Philip as well as his son and successor Charles V
retained the title of a "Duke of Burgundy
" referring to their Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy
in the Holy Roman Empire. The Habsburgs often used the term Burgundy to refer to their hereditary lands (e.g. in the name of the Imperial Burgundian Circle
established in 1512), actually until 1795, when the Austrian Netherlands
were lost to the French Republic. The Governor-general of the Netherlands
was responsbile for the administration of the Burgundian inheritance in the Low Countries. Charles V was born and raised in the Low Countries and often stayed at the Palace of Coudenberg
By the Pragmatic Sanction of 1549
, Charles V declared the Seventeen Provinces a united and indivisible Habsburg dominion. Between 1555 and 1556, the House of Habsburg split into an Austro-German and a Spanish branch as a consequence of Charles' abdications of Brussels
. The Netherlands were left to of his son Philip II of Spain
, while his brother Archduke Ferdinand I
succeeded him as Holy Roman Emperor
. The Seventeen Provinces, de jure
still fiefs of the Holy Roman Empire, from that time on de facto
were ruled by the Spanish branch of the Habsburgs as part of the Burgundian heritage.
Better times came, when in 1598 the Spanish Netherlands passed to Philip's daughter Isabella Clara Eugenia
and her husband Archduke Albert VII of Austria
. The couple's rule brought a period of much-needed peace and stability to the economy, which stimulated the growth of a separate South Netherlandish identity and consolidated the authority of the House of Habsburg reconciling previous anti-Spanish sentiments. In the early 17th century, there was a flourishing court at Brussels
. Among the artists who emerged from the court of the "Archdukes", as they were known, was Peter Paul Rubens
. Under Isabella and Albert, the Spanish Netherlands actually had formal independence from Spain, but always remained unofficially within the Spanish sphere of influence. With Albert's death in 1621 they returned to formal Spanish control, although the childless Isabella remained on as Governor until her death in 1633.
The failing wars intended to regain the 'heretical' northern Netherlands meant significant loss of (still mainly Catholic) territories in the north, which was consolidated in 1648 in the Peace of Westphalia
, and given the peculiar inferior status of Generality Lands
(jointly ruled by the United Republic, not admitted as member provinces): Zeelandic Flanders
(south of the river Scheldt
), the present Dutch province of North Brabant
(in the present-day Dutch province of Limburg
From 1581 the Habsburg Netherlands consisted of the following territories, all part of modern Belgium unless otherwise stated:
- the Duchy of Brabant, except for North Brabant part of the Generality Lands of the Dutch Republic in 1648, including the former Margraviate of Antwerp (now mostly Belgium, some in Netherlands)
- the Duchy of Limburg, except for Limburg of the States part of the Dutch Generality Lands from 1648
- the Duchy of Luxembourg, a sovereign state from 1815 (parts in modern Belgium, France and Germany)
- the Upper Quarter (Bovenkwartier) of the Duchy of Guelders (Now Netherlands and Germany: the area around Venlo and Roermond, in the present Dutch province of Limburg, and the town of Geldern in the present German district of Kleve)
- the County of Artois, ceded to France by the 1659 Treaty of the Pyrenees (now in France)
- the County of Flanders, except for Zeelandic Flanders part of the Dutch Generality Lands from 1648, Walloon Flanders ceded to France by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now in Belgium and France French Flanders)
- the County of Namur
- the County of Hainaut, southern part with Valenciennes ceded to France by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now in Belgium and France)
- the Lordship of Mechelen[note 2]
- the Tournaisis
- the Prince-Bishopric of Cambrai, not part of the Seventeen Provinces, incorporated by King Philip II in 1559, ceded to France by the 1678 Peace of Nijmegen (now France: roughly the département Nord and the northern half of Pas-de-Calais)
- ^ Spanish: Países Bajos Españoles; Dutch: Spaanse Nederlanden; French: Pays-Bas espagnols; German: Spanische Niederlande.
- ^ A seignory comes closest to the concept of a heerlijkheid; there is no equivalent in English for the Dutch-language term. In its earliest history, Mechelen was a heerlijkheid of the Bishopric (later Prince-Bishopric) of Liège that exercised its rights through the Chapter of Saint Rumbold though at the same time the Lords of Berthout and later the Dukes of Brabant also exercised or claimed separate feudal rights.
- ^ Demographics of the Netherlands, Jan Lahmeyer. Retrieved on 20 February 2014.
- ^ Pérez, Yolanda Robríguez (2008). The Dutch Revolt through Spanish eyes : self and other in historical and literary texts of Golden Age Spain (c. 1548–1673) (Transl. and rev. ed.). Oxford: Peter Lang. p. 18. ISBN 978-3-03911-136-7. Retrieved 5 April 2016.
- ^ “The States General.” Staten Generaal, www.staten-generaal.nl/begrip/the_states_general.
- ^ Koenigsberger, H. G. (2001). Monarchies, States Generals and Parliaments: The Netherlands in the Fifteenth and Sixteenth Centuries. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9780521803304.
- ^ Bromley, J.S. (editor) 1970, The New Cambridge Modern History Volume 6: The Rise of Great Britain and Russia, 1688-1715/25, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521075244 (p. 428)
Last edited on 12 June 2021, at 19:42
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