish any official name for Spain, even though the terms España (Spain), Estado español (Spanish State) and Nación española (Spanish Nation) are used throughout the document. Nonetheless, the Spanish Ministry of Foreign Affairs established in an ordinance published in 1984 that the denominations España (Spain) and Reino de España (Kingdom of Spain) are equally valid to designate Spain in international treaties. The latter term is widely used by the government in national and international affairs of all kinds, including foreign treaties as well as national official documents, and is therefore recognised as the official name by many international organisations.
- ^ a b
In Spain, other languages are officially recognised as legitimate autochthonous (regional) languages under the Spanish Constitution. In each of these, Spain's official name (Spanish: Reino de España, pronounced: [ˈrejno ð(e) esˈpaɲa]) is as follows:
- ^ The official language of the State is established in the Section 3 of the Spanish Constitution of 1978 to be Castilian. In some autonomous communities, Catalan, Galician and Basque are co-official languages. Aragonese, Asturian, and Occitan (locally known as Aranese) have some degree of official recognition.
- ^ European Union (EU) since 1993.
- ^ As of 1 January 2020, the Spanish population increased in 392,921 in 2019, reaching a number of 47,330 million inhabitants. In the same period of time, the number of citizens with Spanish citizenship reached 42,094,606. The number of foreigners (i.e. immigrants, ex-pats and refugees, without including foreign born nationals with Spanish citizenship) permanently living in Spain was estimated to be at 5,235,375 (11.06%) in 2020.
- ^ The Peseta before 2002.
- ^ The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states. Also, the .cat domain is used in Catalonia, .gal in Galicia and .eus in the Basque-Country autonomous regions.
- ^ See list of transcontinental countries.
- ^ The latifundia (sing., latifundium), large estates controlled by the aristocracy, were superimposed on the existing Iberian landholding system.
- ^ The poets Martial, Quintilian and Lucan were also born in Hispania.
- ^ The Berbers soon gave up attempting to settle the harsh lands in the north of the Meseta Central (Inner Plateau) handed to them by the Arab rulers.
- ^ For the related expulsions that followed see Morisco.
- ^ The term "nationality" was chosen carefully in order to avoid the more politically charged term "nation", however in recent years it has been proposed to use this term in the Constitution and officially recognise Spain as a plurinational state ("nation of nations").
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